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全息甲板的下一步发展

The Next Step to a Holodeck

本期科学秀节目由Emerson提供
This episode of SciShow is brought to you by Emerson.
想了解更多 请访问Emerson.com/WeLoveSTEM
Visit Emerson.com/WeLoveSTEM to learn more.
现在你可以通过虚拟现实——也叫VR——来体验一些非常神奇的事
You can experience some pretty amazing things with virtual reality — aka VR.
你戴上VR头显时 就可以做很多
When you throw on a headset, you can do things that would be impossible,
现实生活中做不到的 危险的 或根本不能做的事情
dangerous, or just plain impractical in the real world.
而且这不止是一种与视频游戏中可怕的
And it’s more than a fun way to fight terrifying,
真人大小的外星人战斗的有趣方式
life-sized aliens in video games.
VR有着很多有待于科学家和工程师开发的潜力
VR has a ton of potential for scientists and engineers.
比如说 假设你在设计一辆跑车
Like, imagine you’re designing a sports car.
有许多电脑辅助设计(或简称CAD)软件
There’s plenty of computer-aided design, or CAD, software
你可以用来在电脑上创建汽车的3D模型
you can use to create a 3D model of the car on your computer.
可是用VR的话 你就能看见与实物等大的汽车模型
But with VR, you can see a life-sized version of that model.
你可以在它周围走动
You can walk around it
看看这辆车从每一个角度来看是什么样子
and see exactly what the car would look like from every angle,
随意使用各种不同的设计元素
and play around with different elements of the design.
完全不用制造原型车
All without having to build a prototype.
虚拟现实的终极系统
The ultimate virtual reality system
可能就像《星际迷航》中的全息甲板一样
might be something like the holodeck on Star Trek,
你可以用自己想要的任何环境或场景
where you could program a room with any environment
来设计一个房间就像真的一样还能对其仔细查看
or scenario you wanted, then explore it as though it were real.
看起来完全就是真的 甚至摸起来也是
It would all look real, and even feel real,
里面的人和物 你确实可以触摸
with people and objects you could actually touch.
我们尚未达到全息甲板那么厉害的水平
We’re not quite at holodeck-levels of awesome yet,
但我们在不断地接近目标
but we’re getting closer.
而下一个重大进步或许就是模拟让你能够伸手触摸的东西
And the next major step might be a simulation you can reach out and touch.
现在 一些最好的VR系统会使你与
Right now, some of the best VR systems let you interact
模拟世界进行互动 你如同行走在真实的房间里
with a simulated world around you as you walk around a real life room.
大多情况下 你会用控制器进行一些操作 如在游戏里攻击敌人
Most of the time, you use controllers to do things like punch an enemy
或修改你的设计模型
or adjust the model of your design.
与虚拟世界进行这方面的互动会相当直观
Interacting with a virtual world this way can be pretty intuitive,
控制器通过低频振动增添了一层现实感
and the controllers can add a layer of realism by vibrating slightly
比如 当你将汽车模型放大
for example, when you make the car model bigger
以便能更近地观察引擎盖的曲度
so you can get a closer look at the way the hood curves.
但这不如用手指去触摸感受
But it’s not quite as immersive as feeling the smoothness and contours
汽车金属外壳的光滑与曲线那样身临其境
of the car’s metal frame with your fingertips.
即使周围确实什么也没有
That kind of tactile feedback,
却能使你感觉到一种力
where you’re getting a sensation of force
这种触感性的反馈方式叫做触觉反馈
even though there’s nothing really there, is called haptic feedback.
最简单的触觉反馈
The simplest kind of haptic feedback,
像控制器或特制手套这种对你的手能产生振动的设备
where something like a controller or special glove vibrates against your hand,
不难设计
isn’t that hard to program.
这种技术几十年前就已存在
The technology’s been around for decades.
但是 使稀薄的空气变得拥有敌人皮肤或汽车那样的触感是相当困难的
But it’s a lot more difficult to make thin air feel like an enemy’s skin or a car.
因为如果没有任何东西在手中振动
Because if you’re not holding anything that can vibrate against your hand,
你怎么会有触感呢?
how can it feel like you’re touching something?
答案在于……声音
The answer lies in … sound.
声波其实就是振动
Sound waves are really just vibrations.
你说话时 周围的空气分子会前后运动
When you talk, you set the air molecules around you moving back and forth,
带动鼓膜跟着振动
which in turn vibrates your eardrums.
大脑则将这些振动转译为声音
Your brain interprets those vibrations as sound.
你只能听见一定频率范围内的振动
You can only hear within a certain range of vibration frequencies, though
在20赫兹(每秒振动次数)到20000赫兹之间
from about 20 Hertz, or oscillations per second, to 20,000 Hertz.
每秒振动次数超过20000次的声波
Sound waves that vibrate faster than 20,000 times per second,
就是超声波 音频太高 你是听不见的
known as ultrasound, are too high-pitched for you to hear,
除非你是秘密超人
unless you’re secretly Superman.
然而 即使你听不见 声波依然存在
But even though you can’t hear them, the sound waves are still there.
如果声波够强的话 你确实能感受到空气的振动
And if they’re strong enough, you can actually feel the vibrating air.
靠手指来感受
With your fingers.
你或许能猜到我要说什么了
You might be able to guess where I’m going with this:
如果你用适当的方法将超声波集中起来
if you can concentrate ultrasound waves in the right way,
就能制造出一种振动 可以使空气产生像固体一样的触感
you can create vibrations that make the air feel like a solid object.
这正是一些VR专家
Which is exactly what some VR experts
花了近十年的时间努力研究的事情
have spent the last decade or so trying to do.
东京大学的研究者
Researchers from the University of Tokyo
于2008年首次研究出了解决方法
first figured out how to make this work in 2008.
他们利用一组可以发出声波的传感器
They used an array of transducers, which emit sound,
能产生在空气中的某些特殊点相互作用的超声波
to produce ultrasound waves that would interact at specific points in the air.
如果你触摸那里的空气 声波带来的压力
If you touched that part of the air, the pressure from the sound waves
会使你感觉像是在触摸固体
would feel like you were touching something solid.
从那时开始研究者们一直在构建这种思路
Researchers have been building on the idea ever since,
他们已经实现了
and they’ve gotten to the point
对各种不同的形状和材质的创建
where they can create all kinds of different shapes and textures.
如果你的推力够强
If you push hard enough,
你可以突破压力区域
you can break through the area of pressure,
所以这跟触摸汽车之类的感觉不一样 但的确是重大进步
so it’s not exactly the same as touching…like, a car, but it’s something.
有一家公司居然制造了一种装满传感器的特制盒子
One company has even created a special box lined with transducers
而且传感器已设定好 可产生一种3D可触全息图
and programmed them to generate a kind of 3D touchable hologram,
使你能够将手伸入盒子
where you can stick your hand in the box
并做一些事情 如抚摸鹿或拍沙滩球
and do things like pet a deer or bounce a beach ball.
那么 我们已取得许多进步
So, we’ve made a lot of progress,
但是还有很长的路要走
but there’s still a long way to go
才能将这种触觉反馈与全面的VR模拟相结合
before we can incorporate this kind of haptic feedback into a full VR simulation.
首先 你需要的可不只一只盒子
For one thing, you’d need more than just a box
而是一个放满了传感器的房间 造价会相当高昂
you’d need a whole room full of transducers, which would be pretty expensive.
计算机科学家也需要研究
Computer scientists also need to figure out
如何将触感模拟出来
how to program the sense of touch into simulations,
这个是特别棘手的问题 因为需要非常大的信息处理能力
which is especially tricky because it would take a lot of processing power.
所以 很难知道还要多久
So, it’s hard to know how long it’ll be
才能让你真实地感受到火星土在脚趾间
before you’re actually able to feel the Martian soil between your toes,
或是手游走于你正设计的汽车引擎盖上的感觉
or run your hand along the hood of the car you’re designing.
但是这种触感将会开启一种全新的
But the sense of touch will open up a whole new way
体验虚拟现实的方式
to experience virtual reality
会改变娱乐 工程
one that will change the face of entertainment, engineering,
以及其他各领域的面貌
and all kinds of other fields.
在这一进程中 它使我们朝着全息甲板迈进了一大步
And in the process, it’ll get us one giant step closer to a holodeck.
如果你喜欢本期的科学秀
If you like this episode of SciShow,
那就感谢支持我们节目的Emerson
thank Emerson for supporting it.
如果你想和我们一起变得更聪明
If you want to keep getting smarter with us,
就去youtube.com/scishow订阅本节目
you can go to youtube.com/scishow to subscribe.
还有 如果你想要支持我们 就上Emerson.com/WeLoveSTEM网站
And if you want to support us, check out Emerson.com/WeLoveSTEM
查看并再多了解一点Emerson的相关内容
to learn a little bit more about what Emerson’s about.

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视频概述

科幻电影中的全息甲板会成为现实吗?这个目标虽然看起来很遥远,但并非遥不可及,科学家要利用声波帮助我们实现这个梦想

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9U3RYNwsUHM

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