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前额叶背锅?神经科学解释冲动、谎言、诚实和自律 – 译学馆
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前额叶背锅?神经科学解释冲动、谎言、诚实和自律

The Neuroscience of Lies, Honesty, and Self-Control | Robert Sapolsky

当我们看到世界的弊端
So when we look at the world’s ills,
其最大的弊端之一是
one of the biggest sources of it is us failing
面对困难时我们会做出错误的决定 会禁不住诱惑
to do the right thing when it’s the harder thing to do—giving in to temptation, giving
屈服于冲动
in to impulse.
受制于当时的情绪
Giving in to emotional sort of immediacy.
而在大脑中帮助我们做决定最主要的部分就是
And the part of the brain that’s most central to whether or not that happens is
额叶皮质
the frontal cortex.
在大多数最新进化的大脑的部分中 比起其他任何灵长类物种
Most recently evolved part of the brain, we’ve got more of it proportionally or more complexly
我们的更适当或更复杂
than any other primate species out there.
这是大脑中控制冲动 长期规划 情绪管理的部分
It’s the part of the brain that does impulse control, long term planning, emotional regulation.
这一切都是额叶皮质的主要工作 仿佛在你耳边低语
It does all the stuff where it’s the frontal cortex that whispers in your ear saying, “Do
你现在真的想那样做吗
you really really want to do that right now?
如果你做了你将会后悔
If you do that you’re going to regret it.
这似乎是个不错的主意
It seems like a great idea.”
这是前额皮层的主要功能
Frontal cortex about that.
好了 所以当我们看到我们的生活时刻有那么多的诱惑
Okay, so when we look at our moments of life where there’s that enormous temptation to
使我们做冲动的事 这也决定这个世界是否会充满
do the impulsive thing and—what’s going to determine whether the world will be freed
冲动的恐慌的事情
of impulsive horrors?
“如果我们都能够有更强大的额叶皮层 能被训练成在童年能够
“If only we could all get stronger frontal cortices trained in childhood to be able to
在当你本可以现在就得到一个棉花糖 但如果你等待就可以得到两个的时候坚持抵制诱惑
hold out where you could have one marshmallow right now but if you wait you can get two
早期的训练可以使你的额叶皮层得到最有效的所谓的
later, and training from early age so that your frontal cortex has the most like fabulous
需氧代谢 它可以使你
aerobic metabolism ever, and it could just make you—“
就如研究所言 在面对更困难的事情的任何时候
And what the studies suggest is: at all sorts of junctures of doing the harder thing yes,
有一个健壮的额叶皮层对你有很多好处
having a really robust studly frontal cortex may do you a lot of good there.
但当你做一件真正困难的事情时 比如当你看到那些人
But when you do sort of the truly difficult thing, when you see people who are the ones
冲进正燃烧着的建筑物去救出孩子 或者跳进河里
who run into the burning building to save the child and they leap into the river when
而其他人都呆若木鸡的站在岸边 当你看到那些人
everybody else is standing there like headless chickens—When you look at those people they’re
没有这样做因为他们有这世界上最神奇的额叶皮质能够
not doing it because they’ve got the most amazing frontal cortexes on earth that could
通过问自己“哦 假如社会上没有人来
reason through the long-term consequences of “oh, what if nobody in society came to
帮助陌生人会怎样”来判断长远结果
the aid of strangers?”
他们所做的仅是本能反应
What they do is: they do it automatically.
你问任何做过这些英雄事迹的人 当你跳进
You ask anybody who does one of these heroic acts what were you thinking when you jumped
河里时你在想什么
in the river.
回答总是一致的 我什么也没想
And the answer is always the same: “I wasn’t thinking.
在知道之前 我就已经跳了进去
Before I knew it I had jumped in.”
当我们做最令人惊奇的无私行为时 并不是因为我们拥有
When we do our most amazingly like wondrous altruistic acts it’s not because we’ve got the most
世上最令人难以置信的额叶皮质 能帮助我们得出结论
incredible frontal cortexes on earth that could like reason us.
而是因为它超出了额叶皮层的范围
It’s because it’s out of the realm of the frontal cortex and it’s out of the realm
脱离了诱惑和边缘物质的范畴
of temptation and limbic stuff.
在这样的情况下 我们会做更困难的事情 因为对我们来说 这并不是一件更难的事情
We do the harder thing in a case like that because for us it’s not the harder thing.
它变成了无意识的 这时你就能发现它了
It’s become automatic, and that’s where you see it.
你会发现最好的成功总伴随诱惑出现 且是在它不诱人且无意识
You see the best success with temptation when it isn’t tempting, when it’s automatic,
以及我们自己不被诱惑的时候
when we’ve distracted ourselves.
所有额叶告诉你的像“做事时要正确决策” 只会让你
All of that frontal like “work your way through the right decision” gets you only
止步于此
so far.
一个很好的研究证实了它
A fabulous study addressing this.
这是哈佛大学的一个叫乔治·格林的人做的研究 他让人们在一个大脑
This was work by a guy at Harvard named Josh Green who put people in a study in a brain
扫描仪中做实验 如果他们做对了 他们就会得到奖励
scanner, of some task where if they got it right they get a reward afterward.
以使人们有动机去做对的事情
So there’s an incentive to get it right.
这个巧妙装置 使人们在不同的时候以为
And this wonderful manipulative setup where at various points people were under the impression
系统出了故障 电脑没有记录他们的答案
that there was a glitch in the system and the computer wasn’t registering their answers,
所以他们必须要回想他们的回答是什么然后再告诉你
so all they had to do was think what their answer was and then tell you afterward when
当他们听到正确答案的时候他们的答案是否正确
they heard the correct answer had they had the right answer or not.
换句话说 他们可以作弊
In other words they could cheat.
你会发现这是一个随机的任务 所以大多数时候 人们的
And what you would see is it was a random task, so most of the time people were having
成功率都在百分之五十左右 并且有作弊的机会
about a 50 percent success rate and along comes the opportunities to cheat.
如果人们的准确性在这时候突然上升啊哈 你就是这么发现
And if people’s accuracy suddenly jumps up at that point, aha, that’s how you detect
一个骗子或者一个在那时候说谎的人
a cheater or someone who’s lying at that point.
所以问题成了 在这些作弊者的大脑中发生了什么
So the question becomes what’s going on with brains of people who cheated at those opportunities
而且你会看到随着这一行为的出现 他们的额叶皮质像疯子一般活跃起来
and what you saw was as soon as that act came up their frontal cortexes activated like mad.
他们在与魔鬼作斗争
They’re wrestling with Satan!
他们想知道他们是否应该这么做
They’re wondering if they should do it not!
当他们诚实回答后 思考他们刚才是否本应该作弊
They’re wondering if they should have done it the last time when they were honest!
他们在想他们是否将会去做他们在与这些想法作斗争
They’re wondering if they’re ever going to – they’re wrestling all of that.
好吧 所以这说得通
Okay, so that makes sense.
然后你看看那些作弊的人或者从来没有作弊的人
Then you look at the people who cheating opportunity or otherwise never cheat.
这就是他们的大脑中发生的事
So what’s going on with them.
我们有两个模型
And we’ve got the two models there.
有一种意志力是因为他们有像禁欲主义者和
One of willpower: It’s because they’ve got frontal cortexes that can just like
加尔文主义者或有亚祖河那样的进取心一样的额叶皮质
be stoic and Calvinist and gumption out the yazoo there.
还是作为君子行径?
Or is it a state of grace?
他们不作弊只因为他们不作弊
They don’t cheat because you don’t cheat.
前提是如果这只是关于意志力 一旦作弊的机会出现
And the prediction there is if it’s all about willpower, as soon as the opportunity to cheat comes up
他们的前额皮质就会依据活动做出显著的反应
their frontal cortices are going to go through the roof in terms of activity.
如果这是一件优雅的事 不管怎样
If it’s a matter of grace, whatever.
这就是一件优雅的事
And it was a matter of grace.
这些人不作弊是因为他们有最强的额叶皮质
The people who never cheated: it wasn’t because they had the strongest frontal cortexes.
只是因为你不那样做
It’s because you don’t do that.
就那么简单
It was that simple.
那不是诱惑
It wasn’t a temptation.
而更多一种模型是 “你并不是必须非常努力地为
And that’s much more of a model of “it’s not a realm of just having to work
他人着想
so, so hard to feel for somebody else
或者在即使没有人看到时也不偷窃
or not pocket that thing even though nobody’s looking.
你就是不这么做
You just don’t do that.”
它是无意识的
It’s automatic.

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视频概述

教授从大脑皮层的角度来解释人们面对问题所做出的反应以及冲动

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

McEwen

审核员

审核团Z

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1AwNCb0XciU

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