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你的大脑是怎样处理语言的?

The Neuroscience of Language

Language is a pretty key part of what it means to be human.
语言对于人类来说是非常重要的
We’re really social,
我们的社交性很强
so we use language to communicate and connect with our fellow human beings.
因此用语言和我们的同伴进行沟通与交往
But language is complex.
但语言是很复杂的
And that complex communication
人类复杂的社交
requires some pretty complex neural architecture to handle the job.
需要非常复杂的神经系统来完成
I’m Alie Astrocyte.
我是Alie Astrocyte
And this week on Neuro Transmissions,
本周的Neuro Transmissions频道
let’s talk about lex…icon.
我们来聊聊语言
人脑科学
并不高深
《神经传递》
Language is generally considered to be
我们通常认为语言
universal and unique to all humans.
是人类共用且独有的
Amazingly, babies learn their primary language
惊人的是 儿童习得母语
It doesn’t require any special teaching.
不需要人们特地教导
And deaf kids who grow up without formal sign language
成长过程中没学过系统手语的失聪孩子
will often invent their own “home signs”
一般会形成自己的一套手语体系
to communicate with family and friends.
用来与亲友沟通
Of course, language is an extremely complex behavioral system.
当然 语言确实是一个极其复杂的行为系统
So it’s not very easy to figure out exactly where it’s coming from.
因此找到语言功能区的确切位置并不轻松
Early neuroscientists didn’t have tools like fMRI or EEG
早期神经科学家并没有fMRI或EEG这类工具
to look inside the brain the way that we do today.
没法像当代一样观察人脑内部结构
This made it pretty challenging to study the neuroscience of language.
这使得研究语言神经科学非常有挑战性
It’s really difficult to get a close look
想近距离观察语言产生的过程中
at what’s going on in the brain during language production.
大脑内部的运转情况是很难的
The earliest research on brain regions involved in language
最早有关大脑语言区的研究
came from case studies of patients who had suffered from brain lesions:
来自于一些脑损伤患者的案例研究
injuries resulting in tissue death in the brain.
脑损伤是由脑内组织死亡造成的
This kind of research helped doctors discover two key brain regions.
在这种研究的帮助下 医生发现了两个关键的脑部区域
Broca’s area and Wernicke’s area.
布罗卡氏区与韦尼克区
Broca’s area was discovered by a man named Paul Broca, a French physician.
布罗卡氏区的发现者是法国医生保尔·布罗卡
Also called expressive aphasia,
布罗卡氏区受损的患者
patients with an injury to Broca’s area
也被称为表达性失语症患者
know exactly what they want to say.
他们知道自己想说什么
They just can’t find the words or grammar to properly express it.
只是不能用正确的词语和语法表达出来
Now tell me what the thing was with your legs last week or a week before
现在告诉我上周或者再之前你的腿怎么样
视频提供方:威斯康星大学生理学系
Uhm, no, good.
呃 不 好
[modal particle]
[停顿语气词]
[sigh]
[叹气声]
[sigh and modal particle]
[叹气与停顿语气词]
Wernicke’s area was discovered by the German neurologist Carl Wernicke,
韦尼克区的发现者是德国神经科医生卡尔·韦尼克
who first noticed the link between
是他首次发现了
damage to the back of the superior temporal gyrus
颞上回后部受损
and a particular type of difficulty with speech.
和一种特定语言障碍存在一定的联系
This aphasia makes it difficult for a patient to properly understand language.
这种失语症的患者很难正确理解语言
But they have no problems producing language,
却可以无障碍表达语言
using grammatical sentences that don’t make any sense.
只不过表达的句子毫无章法
This is why Wernicke’s aphasia is sometimes called fluent aphasia.
这就是为什么韦尼克失语症有时被称作空洞型失语症
We saved a lot of hands on hope for peoples for us up their hands
我们为大家拯救了很多手 希望人们为我们举起手来
at what you get, but I talk with a lot of hand for him.
为的是你得到的一切 但我为了他用很多手交流
Sometime am I talk any more to saying
某个时候 我会为了说话再说一点
Using more modern techniques,
借助更多的现代技术
researchers have begun to learn new things about other brain regions
研究人员已开始了对其他可能和语言非常相关的
that seem to play important roles in language.
新的脑部语言功能区域的探索
A particular kind of test, called the Wada test,
一种名为“韦达测验”的测试
has helped demonstrate how
能够鉴定出
language is localized to one side of the brain or the other.
哪一侧大脑半球是语言半球
Don’t try this test at home.
别在家尝试这个测验
Patients are injected with a barbiturate through the carotid artery,
患者通过颈动脉注射巴比妥纳后
which puts that half of the brain to sleep.
被注射一侧的大脑会被麻醉
Doctors can then perform different cognitive tests on the patient
然后医生就能通过不同的认知测试
to determine what kinds of things they can and can’t do
确定患者在一侧大脑无法正常运转的情况下
when half of their brain isn’t functioning.
哪些事情能做哪些事情不能
This kind of testing has found that
通过这种测试科学家们发现
most people process language in their dominant hemisphere,
大多数人主要通过优势大脑半球处理语言
which for most people is usually the left hemisphere,
而大多数人的优势大脑半球是左半球
which controls the right side of the body.
左半球控制着人体的右半部分
When that hemisphere is put to sleep,
当左半球被麻醉后
patients have a hard time speaking and understanding language.
患者会难以表达和理解语言
In an earlier video,
在之前的视频里
we talked about how we hear using the auditory cortex,
我们介绍了人怎样通过听觉皮层感受声音
which, it should come as no surprise,
那么听觉皮层作为语言接收的源头区之一
is one of the earliest places where speech is processed.
也就是意料之中的事了
This is where our brain consciously registers the sound of words
大脑有意识地对声音进行记录并开始加工
and begins to process them.
就发生在听觉皮层
Humans mostly use speech to communicate with each other
人类主要通过说话的方式交流
so language is mostly an auditory ability.
因此语言基本上是一个依靠听觉的能力
It turns out that a lot of the brain regions that we use to hear sounds
事实上 很多与听力有关的脑部区域
are also used to interpret speech.
也是用来解码语言的区域
Some more recent neuroimaging studies
一些近期的神经影像学研究
have led researchers to propose that
使研究人员提出假设
language information gets split into what they called a dual stream model.
语言信息会被分成所谓的双流语言模型
Similar to the two processing streams we talked about in the visual system.
类似于之前提过的视觉双流模型
When it comes to language, this model says
双流语言模型指的是
that information is sent along the dorsal pathway
信息会沿着背侧路径
to brain regions on both sides of the brain.
同时发送到大脑两侧的区域
This pathway is sort of the “speech” part of the system.
这条路径算是系统中负责“说话”的部分了
It translates the information it gets from speech input,
它对听到的语言信息进行解码
and allows us to reproduce those same speech patterns.
然后让我们能以同样的模式输出语言
Kind of like how the dorsal stream in the visual system
有点像背侧流的路径在视觉系统中的角色
is the “where” pathway that helps us navigate space,
相当于帮助我们辨明方向的“导航仪”
these dorsal streams help us determine our movements.
语言模型中的背侧流决定着我们的动作
Including our mouth movements!
其中就包括了嘴部的动作!
The ventral stream passes information along the dominant hemisphere.
腹侧流负责沿着优势大脑半球传送信息
This stream is more the “what” pathway.
和腹侧流路径更相关的是“内容”
With language, this means that the ventral stream allows us to
也就是在处理语言时 腹侧流让我们能够
identify the content of speech and understand what those words mean.
识别所说内容并理解其含义
So the ventral stream is what lets you
因此腹侧流的作用就是
hear the word “ball”, identify it,
让你听见“球”这个词 加以识别
and visualize a ball in your own mind,
并在你的脑海里将其图像化
providing you with context for the words you’re hearing.
由此告诉你所听内容的语境
“科学”部分
Lots of researchers are using many different tools
研究人员们正借助着各种工具
to continue breaking down the ways our brain hears, processes, and interprets language.
不断拆分人脑听见 处理和解码语言的步骤
Some scientists are even using animal models
一些科学家甚至正利用动物模型
to answer questions about different aspects of language.
来回答有关组成语言的各要素的问题
Different bird species use unique bird songs to communicate,
不同种类的鸟用不同的鸟鸣声交流
and are studied as a model for complex vocabulary and grammatical processing.
也是复杂词汇语法处理方式的研究模型
Some primates, like the tiny marmoset,
一些灵长目动物 例如狨
are used to study the neural basis of social communication.
是研究社交的神经基础的模型
These models won’t answer all of the questions we have about language in the brain.
这些模型无法回答我们对大脑内语言的所有疑问
But they can help us better understand it.
但能促进我们的理解
So with time, we’ll know more
因此 随着时间的推移
about this complex and unique behavior!
我们对这个复杂又独特的行为会更加了解!
Thanks for joining us for this episode of Neuro Transmissions!
感谢观看本期《神经传递》
If you liked it, please click the thumbs up button.
如果喜欢 请点赞
And if you haven’t already,
还没点赞的话
hit subscribe to become a Brainiac!
订阅我们的频道 加入我们的行列
If you really love what we do,
如果您非常支持我们的行动
please consider donating to our Patreon account.
欢迎向我们的Patreon账号捐款
We love creating these videos,
我们很喜欢制作这些视频
and every little bit of support helps us keep doing what we’re doing.
并且每一点支持都是我们坚持下去的动力
Until next time, I’m Alie Astrocyte.
下期再见 我是Alie Astrocyte
Over and out!
就到这里吧!

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视频概述

我们每天都在使用语言,关于语言在大脑中所经历的一切,科学家们仍在不断探索。本视频介绍了关于语言神经科学的研究历程与成果。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

亿珀

审核员

审核员NEHC

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ev_oKHWT_qk语言的神经科学

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