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9分钟带你了解神经系统

The Nervous System In 9 Minutes

The great and mighty nervous system, or the brain as most of us call it.
伟大的神经系统 或是我们多数人所称的大脑
What makes this organ unique is that
这个器官的独特之处
within it lies the ability for humans to know oneself.
在于其拥有使人类认识自己的能力
This feature distinguishes and sets the human species apart from the rest of creation.
这一特征将人类与其他的物种区分别开来
This ability is known as consciousness or intelligence.
这种能力即意识或智力
To begin, let’s look at the primary function of the nervous system.
首先 我们来看一下神经系统的基本功能
The basic purpose is to coordinate all of the activities of the body.
其基本功能是协调身体的所有活动
It enables the body to respond and adapt to changes
它使机体能够对人体内外的改变
that occur both inside and outside the body.
做出反应和适应
Now, the nervous system is actually split into two parts:
现在 神经系统实际上被分为两部分
the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
中枢神经系统和外周神经系统
We’ll explore the peripheral later,
我们将之后探索外周神经系统
but first, let’s look at the central nervous system.
首先 让我们一起来了解一下中枢神经系统
The central nervous system is made up of two major structures:
中枢神经系统由两个主要的结构组成的
the brain and the spinal cord.
脑和脊髓
As most people know the brain is found within the cranium or skull.
众所周知脑位于头盖骨或者说颅骨之中
And there are six main sections among other structures within it.
在其结构中有六个主要部分
These six sections are the cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon,
这六个部分是大脑 小脑 间脑
the midbrain, pons and the medulla oblongata.
中脑 脑桥和延髓
The first section is the cerebrum.
第一部分是大脑
This is the largest section.
这是最大的一部分
It’s divided into two major hemispheres which are the right and left hemisphere,
大脑分为两个半球 左半球和右半球
and the cerebrum is further divided into four lobes.
大脑进一步分为四个脑叶
These four lobes are the frontal, the parietal, the temporal and the occipital.
这四个脑叶是额叶 顶叶 颞叶和枕叶
The frontal lobe is primarily responsible for reasoning and thought.
额叶主要负责推理和思考
The parietal is primarily responsible for integrating sensory information.
顶叶主要负责整合感官信息
The temporal is primarily responsible for processing auditory information from the ears.
颞叶主要负责处理来自耳朵的听觉信息
And the occipital is primarily responsible for processing visual information from the eyes.
枕叶主要负责处理来自眼睛的视觉信息
The second section of the brain is the cerebellum.
脑的第二部分是小脑
This is the section located in the back of the head,
这是位于脑的后方
below the cerebrum and above the first cervical of the neck.
大脑下方以及第一颈椎上方的一部分
It is responsible for muscle coordination, balance, posture and muscle tone.
它主要负责肌肉协调 平衡 姿态及肌张力
The diencephalon section is found between the cerebrum in the midbrain.
间脑部分位于中脑与大脑之间
It contains two structures: the thalamus and the hypothalamus.
它包含两部分结构 丘脑和下丘脑
The thalamus behaves much like a relay station.
丘脑的表现很像一个转播站
It directs sensory impulses to the cerebrum.
它将感觉冲动导向大脑
And the hypothalamus controls and regulates autonomous nervous system functions,
下丘脑具有控制和调节自主神经系统的功能
such as temperature, appetite, water balance,
例如体温 食欲 水盐平衡
sleep and blood vessel constriction and dilation.
睡眠 血管的舒张
The hypothalamus also plays a role in the emotions,
下丘脑在人的情绪方面也起到很大的作用
such as anger fear, pleasure, pain and affection.
例如生气 害怕 快乐 痛苦和倾慕
The midbrain section is located below the cerebrum, at the top of the brainstem.
中脑部分位于大脑下方 脑干顶部的位置
It is responsible for certain eye and auditory reflexes.
它主要负责特定的视觉及听觉反射
The pons is located below the midbrain and in the brain stem.
脑桥位于中脑下方 脑干中
It is responsible for certain reflex actions,
它主要负责某些反射动作
such as chewing, tasting and saliva production.
例如咀嚼 味觉和唾液分泌
And the last section is the medulla oblongata.
最后一部分是延髓
It’s the lowest part of the brainstem and it connects with the spinal cord,
它是脑干中最低的部分并与脊髓相连
and is responsible for regulating heart and blood vessel function,
主要负责控制心脏和血管收缩功能
digestion, respiration, swallowing,
消化 呼吸 吞咽
coughing, sneezing and blood pressure.
咳嗽 打喷嚏和血压
It’s also known as “the center for respiration”.
它也被称作呼吸中枢
Now that we’ve covered the brain.
现在我们已经了解完脑了
Let’s take a look at the other half of the central nervous system – the spinal cord.
让我们一起来看中枢神经系统的另一半 脊髓
The spinal cord is the link between
脊髓连接
the brain and the nerves and the rest of the body.
脑 神经和身体的剩余部分
The spinal cord is divided into four different regions:
脊髓分为四个不同的区域
the cervical, thoracic, lumbar and the efferent and afferent spinal nerves,
颈 胸 腰以及传出和传入神经
which merge to form the peripheral nerves.
它们合并形成外周神经
The afferent spinal nerves are responsible for
传入脊髓神经主要负责
carrying information from the body to the brain.
携带身体的信息传入大脑中
And the efferent spinal nerves are responsible for
传出脊髓神经主要负责
carrying information from the brain to the body.
携带脑的信息传入到身体中
Now within this elaborate system of nerves, neurons and dendrites,
在这个复杂的神经 神经元和树突系统中
There is a system that regulates the functions of the central nervous system,
有一个调节中枢神经系统功能的系统
which lie outside its major components such as the brain and the spinal cord.
位于神经系统的主要组成部分如大脑和脊髓之外
This system is known as the peripheral nervous system.
这个系统被称为外周神经系统
And it’s subdivided into two smaller systems:
它被细分为两个更小的系统
the somatic system and the autonomic nervous system.
躯体系统和自主神经系统
The somatic nervous system is responsible for carrying motor and sensory information
躯体神经系统主要携带运动和感觉信息
both to and from the central nervous system.
这些信息来自中枢神经系统
This system is made up of nerves that connect to the skin,
这个系统由连接胫骨的神经
sensory organs and all skeletal muscles.
感受器和所有的骨骼肌组成
The somatic system is also responsible for nearly all voluntary muscle movements,
躯体神经系统也主要负责所有的自主肌肉活动
as well as for processing sensory information
以及处理通过外部刺激(包括听觉 触觉和视觉)
that arrives via external stimuli including hearing, touch and sight.
到达的感觉信息
The structures that allow this communication to happen between
允许中枢神经系统之中
the nerves throughout the body in the central nervous system
遍布机体的神经发生进行交流结构
are known as the afferent sensory neurons and the efferent motor neurons.
被称为传入感觉神经元和传出感觉神经元
Now, afferent simply means conducting inward,
现在 传入只是指向内进行
and efferent means conducting outward.
并且传出意味着向外传导
So just like in the spinal nerves,
就像在脊神经中
the afferent neurons take information from the nerves to the central nervous system,
传入神经元携带信息从神经到中枢神经系统
and the efferent neurons take information from the central nervous system
传出神经元携带信息从中枢神经系统
to the muscle fibers throughout the body.
到遍布全身的肌肉纤维当中
The autonomic nervous system is further divided into
自助神经系统细分为
the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system.
交感神经系统和副交感神经系统
The sympathetic nervous system is vital to our survival.
交感神经系统对我们的生存至关重要
Have you ever heard of the “Fight or Flight” response to danger?
你知道关于面对危机的“战或逃”心理论吗?
The sympathetic nervous system revs up the body when confronted with imminent danger
交感神经系统在身体遇到迫在眉睫的危险时会使身体加速
to either defend yourself or to escape the threat.
或保护自己或躲避威胁
The parasympathetic nervous system is the counterbalance to the sympathetic response to danger,
副交感神经系统平衡交感神经系统对危险的应答
whether real or imagined,
无论是真实的还是想象的
Once the threat is gone,
一旦威胁离开
the parasympathetic brings all the systems of the body back to normal.
副交感神经会使所有的系统回归正常
Now, at this point, you should have a basic understanding of the nervous system,
现在 你应该对神经系统有一个基本的理解
but let’s do a quick recap.
我们还是要做一个快速的复述
The basic purpose of the nervous system is
神经系统的基本作用是
to coordinate all the activities of the body.
去协调所有的身体活动
It enables the body to respond and adapt to changes
它使身体能够调节和适应
that occur both inside and outside the body.
机体内外的变化
The two major parts of the nervous system are
两个主要的神经系统是
the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system.
中枢神经系统和外周神经系统
The central nervous system is also divided into two major structures:
中枢神经系统同样被细分为两个主要结构
the brain and the spinal cord.
脑和脊髓
The brain is found within the skull or cranium
脑位于头盖骨或者是头骨之中
and it is made up of six main sections.
它由六个主要的部分构成
These six sections are: the cerebrum, cerebellum, diencephalon,
这六个部分是 大脑 小脑 间脑
the midbrain, pons and the medulla oblongata.
中脑 脑桥和延髓
The other half of the central nervous system is the spinal cord.
中枢神经系统的另一半是脊髓
And the spinal cord is the link between the brain
脊髓连接脑
and the nerves and the rest of your body.
神经和你身体的剩余部分的神经
The spinal cord is divided into four different regions:
脊髓细分为四个不同的区域
the cervical, thoracic, lumbar
颈 胸 腰
and afferent and efferent spinal nerves which merge to form the peripheral nerves.
和与末梢神经合并的传出神经和传入神经
Now that we know the brain and spinal cord
现在我们知道脑和脊髓
primarily make up the central nervous system.
主要构成中枢神经系统
Let’s look at the peripheral nervous system.
让我们一起来看一下外周神经系统
The peripheral nervous system is essentially
末梢神经系统本质上是
the nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord.
脑和脊髓之外的神经系统
The peripheral nervous system is then subdivided into two smaller systems called
外周神经系统分为两个更小的系统
the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.
躯体系统和自主神经系统
So, as you can see, the nervous system is quite complex.
因此 正如你看到的 神经系统是相当复杂的
And this is just the tip of the iceberg.
而这仅仅是冰山一角
Thanks for watching. Look for more videos on the nervous system at CTEskills.com.
感谢观看 更多神经系统有关视频尽在 CTEskills.com.

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视频概述

9分钟神经系统介绍,带你了解神经系统的组成及各部分工作方式

听录译者

jm

翻译译者

CAOERRRRR

审核员

审核员SX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=44B0ms3XPKU

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