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记忆的天性和矛盾 – 译学馆
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记忆的天性和矛盾

The Nature of Memory

在古希腊时代 拥有好的记忆是智慧的一种标志
Back in Ancient Greece, having a good memory was a sign of intelligence.
记忆是一门艺术 演说家或公开演讲的人们
Memory was an art – orators or public speakers
在没有外界的帮助和笔记的情况下
would give long speeches with unfailing accuracy,
可以不出任何差错地完成很长的演讲
without the aid of others or notes.
我讲对了吗
Did I get that right?
你有稿子的复印件吗
Do you have a copy of the script?
谢谢
Thanks.
对了
Oh yeah!
希腊的这种记忆方法持续流行至中世纪
Greek memory techniques continued to be popular
在当时被僧侣和有文化的人
throughout the Middle Age, where monks and
用来记忆整部宗教书籍
scholars committed entire religious textsto memory.
在过去的一百年间或这些年来
In the past 100 or so years,
我们开始更加科学地看待记忆力
we started to think of memory more scientifically.
在19世纪初
n the early 1900s,
当科学家在描述记忆的特性时
when scientists were describing what our memory is like, they compared it
将它与一些类似于
to things like…
录音带或者
A tape recorder.
装满了文件的箱子
Or even a filing cabinet.
甚至与一组照片做比较
And even a series of photographs.
那些都是有趣的类比法
They ’ re interesting analogies,
然而记忆的本质却远较复杂
but the nature of memory is far more complex. First,
首先我认为应探究记忆的工作原理
I think we should explore how memoryworks.
这感觉是个开始的好地方
This feels like a good place to start.
那么 记忆主要分为两种
So there are two main types of memory.
一种为陈述性记忆
One is declarative memory,
它就像是记手机号码或者狗的品种一样的事实
your memory for facts like a phone number or dog breed.
这个与程序性记忆完全不同
This is different from procedural memory – your retention
那是对技巧的记忆 比如骑车
of a skill, like riding a bike.
正是你的程序性记忆让你知道
It ’ s your procedural memory that knows this is a pen,
这是钢笔和怎么用它
and how to use it.
在我们产生陈述性记忆时
When we form declarative memories,
信息在巩固前到达海马体
the information travels to the hippocampus before it ’ s consolidated
并被永远储存
and permanently stored.
而当我们产生程序性记忆时
And when we form procedural memories,
它们依靠的是其他方面 是小脑和
they rely on other areas – the cerebellum and
中枢神经系统
the basal ganglia.
当然 这种
Of course, the type
古希腊人看重的记忆方法是陈述性记忆
of memory the Ancient Greek people valued is declarative memory
是你提取事实和信息的能力
– your ability to recall facts and information.
时至今日 挑战陈述性记忆极限依旧让我们感到着迷
And pushing the boundaries of declarativememory still fascinates us today.
小孩能记住圆周率数以万计的位数
Children memorise pi to tens of thousandsof digits.
世界记忆冠军 Dominic O Brien 能在
The memory champion Dominic O ’ Brien memorised 54 decks
只看一遍的情况下按照顺序
of cards after seeing them only once,
记住54副纸牌
in sequence.
而这包含了2808张牌
That’s 2808 cards.
但有意思的是我们却有着丢失记忆的趋势
But the tricky thing about memory is that, we tend to lose memories.
遗忘是我们的本性
It’s in our nature to forget.
你知道我们讲到哪一页了吗
Do you know what page we’re on?
好吧
Hmm. So,
神经学家Oliver Sacks曾经写道
the neurologist Oliver Sacks once wrote,
“作为人来说 我们的记忆系统中
“ We, as human beings, are landed with memory
有出错性 弱点 不完美的因素存在
systems that have fallibilities, frailties,and imperfections—but also great flexibility
但同样也有灵活性和创造性”
and creativity”
它就好像生物学的悖论
It ’ s like a big paradox of our biology;
能够控制我们所有思维想法和行为的
that the one thing that controls all of our
大脑也能被自身操控
ideas and actions – our brain – can be manipulated by itself.
我们的记忆受限于
Our memories are subject to ideas that come
发生过后的事情 也就是所谓的
in after events have happened–it ’ s
事件后信息
called “post-event information”.
这些错误的想法 哪怕
These ideas, that are false,
它们并没发生过 也会被整合到我们的大脑
can be integrated into our brains so we think we remember them,
让我们会认为我们记得它们
when they actually didn’t happen.
我们的记忆能被改变
Our memories can change.
美国心理专家Elizabeth Loftus开始她的事业研究
The American psychologist Elizabeth Loftusstarted her career investigating how human
人类的记忆在现实世界中如何运作
memory works in the real world.
她认为生动鲜明的记忆可以被植入
She had this idea that vivid memories could be implanted
到你的意识中 即使它们事实上并没发生
in your mind when they actually
哪怕这其实是错的记忆
didn’t happen – when they were false.
她做了这项研究 通过聚集一群测试对象
So she did this study where she gathered people
并和他们讨论关于在他们的孩童时代
subjects and she talked to them about a time that
有一次在商场内迷路的事情
they became lost in the mall when they werea child.
基于此 百分之25的
Following this, twenty five percent
参与者相信他们确实会在
of those participants believed that they actually got
商场中迷路 甚至会围绕这个想法
lost in the mall – They even fabricated detailed memories around this idea.
而编织详细的记忆 这很让人担忧
It’s concerning…
美国心理学家Rosalind Cartwright
American psychologist Rosalind Cartwright once wrote,
曾写道 记忆从来不忠于事实
“ Memory is never a precise duplicate
而是一种持续创造的行为
of the original… it is a continuing actof creation”.
我们能创造新记忆的其中一个原因
And one of the reasons we can create new memories is
在于我们或多或少丢失了其中原本的部分
because we kind of lose old ones.
这就是我们遗忘的本性
It’s in our nature to forget.
很久以来
For a long time,
心理学理论试图弄明白我们为何会失去记忆
psychological theories have been trying to make sense of why we lose our memories.
一些衰落的理论认为随着时间
Decay theory suggests that over time,
的流逝我们不能恢复记忆的原因
we can’t retrieve memories because traces of them fade
在于记忆的痕迹变得模糊并最终消失
away and eventually, they disappear.
干扰理论认为
Interference theory suggests
当我们形成与之前已经存在的
that when we form a new memories that’s pretty similar
相类似的新记忆的时候
to an existing one,
会干扰我们唤起现存记忆的能力
it interferes with our ability to recall that existing memory.
科学家甚至发现行走通过
Scientists have even found that walking
门廊竟然会导致我们忘记事情
through doorways causes us to forget things – like
比如 我们穿过那个门廊去做什么事
what we walked through that doorway to do.
我们物理位置上的变化会
Our physical change in location causes a new,
导致产生一个和位置相关的记忆
location specific memory to be created.
在这个转移过程中 我们旧的记忆被干扰
It interferes with our old memories and those
那些想法丢失了
thoughts are lost – interfered with – in
被干扰了
the transition.
但在遗忘还是有一个优势的
But there’s an upside to forgetting!
正是我们丢失信息的能力使大脑保持灵活
Our ability to lose information keeps our brains flexible
这样它能理解新的事物
so they can absorb new things.
如果我们不能遗忘
If we didn ’ t forget,
我们就会回忆起各种各样的随机信息
we ’ d recall all kinds of random information and I wouldn ’ t be
而且我就不能对你集中注意力
able to focus on you.
当你思考这个问题的时候
When you think about it,
你被你的记忆塑造 这些记忆是你在
you ’ re shaped by your memories, they’re your collective experiences
生活中所经历的事情
that you’ve had throughout your life.
某种程度上 你的记忆也会被你塑造
And in a way, your memories are also shapedby you.
为什么我又走出来到这里?
Why did I come out here again?
哦 好吧
Oh yeah.
就这样
Right.
天呐 这个看起来很眼熟
Man this looks familiar.
你能帮我拿一会儿这个吗?
Could you hold this for a sec?
这让我想起些事
This reminds me of something.
在古希腊时代
Back in Ancient Greece –

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视频概述

主要讲述了记忆的特性和运行机制

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zDwa4FI7wEQ

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