ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

利他主义者在自然选择中将何去何从? – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

利他主义者在自然选择中将何去何从?

The Natural Selection of Altruism

– [Justin] Survival of the Fittest.
适者生存
For many people,
在很多人看来
this phrase is synonymous with evolution.
这句话是进化的必然选择
But we see in nature that
但我们在大自然中观察到
sometimes creatures can act altruistically.
会发现生物有时会表现出利他性
Meaningfully hurting their own survival and reproduction chances to help others.
为了帮助他人 甚至不惜损害自己生存和繁衍的机会
In this video, we’re gonna built some simulations
本期视频我们将做一些模拟
to get a better understanding of which kinds of altruistic strategies work and which don’t.
来更好理解 哪些利他性策略有效 哪些无效
PRIMER
《启蒙》
Alright, let’s jump right in with the simulation.
好了我们直接进入模拟吧
We’ll start with the world from the video on simulating natural selection.
首先 我们将用视频模拟自然选择
In this world, blob creatures start each day at the edge of the world.
每天 斑点人从模拟世界的边缘开始活动
In the morning, the food appears and the blobs go out to eat.
早晨 食物出现 斑点人外出觅食
The amount of food the blob finds before running out of energy
在能量消耗殆尽和回家之前
and returning home determines whether it dies,
他们找到的食物数量决定了他们是死亡
survives till the next day, or reproduces,
多活一天或是继续繁衍
passing its genes on to another creature,
从而把基因传给后代
except that the genes might mutate.
除非基因可能发生变异
Now, let’s get the creatures the ability to be altruistic.
现在我们看看若斑点人具有利他性会怎样
Here’s how it’ll work.
情况是这样的
If a blob creature finds two pieces of food
如果一个斑点人找到两份食物
and still has energy left,
而且他仍有能量剩余
it can take one of two routes.
那么他有两种选择
It can look out for itself and its descendants
他可以为自己和后代考虑
by deciding to go home early and reproduce,
尽早回家繁衍
or it can be altruistic.
或者他可以做出利他行为
Risking its guaranteed offspring to go
冒着断子绝孙的危险
and give a piece of food to another creature who hasn’t eaten yet.
将其中一份分给没有食物的斑点人
And yeah, they regurgitated.
对 他们从胃里吐出食物
Nature’s gross.
原始生命本就粗野
At the beginning of our simulation,
模拟实验一开始
half of the creatures will have a copy of an altruistic gene
50%的斑点人拥有一个利他基因的副本
causing them to be altruistic every time they get the chance
这使他们每逢机会就会表现出利他性
and the other half of creatures will have copies of a competing non-altruistic gene.
而另一半斑点人具有竞争性非利他的基因副本
When we let this simulation run,
若这个模拟进行下去
what do you think will happen?
你猜会发生什么?
Would the selfish creatures take over
利己物种会呈占领态势吗?
or will the altruists triumph through teamwork?
还是利他物种能通过团队协作取胜呢?
Or maybe they’ll stay mostly balanced.
又或者两者基本平衡
Pause here and make a prediction.
暂停一下 做个预测
Prediction made?
预测好了吗?
All right.
好的
[soft music]
[轻音乐]
Okay, well that was kind of sad.
好吧 结果有点令人沮丧
It turns out that unconditionally sacrificing your offspring isn’t a great long term strategy.
结果证明 无条件牺牲后代并不是长久之策
So, how can we give the gene for altruism a better shot?
那么怎样才能让利他基因发挥更大作用呢?
Well, what if we make acts of kindness
如果我们对这些利他生物的善举
a bit less punishing to the altruistic creatures.
减轻惩罚的力度会怎么样呢
Say, by letting the creatures keep some reproduction chance
比如 斑点人分赠食物时
when they give their food away.
仍然可以获得繁殖机会
50% instead of the previous 0%.
其繁殖机会有50% 而不是之前的0
So the cost of giving food away
这样分赠食物的代价就是
is half of an offspring on average.
平均后代减少一半
Maybe the food was already partially digested.
可能吐出来的食物已被消化了一部分
Again, nature’s gross
再次说明 自然本就是粗野的
but ickiness aside,
先撇开恶心不谈
this makes the interaction net positive instead of just net neutral
互惠模式并非无关紧要 它能使人际交往变得积极
which is actually pretty common in the real world.
这在现实世界中其实相当普遍
Okay, so let’s restart our simulation
好的 让我们重启模拟
with this lower cost altruism in place.
这次利他行为的代价会降低
Now what would you predict?
现在重新预测一下吧?
Hmm.

[light music]
[轻音乐]
All right, it still doesn’t work it seems.
好吧 看起来依然行不通
Remember that for a gene to be successful in the long term,
记住 要想基因永留存
it needs it’s copies to keep replicating.
需要持续复制基因副本
The problem with the gene for purely unconditional altruism
无条件利他基因的问题在于
is that it helps copies of competing genes
自己复制基因的时候
as much as it helps copies of itself
也在帮助竞争对手进行基因复制
and it’s competitors don’t return the favor.
而它的竞争者没有任何回馈
So a successful gene for altruistic behavior
因此 一个成功的利他行为基因
would need to find some way of getting more help
需要找到一些方法来帮助自己
to itself than to it’s competitors.
而不是帮竞争对手
Even if we’re making nice creatures,
即使我们设计出善良的生物
the gene itself still needs to be selfish.
但在基因上它也得是自私的
How could a gene for altruism find a way to let it’s copies coordinate with each other.
一个利他主义的基因怎样找到一种方法让其副本相互协调呢
One way is to combine two different traits into the altruism gene.
有个方法是由利他主义基因控制两种不同的性状
First, some kind of unique outwardly detectable trait that can let the gene be recognized
首先是独特且肉眼可见的外在性状 以便这个基因被识别
and second, the trait to be altruistic toward creatures who have that detectable trait.
第二 对具有这一可识别性状的生物有利他性
So let’s do that.
我们开始设计吧
Let’s add an outwardly detectable trait to our altruistic creatures.
让我们为利他主义生物增加一个肉眼可见的性状
The classic version of this is green beard and that’s a fun thing to put on the blob,
绿胡子的经典性状极其有趣 让我们增加到他身上
so let’s stick with that.
就是他了
So the next simulation we’ll try,
我们来做下一个模拟
we’ll start out with half creatures that have the green beard gene
此时半数斑点人有绿胡子基因
who’ll be altruistic toward other creatures with green beards,
他们对其它绿胡子的斑点人有利他性
and half creatures without green beards
而另一半没有绿胡子的斑点人
that will neither help nor get help.
既不会帮助别人 也不会被帮助
Again, pause to make a prediction.
再次暂停视频做一下预测吧
Are you convinced that the green beards should do well
你确信绿胡子们会做得更好吗
or might there be another problem?
又或者还会有其它问题出现?
Let’s see.
让我们来看一看
[light music]
[轻音乐]
Cool.
太酷了
I was honestly a little bit worried
说实话 在进行模拟前
before running these simulations
我有一些担心
that it still wouldn’t work,
这样是不是行得通呢
but it does.
结果是行得通
Maybe you’re not that surprised and that’s fine
可能你根本不惊讶 也没关系
but even if you’re not,
但是即使你不感到惊讶
this is still a pretty cool moment.
这仍然是个振奋人心的时刻
We found at least one kind of gene that can crack natural selection
我们发现自然界至少有一种基因会优先考虑他人
by causing creatures to put others before themselves,
进而打破自然选择的定律
even if it’s only sometimes.
即使这种情况很少
This is called inclusive fitness.
这叫包容适配性理论
The fitness includes all the copies of the gene,
适配性包括所有基因的复制
not just the ones inside a particular creature.
而不仅是特定生物内部的基因复制
Don’t celebrate too much though
不要高兴得太早
because there’s still a problem.
因为仍然有问题存在
Traits like green beard altruism aren’t actually very common in nature.
绿胡子斑点人的利他性在自然界中并不十分普遍
There are a few known cases,
有一些已知的例子
for example red fire ant colonies
比如红火蚁群
can have more than one competing queen.
可以有不止一个蚁后
And apparently,
而且很明显
the workers can tell which queen shares her and sets of genes with them,
工蚁可以分辨出哪个蚁后的基因能与自己配对
and then they kill the queens that don’t match
然后他们会杀死无法匹配的蚁后
and help the queens that do match.
并帮助蚁后交配
That’s cool and everything
这一切太酷了
but there just aren’t very many examples like this.
然而这种情况并不常见
It turns out to be pretty rare for
事实证明 这种情况非常罕见
one gene to code for two different traits
一个基因编码有两种不同性状
that happen to work together so nicely.
而且这两种性状恰好能协调工作
And even if that does happen,
即便这能够发生
eventually, mutations could produce multiple genes
最后突变可能产生多个基因
that each code for only one of the traits.
每个基因只编码一个特征
So let’s set up a simulation to see how it looks
所以我们再建一个模型来看一下
when the traits are on separate genes.
当性状在不同的基因上时是什么情况
With the traits on separate genes,
当性状在不同的基因上
they’re independent leading to four possible combinations.
它们是独立的 导致四种可能的组合
The creature can have both, neither,
绿胡子利他性 无绿胡子无利他性
just green beard or just altruism towards green beards.
只有绿胡子以及只有利他性
Time to make another prediction.
又到了预测时间
[light music]
[轻音乐]
Okay, so as I kind of hinted that before that simulation,
正如我在模拟前所暗示的那样
the coordination between copies of the altruism gene is broken
利他主义基因复制的协调被打破
and then the non-altruistic creatures dominate.
继而非利他生物占据主导地位
But hey, green beards are still cool.
但是 绿胡子们依然很棒
So, we’ve only gotten one kind of altruism to work so far
所以 到目前为止我们只有一种利他主义行得通
and it’s a kind that depends on a rare coincidence
而且这种利他性取决于难得的巧合
and doesn’t appear much in nature.
这种巧合在自然界并不常见
There’s got to be something better, right?
肯定有更好的方案 对吧?
Well, in fact there is.
对 实际上确实有
It’s known as kin altruism
也就是著名的亲属利他主义
or often kin selection.
一般叫做亲属选择
Instead of targeting some outwardly detectable genetically determined trait,
这种利他主义不是由表面性状决定
this kind of altruism targets family members,
而是指向家庭成员
whatever the traits may be.
不论其性状
So, let’s simulate one final version of the altruism gene
所以让我们模拟一个最终版本的利他主义基因
that causes creatures to be altruistic toward their direct parents and direct children.
其利他性只针对亲生父母和直系子女
Now the whole point of this kind of altruism
现在这种利他主义的核心在于
is that we can’t see which creatures have which genes.
我们看不到哪些生物有哪些基因
So this time, let’s hide the graph
所以这次 我们把图表收起来
and try to predict the results together while the simulation runs.
并试着在模拟运行的同时预测结果
The key concern with kin selection is
亲属选择有一个核心问题
that even close family members aren’t guaranteed to carry the same gene.
即使是亲密的家庭成员也无法保证携带相同的基因
So the altruism gene has to do some gambling.
所以利他主义基因就是一场博弈
For any kind of gambling strategy to work while in the long run,
不过任何一种赌博策略想要长期有效
the cost of playing needs to be lower than the payoff
游戏成本就得低于
for a win times the chance that you actually win.
赢的收益乘以真正能赢的几率
Right?
对吗?
The average payoff needs to be higher than the cost.
平均收益得高于成本
In the context of kin selection,
在亲属选择的背景下
you’ll hear this called “Hamilton’s Rule.”
你会听到一个名词叫“汉密尔顿法则”
Looking at this simulation
继续看这个模拟
and thinking of the altruism gene as the gambler,
假设利他基因是个赌徒
the 5% mutation chance means
5%的突变机会意味着
that there’s a 95% chance that parents and children share the same version of the altruism gene.
父母和孩子都拥有同一种利他基因的可能是95%
So that’s our chance of winning.
这就是我们获胜的概率
The cost of being altruistic as we decided before
正如我们之前设计的那样
is half of an offspring on average
利他主义的成本平均是后代减少一半 即0.5
and the benefit to a creature who receives food is one
而获得食物的生物 收益是1
since that food is converted directly into offspring.
因为那些食物直接促进他们繁衍后代
These numbers aren’t exact
但这些数据并不精确
since both creatures involved do have other chances to get food
因为两种斑点人都有获取食物的其它途径
but this should get us pretty close.
但这个应该已经很接近了
And comparing,
通过对照实验
the expected payout is almost twice the cost
我们发现预期收益几乎是成本的两倍
so even with the inexact cost in payoff numbers,
所以即使收益数字不够准确
it seems pretty clear that the altruism gene is gonna do well here.
看似很明显 利他主义基因在这里表现得很好
And this is where I realized that altruism is an illusion
不过这一切有关利他主义的结论都是模拟出来的
and my heart descended into darkness only for a little bit though.
念及此 我有一点灰心丧气
Once I dug in,
我深入研究了一下
collected some data on what was happening
并收集了一些实时数据
and found more precise numbers for the cost and benefit,
我发现了更精确的成本和收益
I figured out what was wrong.
继而找到了问题所在
It’s that Hamilton’s Rule is a lie!
即汉密尔顿规则是个谎言
Which I’m sorry to say is gonna require it’s own video.
本着对自己视频负责的精神 对此我要道个歉
But for now, suffice it to say that by lowering the cost of the altruistic act,
但我能说可以通过降低利他行为的成本
and cranking up the likelihood of winning by lowering the mutation chance,
通过降低变异几率来提高利他基因获胜的可能性
we can find a set-up where a gene for kin selection tends to flourish.
我们可以建立一个条件 保证利他基因可以使亲缘选择繁荣发展
This is the kind of altruism we see all over the place in nature
在自然界 这种基于亲缘关系的利他主义随处可见
from parents caring for their young to sterile worker bees helping the queen,
从照顾幼子的父母到不能生育的工蜂帮蜂王
conclusive fitness can be naturally selected.
包容适配性理论支持自然选择
All right we spent a lot of time in the weeds in this video,
好了我们在这期视频里花了很多时间
so before we go, let’s remind ourselves of the difference between a creature and it’s genes.
所以结束之前 要提醒自己生物和基因之间的区别
The genes involved in altruism are still selfish.
基因虽然表现出利他性但依旧自私
The only ones that survive are the ones that are able to coordinate their own copies.
唯一幸存下来的是那些能够协调自己基因副本的生物
But this does not mean the creatures themselves are selfish.
但这并不意味着生物本身是自私的
They genuinely care about and make sacrifices for each other,
他们真心关心彼此并为彼此做出牺牲
whether it’s because they’re family
无论是因为对方为家人
or because they just can’t resist the look of a green beard.
还是因为他们就是喜欢绿胡子的样子
See you next time.
下次再见
Hey, thanks for watching.
感谢观看
If you enjoy this video and wanna support more of them,
如果你喜欢这个视频 并想给予更多支持
you can help by subscribing,
请订阅本频道
sharing with someone else who you think might also like video,
并将它分享给同道中人
or if you’re so inclined by supporting directly on Patreon.
你还可以直接在Patreon上赞助我们
In any case, thanks again.
无论如何 再次感谢大家
(light music)
[轻音乐]

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

自然选择中,利他主义和利己主义谁与争锋?如何才能在残酷的竞争中登上人生巅峰?请移步本视频,感受自然选择下,不同选择下的结局。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

裘墨

审核员

审核员LJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lFEgohhfxOA

相关推荐