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改变了画坛的裸女

The naked lady that changed the rules of art

In the 1800s, most paintings looked like this.
19世纪的画大多数都是这样的:
Muted colors, complex scenes, and lots of mythological stuff.
柔和的颜色 复杂的场景 以及富于神话色彩
But in 1865 something came along that was so different,
但在1865年 一些极异常的东西出现了
it caused shock and horror and outrage.
它引起了震惊 恐惧和愤怒
“…the body’s putrefying color recalls the horror of the morgue.”
“……肌体腐烂的颜色让人想起停尸间的恐怖”
” takes on at times the undefinable terror of a painted corpse.”
不时传达出一具着色尸体的不可名状的恐惧
"her face is stupid, her skin cadaverous…
丑陋的面庞 苍白的皮肤
she does not have a human form
完全没个人形
The painting is called “Olympia”, and it changed the art world forever.
这幅画叫做《奥林匹亚》 它永远地改变了艺术界
《沃克斯观点》
Édouard Manet painted Olympia in 1863.
1863年 爱杜尔·马奈绘制了《奥林匹亚》
When Paris was the cultural center of the world.
当时 巴黎是世界的文化中心
And the center of this cultural center was the Academy of Fine Arts.
而这个文化中心的中心是巴黎美术学院
The Academy was made up of upper-crust art critics
它由上流社会的艺术评论家组成
that worshipped the Italian Renaissance painters of three hundred years prior.
他们崇拜300年前意大利文艺复兴时期的画家
You know – Michelangelo, Raphael, Botticelli, Titian…
你知道的 米开朗琪罗 拉斐尔 波提切利 提香
And at the Paris Salon
在巴黎沙龙
— the Academy’s legendary annual art show
这个学院传奇的年度艺术展览
– they only displayed art that mimicked the renaissance style.
他们只展出模仿文艺复兴风格的作品
To determine who made the cut, they had a bunch of rules.
为了确定谁能被选中 他们设立了一些门槛
First and foremost –
首先也是最重要的
great art was supposed to convey a moral or intellectual message.
伟大的艺术作品应该传播道德或智慧
And all acceptable art fell into one of five categories
对他们来说 所有合意的艺术作品
ranked by their capacity to deliver those messages.
都可以根据其传达信息的能力 归入以下五类
Landscapes and still lifes were at the bottom.
风景画和静物画处于最底端
In the middle are portraits and genre paintings
中档的是肖像画和风俗画
– mostly quaint scenes of poor or foreign subjects,
它们大多描绘贫穷或异域主题的景象
painted for the rich.
是为富人绘制的
At the top of the list is History painting, the Academy’s darling.
这个学院的最爱 等级最高的是历史画
These depicted major historical or mythical moments,
这些画描绘了重要的历史和神话中的时刻
they were considered the best at providing an ethical or moral lesson.
它们被视作最适合进行伦理道德说教的画
Like depictions of the birth of Venus
比如 描绘维纳斯诞生的绘画
– showing the goddess emerging fully formed from the ocean,
它展示了女神完整脱胎于大海的景象
a symbol of womanly perfection and divine love.
她象征着女性的完美和神圣的爱
Which brings us to the second set of rules.
这就引出了第二条规则
Equally important to what was painted was how it was painted.
与画的内容一样重要的是绘画的方法
Take that painting of “The Birth of Venus”
拿《维纳斯的诞生》这幅画来说
It’s the kind of painting the Academy loved.
这是该学院喜欢的作品类型
Its subjects are idealized, prettified visions of the world — smooth and beautiful,
理想化的主题 美化的世界图景 光滑美丽
with no body hair and flawless skin.
无体毛而光洁无瑕的皮肤
The painting follows the rules of depth and perspective —
这幅画遵循了深度和透视的原则
meaning it looks like it could exist in the real world.
意思是 它看起来可以存在于真实世界
And the scene is complex and layered – there’s a lot going on.
场景复杂而富有层次 内容丰富
Its colors are ones you’d find in nature
画的颜色是你能在大自然中找到的
They aren’t too saturated or harsh
它们不太饱和也不太刺眼
and the brushstrokes are smooth.
画的笔触很流畅
So smooth that they’re nearly invisible on the canvas.
流畅到在画上几乎看不出画笔的一丝痕迹
For a long time,
很长一段时间里
really the only way to become a successful artist
成为一名成功画家的唯一方式
was to follow the Academy’s rules.
就是遵循该学院的规则
Which makes Manet’s Olympia all the more an outlier.
这使得马奈的《奥林匹亚》显得更另类了
Check out this painting by Renaissance master Titian from 1538.
看看文艺复兴大师提香作于1538年的画
Look familiar?
看起来熟悉吗?
It should.
那就对了
Manet painted Olympia as a direct riff on Titian’s “Venus of Urbino.”
马奈的《奥林匹亚》受到提香《乌尔比诺的维纳斯》的启发
— but there’s a reason Manet’s painting ruffled so many feathers
但是马奈画作一挂入沙龙就引起轩然大波
when it hung in the Salon.
是有原因的
For starters, the name Olympia was a popular pseudonym for sex workers.
首先 “奥林匹亚”是风尘女子的通用化名
Manet took a beloved, instantly recognizable painting
马奈选择创作一幅备受喜爱 有辨识度的画
and corrupted it – subbing in a common sex worker
却又把道德端正的爱与生育女神
for the morally upright goddess of love and fertility.
用普通性工作者替代 以此将其毁掉
There’s not much room for a sex worker in the heirarchy of genres.
等级森严的流派中 给性工作者的空间不多
But it was also how Manet painted Olympia was what really changed things
但真正改变这一切的是马奈绘制这幅画的方式
Manet used stark and unnatural colors that g
马奈用了无修饰又不自然的颜色
ive Olympia a cold, harsh look.
给了奥林匹亚冷峻粗糙的外观
And look at how rough and textured Manet’s brushstrokes are
再来看 与提香的细致入微相比
compared to Titian’s imperceptible ones.
马奈的笔触多么的粗糙有质感
And, unlike Titians, Manet’s painting doesn’t seem to exist in real space.
并且 与提香不同 马奈的作品看起来不太真实
It’s much flatter and less complex.
他比较平板 也不复杂
And beyond the rules, the two paintings just feel different.
除去规则 这两幅画给人的感觉也不同
Venus lounges while Olympia sits at attention.
维纳斯懒洋洋地躺着 而奥林匹亚端坐着
Venus’ maids place furs in a chest, probably a wedding gift.
维纳斯的女仆正往箱子里放皮毛 很可能是结婚礼物
Olympia’s maid brings her flowers,
奥林匹亚的女仆带来一束花
likely from one of her regular customers.
可能是她的某位常客送的
And compare their hands.
比较她们的手
People really didn’t like Olympia’s tensed fingers
人们确实不喜欢奥林匹亚手指的紧张姿态
One critic claimed she was “mocking the pose” of Venus,
一位评论家说她在“戏讽”维纳斯的姿势
with a hand shamelessly flexed
一只手不知耻地向大腿内侧弯曲
Where Venus is warm and inviting, Olympia is tense and stiff.
维纳斯显得温暖诱人 而奥林匹亚则紧张僵硬
It’s as if Venus invites you to look at her,
维纳斯像是在邀请你去欣赏她
while Olympia confronts you
奥林匹亚却是在和你对峙
—almost like she’s shaming you for intruding.
——几乎是因你的冒犯而羞辱你
It’s not totally clear why the Academy chose to display
该学院选择展出马奈打破常规的画
Manet’s rule-breaking painting,
其原因仍不完全清楚
but it probably had something to do with Manet’s growing popularity.
但可能与马奈的人气日渐高升有关
You can see his influence so clearly in what came next.
我们可在以下画作中清楚地看到他的影响力
He led the charge toward modernism in the late 1800s.
是他在19世纪后期引领绘画走向现代
Starting with the impressionists – Monet, Degas –
从印象派开始 莫奈 德加
who adopted his penchant for modern themes and loosened brushstrokes.
继承了他对现代主题的偏爱 和放松的笔触
But it’s not just the impressionists who owe Manet.
但受到马奈影响的不止是印象画派
More than anything, Olympia is proof that no one entity gets to decide what art should look like.
最重要的是 奥林匹亚证明了绘画不是由某个实体决定的
And, when we look back on the history of art,
当我们回顾艺术史时
we don’t remember the people who were really good at following the rules.
我们记住的往往不是遵守规则的人
We remember the people who moved the needle forward.
而是那些打破规则 开创新局的人

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视频概述

一幅人体画像打破了千年的艺术传统

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Clio

审核员

审核员MS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YHKFK6_pepo

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