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超雄综合征与犯罪基因

The myth of the "supermale" and the extra Y chromosome

I was watching this episode of the simpsons the other day
我前几天在看《辛普森一家》里的这一段
where Lisa thinks she’s going to get dumber as she gets older
片中Lisa认为随着年龄增长她会变傻
because she has the Simpson’s gene.
因为她有辛普森家族基因
Lisa: “It can’t just be a bad day. I feel like I’m getting dumber by the minute.”
“不可能只是今天运气不好 我觉得是因为我在不停变傻”
Her brother and her father and her uncles have it, so she must have it, right?
她的兄弟 父亲和叔叔们都已经变傻了 所以她也一定会这样 是吗?
Grandpa: “That’s right, then the Simpson’s gene kicks in!”
“对 是辛普森基因起效了!”
But she finds out, there’s a catch
但她发现此事另有玄机
“The defective Simpson’s gene is on the Y chromosome,
“有缺陷的辛普森基因位于Y染色体上
so only men are affected”
所以只有男性会受到影响”
And it got me thinking,
这让我开始思考
what do we actually really know about the Y chromsome.
关于Y染色体 我们到底知道些什么呢
And how did we get there?
我们又是怎么了解到这些的呢?
“What does the “Y” stand for?”
“这个Y代表了什么?”
There were a lot of fascinating TV shows about genetics in the 1950s
二十世纪五十年代 有许多和遗传学有关的精彩节目
“We are about to unfold for you an adventure in the world of science”
“我们将为你开启科学世界的冒险之旅”
Nearly every person has 23 pairs of chromosomes
几乎每个人都有23对染色体
“In every male human being,
“每个男性体内
the 23rd pair of chromosomes is a mismatch”
第23对染色体是混合配对的
“One type has a long X chromosome.
“其中一个是长的X染色体
The other type has a short Y chromosome”
另一个是短的Y染色体”
Early on we learned that girls have two x chromosomes
之前我们知道女性有两个X染色体
and most boys have an X and a Y
大多数男性有一个X染色体和一个Y染色体
And then this happened
然而却出现了这种人
拥有XYY染色体的人
A man with XYY was discovered
我们发现了一名有着XYY染色体的男性
He was a normal guy living a normal life
他是个过着寻常生活的普通人
A few years later some researchers started drawing lines
几年后 一些研究者开始将
between having an extra Y chromosome
额外的Y染色体
and a life of violent crime.
和暴力犯罪联系起来
“Some studies from the 70s said that
“七十年代一些研究认为
a man with an extra Y chromosome meant a man was more aggressive”
多了个Y染色体的人更具攻击性”
It all started at a scottish mental institution
这一切起源于一个苏格兰精神病院
where 315 men were genetically tested for chromosomal abnormalities.
在那里315名男性接受了染色体异常基因检测
9 of these men were above average height,
其中9个人高出平均指标
had severe mental impairments,
他们有严重的精神创伤
had criminal records, and had XYY chromosomes.
有犯罪记录和XYY染色体
Although these 9 men had criminal backgrounds
虽然这九个人和没有XYY基因的人
almost identical to men without XYY.
犯罪历史差别不大
Scientist concluded that their history was directly related to their genetic disorder.
但科学家认为 他们会犯罪与他们的遗传病直接相关
“So he has an extra Y chromosome, that’s the criminal gene”
“他有一个多余的Y染色体 那是犯罪基因”
Then, Mary Telfer, a researcher in the U.S.
因此 美国的一位研究者Mary Telfer
began searching for the XYY chromosome in
开始在宾夕法尼亚各种收容机构里
developmentally disabled boys in institutions in Pennsylvania.
有发育缺陷的男孩中寻找XYY染色体
They were tall and had moderate acne on their face
他们都是高个子而且脸上有中度痤疮
and in her mind these were clear signs of XYY.
她认为这是XYY人群的明显特征
“Kilhurst research center says he’s an XYY man.
“Kilhurst研究中心说他是有XYY染色体的人
Do you believe in that theory?”
你相信这种理论吗?”
Around that time a tall man in Chicago with visible acne scars on his face
那时 芝加哥有个高个子男人 他脸上有明显痤疮疤痕
brutally raped and murdered 8 nurses.
他残忍地强暴并杀害了8个护士
His name was Richard Speck.
他的名字叫Richard Speck
It immediately made sense to Telfer
理所当然 Telfer立刻认为
that he was XYY.
他有XYY染色体
The New York Times latched onto this story
《纽约时报》盯上了此事
and ran a series about the genetic disorder
并系列刊登了遗传疾病的文章
stating that Speck’s criminal disposition was directly related to the fact that he was
阐述Speck的犯罪倾向与他是
a “supermale” with an extra Y chromosome.
多一个Y染色体的“超雄人”直接相关
Genetic testing, however, concluded that he was XY.
然而基因检测却表明 他是只有XY染色体的正常人
But the damage was done.
但是伤害已经造成了
The idea of a genetic mutant supermale quickly became a cultural phenomenon.
基因突变的超雄人这一概念 很快成了一个文化现象
“Well they’ve found I’ve got this, um, extra male chromosome”
“他们发现我有 嗯 额外的Y染色体”
Not surprisingly there was this huge bias
意料之中的 对于XYY人群的研究
in the research conducted on XYY men.
人们抱有巨大的偏见
Nearly all genetic testing of these chromosomes
几乎所有监狱和精神病院
were conducted in prisons and mental institutions.
都组织了染色体基因检测
“Wait, so the extra Y chromosome doesn’t lead to violence”
“等等 额外的Y染色体并不会导致犯罪”
The fact is, about 1 in 1000 men have XYY syndrome
事实上 每1000个人中就有一个人有XYY综合征
and a vast majority are completely unaware of their condition.
而且他们中的大部分完全不知道这件事
There’s just no proven correlation between
并没有证据证明 暴力犯罪行为
aggressive criminal behavior and having an extra Y chromosome.
和拥有一个额外Y染色体之间有什么关联
“The extra Y means nothing at all”
“额外的Y染色体并不意味着什么”
Most people know that there’s not a murder gene in our bodies
大多数人们知道 人体并没有一个谋杀基因
that make us criminals,
来导致我们犯罪
but we still use the Y chromosome as a huge cultural symbol
但我们仍将Y染色体看作是具有攻击性
for aggression and masculinity.
和男子气概的一大文化标志
“Pick up a Y chromosome while you were there,
“回到娘胎的时候记得选个Y染色体吧
you might be short one”
你可能是那个短的”
A lack of a Y chromosome means a guy is super feminine
缺失了Y染色体说明这个男的很女性化
and more than one Y chromosome means he’s a killer.
而多一个Y染色体则说明这人是杀手
And then there’s Jenna Maroney.
接下来我们来说说Jenna Maroney
“Jenna is an Ashkenazi Jew with an extra Y chromosome?”
“Jenna是多个Y染色体的德系犹太人吗?”
“What’s that now?”
“什么?”
When you’re watching your favorite TV show,
当你看你最喜欢的电视节目时
it’s really important to remember
记住这点很重要
that masculinity and femininity are as much
男性气质和女性气质很大程度上是被
defined by the world around us,
我们周遭的世界定义的
as the genes inside us.
就像体内的基因一样

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视频概述

视频介绍了人体内的基因,并说明了超雄人因为基因突变拥有XYY染色体,但XYY染色体并不直接与雄性特征显著和暴力犯罪因素相关联,我们不能对XYY人群心存偏见,他们和正常人一样

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Eliza Alejandro

审核员

审核员SF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6BsXLnLn9ok

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