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看山不是山:多稳态认知错觉

The "Mountain Or Valley?" Illusion

Here’s a high plateau on Mars, rising up above the surrounding landscape.
这是高出附近地貌的火星高原呢
Or… is it a system of valleys and canyonlands cut into the surrounding plains?
还是一系列嵌入平原的山谷和峡谷地带呢?
And here’s another,
再看另一张图
is this text cut into a wood
木头上的字是凹进去的呢
or is it bumping out?
还是凸出来的呢?
These are examples of multistable perceptual illusion
这些例子都属于多稳态认知错觉
that often comes up when looking at shaded relief maps
当我们看带阴影的地形图
or aerial and satellite photos of terrain.
或航空卫星地形影像时 常有这样的错觉
Like the famous duck/rabbit illusion,
就像著名的鸭兔错觉
it can sometimes be hard to perceive both sides of these illusions
有时是难以把这些错觉的两面都看到
So let’s try one more.
那么再看一例
A series of plateaus on earth
这是地球上一连串的高原呢?
or the grand canyon?
还是大峡谷呢?
So why do we sometimes see these features
那对于这些特征 为何我们有时觉得
as popping up or out of the image,
它们是凸出于图片的
and why do we sometimes see them as cut or dented in?
而有时又觉得它们是凹进去的呢?
There are essentially two reasons.
本质上 原因有二
First, the fact that on earth the sun is always overhead;
首先由于 在地球上 太阳总位于头顶
and second a weird symmetry of light and shadows.
其次出于光影间古怪的对称性
OK, so if you’re a human who grew up on earth,
如果你是地球上长大的人
you’re used to the fact that light mostly comes from above.
那你一定熟悉 光多从上往下照的事实
I mean, the sun is always overhead
我是说 太阳总位于头顶
illuminating things from above, or above and to the side,
总从上方或侧上方照射物体
but never from below the horizon,
而从不会出现在地平线以下
which means that shadows are pretty much always on the bottoms of things.
也就是说 阴影总出现在物体底部
This is so ingrained in us and our culture
这已根深蒂固在我们的心中以及文化当中
that religion talks about falling down into darkness and being raised up into the light,
以致于宗教会讲 堕入黑暗 升入光明
western art exhibits a top-left lighting convention,
而西方艺术会有左上角照明的传统
as does computer interface design.
电脑界面设计亦是如此
And the International Space Station
而国际空间站
has lights on one side to help floating astronauts
会在一侧安灯 帮助漂浮的宇航员
a consistent sense of up and down.
始终保持一致的上下方位感
And the rule of thumb,
用经验法则来说
shadows on the bottom, light on the top
出现在底部的阴影和顶部的光线
gives our brains a way to perceive the 3D-ness of features
让大脑可以仅从物体阴影的方位
just from the position of their shadows.
判断物体的三维特征
If there’s a bump sticking out from a wall,
比如墙上有一块凸起
the shadow will be on the bottom of the bump.
阴影会出现在凸起的底部
If there’s a dent in the wall,
而如果墙上有一块凹槽
the shadow will be on the bottom of the overhang,
那么阴影会出现在凹槽顶的底部
which means the top of the dent.
也就是凹槽的顶部
Roughly speaking, when we have no other context
大体讲 无其他环境参考的情况下
and see shadows on the bottom of a feature,
我们看到阴影位于底部
we perceive it as convex, coming towards us;
就会觉得它是凸向我们的
and when we see shadows on the top of a feature,
而当我们看到阴影位于顶部
we perceive it as concave, or dented away.
就会觉得它是凹进去的
But there’s a cruel symmetry in nature,
但残酷的是 这本质上是对称的
a concave feature, lit from one side, can cast very similar shadows
一侧照射凹槽投下的阴影
to its convex counterpart lit from the other side.
会和另一侧照射凸起形成的阴影雷同
A bump lit from above has shadows on the bottom,
从上往下照射凸起会形成底部阴影
and a dent lit from below also has shadows on the bottom,
而从下往上照射凹槽也会形成底部阴影
which makes it easy to misperceive a dent lit from below as a bump
易使人们将往上照的凹槽误作凸起
or a bump lit from below as a dent.
或把往下照的凸起误作凹槽
Similarly, a mountain range lit from the east has shadows on its western slopes,
同样的 从东边照射山峰 会在西坡投下阴影
while a valley lit from the west
而从西边照射山谷
also has shadows on its western slopes.
也会在西坡投下阴影
Not really a problem when you’re standing next to the mountain or valley.
对山峰山谷旁的人来说 这不是个问题
But viewed from high enough above,
不过从足够高处俯视
all our brains really have to go on
我们就得开动大脑
for the concavity or convexity of landscape features is their shadows.
因为得通过阴影 判断地貌的凹凸性
So we’ll tend to see these geographic features as mountains
所以我们会把这些阴影在底部的
when the shadows are on the bottom
地理特征视作山峰
and valleys when shadows are on the top.
而把阴影在顶部的视作山谷
Which, of course,
当然
is only correct if the light happens to be coming from the top of the image.
仅当光源位于图片上方 该方法才奏效
In fact, the mountain or valley illusion is so strong
事实上 由于人们的峰谷错觉非常强
that shaded relief maps of the northern hemisphere
以致于北半球的阴影地形图
generally show light coming from the north,
常常出现从北往南照射的光线
a direction the sun never actually shines in most of those places.
而大多数地方的阳光并不会这样照射
Cartographers are more than willing to sacrifice the accuracy of the sun’s position
地图绘制员宁愿牺牲阳光方位的精确度
to ensure that they accurately communicate the geographic features they’re mapping.
为的是确保地貌特征的准确传达
And it’s good they do.
多亏他们这样做了
I actually decided to make this video
其实决定做这期视频前
after I was looking at a map upside down from across a table.
我正在凝视桌上一幅上下颠倒的地图
And my brain thought that all the valleys were mountains and mountains were valleys
当时我大脑就觉得 怎么看山谷都像山峰 山峰都像山谷
I had to get up,
于是我不得不起身
go around to the other side of the table and closed my eyes for a while,
绕到桌子另一侧 闭目片刻
before I could get them to switch to being the right way round.
直到那些峰谷能切回正确的样式
So if you’re confused
如果你正疑惑
why a map or aerial or satellite photo looks weird.
眼前的航空或卫星图像怎么看怎么怪
Just try rotating it 180° to see if it makes more sense.
不妨旋转180度 看看它是否顺眼多了
大峡谷!
Hey, Henry here,
嗨 我是亨利
today I thought I’d try something different.
今天来点不一样的
I’ve been wanting to learn how to use Adobe Character Animator for ages,
我很早前就想学Adobe Character Animator
and it just so happens that this video is sponsored by the online learning site Skillshare,
恰好在线学习网站Skillshare赞助了本期视频
and they have lessons on Character Animator.
而他们有Character Animator的课程
No joke, as of this morning I had no idea how to use this software,
老实讲 我今早还不会用这个软件
and now you’re seeing me, in stick figure form, animated in Character Animator.
而你现在看到的火柴小人 是我用Character Animator做的
So yeah, Skillshare clearly has lessons for learning stuff.
当然 Skillshare还有很多课程可以学习
And not just animation: cooking, photography, programming, etc.
不仅有动画 还有厨艺 摄影 编程等等
It’s about 10 dollars a month.
大概每月10美元
But you can get two free months by going to skl.sh/MinutePhysics,
但你可以从skl.sh/MinutePhysics领取两个月的免费试用
which also lets Skillshare know you were sent there by me in animated stick figure form.
这样Skillshare也会知道 你是被我这个火柴小人推荐过去的
Bye.
拜拜

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视频概述

本期《分钟物理》聊多稳态认知错觉,它类似凹脸错觉。当我们看放翻的航空卫星地形图时,就会遇到这种错觉。也就是说,我们会把本来凹进去的山谷错看成凸起的山峰,反之亦然。然而仅仅翻转一下地图,它立马就变得顺眼了。这是因为人眼总是通过阴影位置判别景深,而阳光又总是在物体底部投射出阴影。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

ε-greedy

审核员

审核员YY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=V7C318DGB38

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