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史上最成功的海盗 – 译学馆
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史上最成功的海盗

The most successful pirate of all time - Dian Murray

Quotes by famous people.
名人名言
At the height of their power,
臭名昭著的加勒比海盗
infamous Caribbean pirates
像黑胡子和亨利·摩根
like Blackbeard and Henry Morgan
在他们势力的鼎盛时期
commanded as many as ten ships and several hundred men.
控制着多达十艘船和几百人
But their stories pale next to the most successful pirate of all time.
但他们的故事逊于史上最成功海盗
Madame Zheng commanded 1800 vessels,
郑夫人控制着1800艘船
made enemies of several empires,
与几个帝国为敌
and still lived to old age.
这种情况一直持续到她的晚年
Madame Zheng began her life as a commoner
一开始 郑夫人只是一个平民
working on one of the many floating brothels, or flower boats,
她在港口城市广州的一些
in the port city of Guangzhou.
漂浮的妓院或花船上工作
By 1801,
到1801年
she had attracted the attention
她吸引了当地一名叫做
of a local pirate captain named Zheng Yi,
郑一的海盗船长的注意力
and the two soon married.
很快两人结婚了
Guangzhou’s fishermen had long engaged in small-scale piracy
广州的渔民长期从事小规模的海上抢劫
to supplement their meager incomes in the offseason.
作为淡季微薄收入的补充
But a successful peasant uprising in neighboring Vietnam
但在18世纪末 邻国越南一次成功的
at the end of the 18th century had raised the stakes.
农民起义使他们的风险提高
The victorious Tây Sơn rebels had unified their country
胜利的反叛者Tây Sơn统一了他们的国家
only to face a Chinese invasion
只需面对中国人的入侵
and ongoing maritime battles with the Vietnamese rulers
并与他们推翻的越南统治者
they had overthrown.
进行海战
So they commissioned Guangzhou’s pirates to raid the coast
因此他们委任广州的海盗袭击海岸
and join the fight against their enemies.
并参加对抗他们的敌人
Serving their Vietnamese patrons turned the Zhengs
那些寻求越南庇护的人找到了郑氏和其他海盗
and other pirates from ragtag gangs aboard single vessels
从单一船只的乌合之众
into professional privateer fleets
变成专业的私人船队
with dozens of ships able to hold their own at sea.
大约有十几艘船能在海上维护自己的地盘
In 1802, the Tây Sơn were overthrown
1802年 Tây Sơn被推翻
and the pirates lost their safe harbor in Vietnam.
海盗们失去他们在越南的保护伞
But instead of scattering,
但他们没有解散
the Zhengs met the crisis
郑氏通过团结竞争对手广州海盗集团
by uniting the rival Cantonese pirate groups
形成强大的联盟
into a formidable alliance.
来应对危机
At its height, the confederation included 70,000 sailors
联盟最强时有70000名水手
with 800 large junks and nearly 1,000 smaller vessels.
800艘大型帆船和近1000艘小船只
Those were organized into six fleets
他们被组织为
marked by different colored flags.
六种不同颜色旗帜的船队
The Zhengs were unlike many other historically-known privateers,
郑氏不同于其它历史上知名的私掠船船长
such as Henry Morgan or Barbarossa,
如亨利·摩根或巴尔巴罗萨
who acted on behalf of various naval powers.
行动代表多方面海军力量
Instead, the Zhengs were now true outlaws,
相反 郑氏是真正的罪犯
operating without support or approval from any government.
在没有政府的支持或批准下行事
Zheng Yi met an untimely end in 1807,
在1807年 郑一不幸去世
but his widow didn’t hesitate to secure their gains.
但他的遗孀毫不犹豫地保护他们的利益
Through skillful diplomacy,
通过巧妙的外交
Madame Zheng took charge of the confederation,
郑夫人掌控了联盟
convincing the captains that their best interests
使船长们相信继续合作
lay in continued collaboration.
才能获得最大利益
Meanwhile, she appointed Zhang Bao,
同时 她任命张宝
the young protege of her late husband,
她已故丈夫的门徒
as the commander of her most powerful squadron,
担任最强大的红旗舰队
the Red Flag Fleet.
的指挥官
Zhang became not only her right-hand man,
张宝不仅成为她的得力助手
but her lover and, soon, her new husband.
她的爱人 并很快成为她的新丈夫
Madame Zheng consolidated her power
郑夫人通过
through strict military discipline
严格的军纪
combined with a surprisingly progressive code of laws.
加上令人惊讶的进步法律 来巩固她的权利
Female captives were theoretically protected from sexual assault,
女俘虏在理论上不受性侵犯
and while pirates could take them as wives,
但海盗们可以把她们当做妻子
mistreatment or infidelity towards them
虐待她们或对她们不忠的海盗
was punishable by death.
将处以死刑
Under Madame Zheng’s leadership,
在郑夫人的领导下
the pirates greatly increased their power,
海盗的力量得到大大增强
with 200 cannons and 1300 guns in the Red Flag Fleet alone.
仅红旗舰队 就有200门大炮和1300支枪
Within a few years,
在几年内
they destroyed 63 of Guangdong Province’s 135 military vessels,
他们摧毁了广东省135艘军舰中的63艘
forcing their commanders to hire more than 30 private junks.
迫使他们的指挥官雇用超过30多艘私人帆船
Madame Zheng was so feared
郑夫人如此恐怖
that Chinese commanders charged with apprehending her
以至于中国指挥官花费大部分时间
spent most of their time ashore,
在岸上逮捕她
sometimes sabotaging their own vessels to avoid battle at sea.
有时甚至破坏自己的船只来避免海上交战
With little to stop them,
几乎没有什么可以阻止他们
the pirates were able to mount successful
海盗们能成功地 通常是残忍地
—and often brutal— raids on garrisons, villages,
袭击整个海岸的驻地 村庄
and markets throughout the coast.
和集市
Using her administrative talents,
利用她在管理上的天分
Madame Zheng established financial offices in cities and villages,
郑夫人在城市和村庄设立了财务办事处
allowing her pirates to extract regular protection payments
允许她的海盗在陆地和海洋上
on land and sea alike.
定期收取保护费
This effectively created a state within a state
这实际上创建了一个国中国
whose influence reached far beyond the South China Sea.
其影响远超出中国南海
At the peak of her power,
在她权利的顶峰
Madame Zheng’s confederation drove five American schooners
郑夫人的联盟驱赶了5艘美国帆船
to safe harbor near Macao,
靠近澳门的安全港
captured a Portuguese brig,
捕获了葡萄牙帆船
and blocked tribumation from Thailnd
并封锁了泰国的进贡使者团
—all in a single day.
这些都在一天之内完成
But perhaps Madame Zheng’s greatest success
但也许郑夫人最大的成功
lay in knowing when to quit.
在于适可而止
By 1810,
到1810年
increasing tension between the Red and Black Flag Fleets
红旗和黑旗舰队的紧张关系
weakened the confederation from within
日益加剧 从内部削弱了联盟
and rendered it more vulnerable to attack from without.
使其更容易受到外部的攻击
So, when the Chinese government, desperate to stop the raids,
因此 当中国政府渴望停止交战
offered amnesty in exchange for the pirates’ surrender,
以特赦换取海盗们的投降时
Madame Zheng and Zhang Bao agreed,
郑夫人和张宝
but only on their own terms.
仅仅基于他们自己的商议 同意了
Their confederation was successfully and peacefully
联盟和平解散
dismantled in April 1810,
于1810年4月
while Zhang Bao was allowed to
而张宝被允许
retain 120 junks for personal use
保留120艘私用船
and became an officer in the Chinese navy.
并成为中国海军军官
Now fighting pirates himself,
现在他自己与海盗作战
Zhang Bao quickly rose through the ranks of military command,
张宝迅速通过指挥军队使部队数量得到增加
and Madame Zheng enjoyed all the privileges of her husband’s status.
郑夫人享有丈夫地位的所有特权
After Zhang Bao died in 1822,
在张宝于1822年去世之后
Madame Zheng returned with their eleven-year-old son to Guangzhou,
郑夫人带着11岁的儿子回到广州
where she opened a gambling house
她在那儿开了一家赌场
and quietly lived off the proceeds.
悄悄地靠收益生活
She died at the age of 69
她于69岁去世
—an uncommonly peaceful end to a pirate’s life.
对海盗来说是极其安宁平静的结局了
What more history, check out those playlist
了解更多的历史 查看
with five TEDED’s most popular history videos.
五个TEDED最受欢迎的历史视频节目单
And if you want to help us to continue to creat the video like these.
如果你想帮助我们继续创建类似视频
Please consider making the small month contribution at
可以每个月向我们捐款
PATREON.COM/TEDED
PATREON.COM/TEDED
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视频概述

介绍了规模最大的海盗领袖——郑夫人的一生。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

GreenT

审核员

审核员 RN

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6BALmDghybk

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