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切尔诺贝利 - 地球上最具放射性的地方

The Most Radioactive Places on Earth

[检测中]
普利皮亚特医院 (靠近切尔诺贝利)
PRIPYAT HOSPITAL (NEAR CHERNOBYL)
辐射是可怕的 至少某些类型是 我的意思是我的盖革计数器
Radiation is frightening. At least, certain types of it are. I mean my Geiger counter
在靠近我的手机或者无限路由器或微波炉时不会响 那是因为
doesn’t go off near my mobile phone, or the Wi-Fi router or my microwave. That’s because
盖革计数器只能测量出电离辐射即 足够能量的辐射
a Geiger counter only measures ionizing radiation — that is, radiation with enough energy
能从原子中去除电子辐射的可测量单位是西弗茨 如果你
to rip electrons off atoms. And it’s measured in units called sieverts. If you’re exposed
突然暴露在2西弗茨的辐射下 你很可能马上就死亡
to more than two sieverts all at once you’ll probably die shortly after that. But we’re
但我们始终暴露在低水平的电离辐射下例如香蕉富含钾
exposed to low levels of ionizing radiation all the time. Bananas for example are rich
里面有些钾是自然放射性的 所以当你吃一根香蕉
in potassium and some of that potassium is naturally radioactive. So when you eat a banana
你实际上暴露在约0.1微西弗茨的辐射之下了 1微西弗茨等于百万分之十西弗茨
you’re actually exposed to about 0.1 microsieverts of radiation. That’s one ten millionth of
让我们用香蕉来衡量辐射的剂量吧你知道的
a sievert. Let’s use a banana for scale of radiation doses. You know, since people
因为别人吃了香蕉所以我们也有辐射了所以实际上你挨着别人睡比你自己一个人睡
eat bananas we become radioactive too. So you’re actually exposed to more radiation
受到的辐射多但是我对此并不担心
if you sleep next to someone than if you sleep alone. But I wouldn’t worry about that because
因为那种辐射剂量和地球自然本底辐射相比 显得微不足道
that dose is insignificant compared to the natural background radiation of earth. I mean
因为电离辐射来自岩石土壤 空气 甚至
there’s ionizing radiation coming out of the soil in the rocks, in the air, and even
太空 悉尼这儿的辐射水平是每小时0.15微西弗茨
from space. The level of radiation here in Sydney is about .15 microsieverts per hour,
这大约是全球辐射平均水平 全球辐射水平一般是每小时0.1-0.2西弗茨之间
and that’s about average globally. The level’s usually between .1 and .2 microsieverts per
但是也有比这辐射水平更高的地方存在 因此
hour. But there are places with significantly higher levels. So who on earth do you think
你认为谁是地球上受到电离辐射剂量最大的人呢?为了找到这个问题的答案
receives the maximum dose of ionizing radiation? Let’s answer that question by going to the
我们先来了解地球上辐射最多的地方一些你觉得有辐射的地方
most radioactive places on earth. Some places you’d expect to have high levels of radiation
(日本广岛)辐射水平之高可能会让你大吃一惊 我现在
在广岛 那是和平穹顶 它上面600米高的地方
(HIROSHIMA JAPAN)might surprise you. I’m in Hiroshima and
that is the Peace Dome. It was about 600 meters
是世界上第一颗核弹在城市上空爆炸时的高度
above that dome where the worlds first nuclear bomb was detonated over a city. It was detonated
爆炸给那里带来了巨大的破坏性影响在过了70年后的今天 辐射水平
there to have maximum destructive impact. Well the level of radiation today almost 70
只有每小时0.3微西弗茨了(捷克共和国,Jachymov)我即将进入电梯
years later is only 0.3 microsieverts per hour.
(JACHYMOV,CZECH REPUBLIC)
I’m about to get into an elevator. We’re
我们下到井筒 这是一个古老的铀矿 这个矿就是
going down in a mineshaft. This is an old uranium mine. This is the mine where uranium
铀被发现的地方 这也是居里夫人获得她原材料的地方
was discovered. It’s also the place where Marie Curie obtained her raw material. 1.7
每小时有1.7微西弗茨的辐射 大约是你得到的天然放射量的10倍
microsieverts per hour. That’s about 10 times the natural background that you would have.
如今大多数的铀已被采走但在墙上仍然有小部分残留
Nowadays most of the uranium has been removed. But in this wall there’s still a small piece
你能在紫外线光的照射下看到荧光看啊 荧光的铀矿
and you can see under UV light it floresces. Look at that. Fluorescent uranium ore. This
(巴黎镭研究所)这是居里夫人的实验室 她赢得了两项
诺贝尔奖 一项诺贝尔物理学奖一项诺贝尔化学奖
is the lab of Marie Curie. She won two Nobel prizes, one in physics and one in chemistry.
她在这儿做了大量研究 这是她的办公室 她当年
And she conducted a lot of her work here. And this is her office. She would have sat
就坐在这儿 显然这里的少数地方仍然存在辐射
right there. Apparently there are only a few parts of this area which are still radioactive.
一个有辐射的地方是门把手 辐射不是很多 但
One is this doorknob. Well it climbs not not much but — But that’s like 10 times the
是天然本底辐射的10倍 没错 大于10了 另一个是她椅子的后背 你仍然能检测到
background. Yeah. More than 10. And another is the back of her chair. You can still detect
阿尔法粒子从这块地方释放出来显然她从实验室做完实验后
alpha particles coming off this spot right here. Apparently after she was working in
进到办公室 打开门 留下了镭的痕迹 然后走过去 拉出她的椅子
the lab she would come, oopen the door leaving traces of radium here and then go and pull
(新墨西哥州三位一体核试验场)欢迎来到新墨西哥州 这是三位一体核试验场
out her chair.(TRINITY SITE NEW MEXICO) Welcome to New Mexico. This
is the Trinity bomb test site where the world’s
世界上第一颗核弹就是在这个地方爆炸的 就在这儿 这个点 这整块地方都被汽化了

first nuclear bomb was set off. Right here. Right in the spot. This whole area was vaporized.
事实上 核弹爆炸释放了很多热量导致整个沙漠沙土和
In fact, there was so much heat liberated by that bomb that it fused all of the desert
绿色玻璃熔为一体 现在你仍然能从中找到它 事实上人们已经在实验后
sand into this green glass. And you can still find it here. They’ve actually named this
为这种沙土命了名 叫做玻璃石没错 这是地球上唯一一个
mineral after the test. It’s called Trinitite. Yeah. This is the only place on earth that
在核弹爆炸后产生玻璃石的地方这里的辐射水平是每小时0.8微西弗茨
this has ever been made. The level of radiation here is about 0.8 microsieverts an hour. The
玻璃石本身带有多一点儿的辐射我看到计数器显示玻璃石每小时会释放2或3
Trinitite itself is a little bit more radioactive. I got readings of two or three microsieverts
微西弗茨的辐射 目前哪里的辐射比我们见过的任何一个地方的辐射水平
an hour off them. Now which place has higher levels of radiation then anywhere we’ve seen
更高呢?答案是飞机当你到达一定高度 在你上方的大气会相应减少
so far? The answer is an airplane. You know, as you gain altitude there’s less atmosphere
以保护你免受宇宙射线的危害因此飞机内的辐射水平在18000英尺时
above you to shield you from cosmic rays. So the level of radiation inside the plane
会增至每小时0.5微西弗茨在23000英尺时增至每小时1微西弗茨
can go up to 0.5 microsieverts per hour at 18,000 feet, up to one microsievert per hour
在30000英尺时超过2微西弗茨每小时在更高的高度
at 23,000 feet, over two microsieverts per hour at 30,000 feet, and over three microsieverts
甚至达到极点超过3微西弗茨(乌克兰 切尔诺贝利)那是切尔诺贝利4号核反应堆
per hour at even higher altitudes and towards the poles. (CHERNOBYL UKRAINE)
That is Chernobyl nuclear reactor
它在1986年4月26日熔融核反应堆里释放出如此大的热量
number four. It melted down on April 26, 1986. So, what happened was so much heat was generated
以至于基本冲掉了反应堆的顶部 放射性核同位素
inside that reactor that it basically blew the top off spreading radioactive isotopes
在整个周边区域散得到处都是 然后飘进欧洲上空 这就是为何我们今天仍然
throughout this whole surrounding area and over into Europe. And that is why we can still
能在这里检测到核污染的原因现在盖革计数器读取到每小时5微西弗茨
detect the contamination here today. Now, right now it’s reading around five microsieverts
如果我待在这里一小时 我的身体会受到
an hour. If I stayed here for one hour my body would receive a similar dose to what
和你拍牙齿X线相似的辐射剂量所以这不是很大的辐射
you’d receive when you get a dental x-ray. So this is not a huge amount of radiation.
为什么辐射水平不太高的原因在于人们
And one of the reasons why the radiation level is not too high is because they actually removed
从这整块区域移除了几米厚的表层土 然后把它倒到某个地方去了
a couple meters worth of topsoil from this whole area, then they dumped it somewhere.
这就是为什么我们还能站在这儿的原因(日本福岛)我们现在驱车进入福岛禁区
That’s why we can stand here. (FUKUSHIMA JAPAN) We’re driving into the Fukushima exclusion zone now. I’m
我正在看我的盖革计数器上的辐射水平正随着我们接近该区而逐渐上升
just watching as the levels on my Geiger counter go up as we approach the zone. See those black
看到那些黑色袋子了吗?日本人现在正在做当年切尔诺贝利做过的事情
bags at the side of the road? The Japanese are doing now exactly what the people in Chernobyl
集中堆放好几米的表层土面罩似乎是过分之举 我这么做

did, collecting up meters and meters of topsoil. The mask is probably overkill. It’s just to
只是为了防止放射性灰尘吸入肺中这一定是我到过的最具放射性
stop radioactive dust from getting into my lungs. This is definitely one of the most
的地方之一了即使辐射物质的释放比切尔诺贝利少
radioactive places where I’ve been. Even though the release of radioactive material was less
只有10% 因为它发生时间离现在更近 –事故发生至今只有三年时间
than Chernobyl, only about 10%, because it’s much fresher—only three years since the
–核物质衰减得很少因此我看到盖革计数器上显示核辐射达到了每小时5
accident— much less of it has decayed. So I’ve been getting readings up around 5 to
到10微西弗茨 因此我想我们不会在这里停留太长时间
10 microsieverts an hour. And I think we won’t be staying here for too long because of that.
(乌克兰普利皮亚特医院)我即将进入普利皮亚特医院 当年消防人员灭掉
(PRIPYART HOSPITAL,UKRAINE)I’m about to go into the hospital at Pripyat.
And this is where the firemen were taken after
切尔诺贝利反应堆大火后被带至这里在这幢楼的地下室
they fought the fires at the Chernobyl reactor. And in the basement of this building they
他们留下了消防服 当他们意识到消防服被核污染后他们立即丢弃了它
have left all the firemen’s clothing. Once they realize it was so contaminated they chucked
(听不到说啥)但你能看见那里有一大堆他们的装置

it down there. (Inaudible) But you can see there’s a huge pile of their gear there. Right
就在门外我置身于每小时500微西弗茨的辐射之中
outside the door I’m getting 500 microsieverts an hour just outside the door. One thousand
屋内每小时1500微西弗茨如果我们呆在这里几个小时
five hundred microsieverts an hour. You know if we stayed here for a couple hours we’d
我们会受到一年的本底辐射量那个地下室是我去过的最具放射性的地方
receive our annual dose of background radiation. That basement was the most radioactive place
也是地球上最具放射性的地方之一如果我呆在那个地下室一小时
I visited and it’s one of the most radioactive places on earth. If I’d stayed down there
我会受到2000微西弗茨的辐射那是一整年的自然本底辐射量
for one hour I would’ve received 2000 microsieverts. That’s a years worth of natural background
这张图每个黄色的像素代表一个香蕉 现在可能看上去很多
radiation. Every yellow pixel here represents a banana. Now that might seem like a lot,
但是想想做一个CT病人会受到7000微西弗茨的辐射
but consider that in a CT scan the patient receives about 7000 microsieverts. That’s
那是三年自然本底辐射的剂量据估计 因为核事故 生活在
three years worth of natural backround radiation. It’s been estimated that the people living
福岛周边的人们在一生中会受到额外10000微西弗茨的核辐射
around Fukushima will receive an additional 10,000 microsieverts over their lifetime due
相比 美国核辐射工作人员只限于
to the nuclear power disaster. For comparison US radiation workers are limited to a maximum
每年最多5000微西弗茨的核辐射中但受到的辐射比另一个职业 — 宇航员少
of 50,000 microsieverts per year. But that’s less than another occupation. Astronaut. An
宇航员在太空站六个月会受到8000微西弗茨的辐射
astronaut on the space station for six months will receive about 80,000 microsieverts worth
但即使是他们 也并非暴露在电离辐射的最高水平
of radiation. But not even they are exposed to the highest levels of ionizing radiation.
你能猜到谁才是吗?答案是吸烟者的肺一个吸烟者的肺平均每年收到160000微西弗茨
So can you guess who is? The answer is a smoker’s lungs. A smoker’s lungs on average receive
的辐射 因为吸烟时产生的放射性钋
160,000 microsieverts worth of radiation every year. That’s due to the radioactive polonium
和烟草中的放射性铅所致 因此吸烟者不仅暴露在致癌物
and radioactive lead in the tobacco that they’re smoking. So not only are they exposed to carcinogens
和毒素中 他们也置身于高水平的辐射中 因此不是福岛的人们或者切尔诺贝利或核辐射工作人员
and toxins they also receive very high levels of radiation. So it’s not the people of Fukushima
甚至是宇航员受到最高电离辐射的剂量
or Chernobyl or radiation workers or even astronauts that receive the highest dosage
而是你们每一个普通的吸烟者 嘿 你
of ionizing radiation. That honor goes to your ordinary average smoker. Hey. As you
看到过去的几个月里我一直在环游世界 实际上
can see over the last few months I’ve been traveling around the world actually filming
是在为电视拍摄纪录片 纪录片会在明年中期播放 但是身处
a documentary for television. It should be on in the middle of next year. But being in
像切尔诺贝利和福岛的地方让我想起了这本书《三尖树时代》
places like Chernobyl and Fukushima reminded me of this book The Day of the Triffids and
讲的是世界末日植物接管世界的故事 我知道它
it’s about a post-apocalyptic world in which plants take over. I know it sounds like a
听起来很疯狂但实际上是一本很好的书所以如果你在假期里想找点儿事做的话
crazy idea but it’s actually a brilliant book so you should really check it out if you’re
可以看看这本书现在你可以在audible.com或Veritasium下载这本书
looking for something to do over the holidays. Now you can download this book for free by
或者你可以在上面选择其他任何书并且有免费一个月的试用期
going to audible.com/Veritasium or you can pick any other book of your choosing for a
Audible是一个非常好的有声读物网站 上面有超过150000个涉及各个文学作品领域的标题
one month free trial. Audible is a great audiobook website with over 150,000 titles in all areas
包括小说 非小说 还有期刊 所以我真心感谢
of literature including fiction, nonfiction, and periodicals. So I really want to thank
Audible的支持 还有感谢你们的收看
audible for supporting me and I want to thank you for watching.

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https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TRL7o2kPqw0

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