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记住你学过的东西的最有效的方式 – 译学馆
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记住你学过的东西的最有效的方式

The Most Powerful Way to Remember What You Study

嗨 大家好
Hey, what is going on, guys?
我想大家应该都觉得 学习实在花了太多时间了
So I think we can all agree that studying takes far, far too much time
我想在这个视频里给大家介绍一下 如何去更多地记住你所学的东西
so what I wanna do in this video is show you guys how you can remember more of what you learn
即使你花了更短的时间去学习
even if you’re spending fewer actual hours studying,
这个方法就是 间隔学习的时间
and the way to do that is by spacing out that study time.
这种技巧被称为间隔重复
This is a technique called spaced repetition
具体的操作就是逐渐增加你每次学习之间的间隔时间的长度
and to do it you add progressively longer and longer time intervals in between each of your study sessions.
在这个视频里 我会给你们展示到底怎么做
So in this video I wanna show you exactly how you can do that,
既使用抽记卡 也使用手机和电脑里的软件
both with your paper flash cards and with apps both for smartphones and computers.
但首先我想先讲一下 为什么这个技巧这么有用
But first I wanted to get into why this technique is so powerful
然后也讲一讲这个技巧背后的历史
and also talk to you a little bit about the history behind it
以及它通常是怎么和我们的记忆联系起来的
and how it relates to our memories in general.
间隔重复利用了一种被称为间隔效应的记忆现象
Spaced repetition leverages a memory phenomenon known as the spacing effect,
这种现象描述了我们的大脑如何更好地把事物联系起来
which describes how our brains make better connections
总体上更有效地记忆事情
and overall remember things more effectively
当我们把用于学习的时间分割开来
when we space out our learning over time.
我最讨厌带到咖啡馆去的这本书的作者 皮尔斯·J·霍华德
Here’s how Pierce J. Howard, the author of my least favorite book to haul into coffee shops,
说道:“涉及到高级脑力活动的工作
puts it: “Work involving higher mental functions,
例如分析和综合 需要按序分隔
“such as analysis and synthesis, needs to be spaced out in order
以便新的神经联系的加强
to allow new neural connections to solidify.
当受到时间不足的干扰时 新学的知识会把旧知识挤掉
New learning drives out old learning when insufficient time intervenes.
我们很久前就已经了解到这个效果
And we’ve actually known about this effect for quite a long time.
早在19世纪晚期 一个名叫赫尔曼·艾宾浩斯的心理学家
Back in the late-1800s a psychologist named Hermann Ebbinghaus
基本上奠定了记忆科学的基础
basically launched the field of memory science itself
通过开始实行让自己记住非常长的随机音节
by embarking upon an intense study where he made himself memorize
这一高强度的研究
long, long lists of nonsense syllables.
通过研究 他最终
And through that research he eventually came
发现了“遗忘曲线”
to develop what’s called The Forgetting Curve,
这个曲线描绘了记忆随着时间流逝而衰退
which describes how memories decay over time.
他同时了解到 通过分隔他花费于记忆这些列表的精力
But what he also learned was that by spacing out his efforts to memorize these lists.
他能减少学习的时间 却能完美地记住知识
he could put in less actual study time to get them memorized perfectly.
比如 要记住一个列表上的12个音节
For example, for one list of 12 syllables he found
他发现第一天内要重复68次
out it took him 68 repetitions on one day and then
第二天重复7次 就能完美地记住
seven repetitions the next day to memorize it perfectly,
但是把记忆的时间延长到三天
but by spacing out his studying over the course of three days he found
他发现他可以仅重复38次就把它们完美地记住
he could achieve his same level of perfection in only 38 repetitions.
从130年前 艾宾浩斯的发现出版以来
Over the past 130 years since he published his findings,
很多其他的研究重复发现这个相同的结论
lots of other studies have been able to replicate this same positive results,
这就带来了一个问题 为什么间隔效应会起作用呢?
which leads us to the question, “Why does the spacing effect work?”
简而言之 学习过程中最重要的一步
Well to put it in simple terms, it turns out that one of the most important parts of learning process
其实就是遗忘
is actually forgetting.
我以后会发另一个视频 关于到底什么是遗忘
Now what forgetting truly is is a subject for another video
但在这里最重要的需要记下来的一点是
that I’ll publish in the future, but the most important thing to note here is that
从我们学到一个东西开始 我们对其遗忘得越多
the more we’ve forgotten something, that is the harder we have
我们就需要花更大的努力去恢复这个记忆
to work to retrieve it since we last learned it or studied it,
我们学到的也就越多
the greater the increase in learning will be
为了更清楚地说明这一点 《如何学习》的作者本尼迪特·凯里
To make this a bit more clear, here’s how the author Benedict Carey, who wrote the book “How We Learn,”
解释道:“当我们回顾材料的时候 必须发生一些问题
explains it: “Some amount of breakdown must occur for us
促使我们去强化学习
to strengthen learning when we revisit the material.
没有遗忘 你学得再多也不能从中受益
Without a little forgetting, you get no benefit from further study.
遗忘像是一种经过锻炼的肌肉 使学习得以建立
It is what allows learning to build, like an exercised muscle.
这就是凯里把间隔重复称为记住你在他书中学到的东西的
And that’s the main reason why Carey calls spaced repetition one of the most powerful methods
最有效的方法之一的主要原因
for remembering what you’ve learned in his book.
我想补充的是你可以搭配基本上任何其他的学习方法来使用间隔重复法
And I would add to that the fact that you can do this with basically any other learning technique.
这些方法可以互相补充 因为
It’s entirely complementary because it’s all about
间隔重复只是更改了你对学习时间周期的分配
just modifying the time periods in which you study.
你可以在间隔时期做任何事情
You can do anything within those time periods,
你需要尽量明智地使用这些间隔时期
you’re just using the time periods as intelligently as possible.
说完了这些 接下来我想讲
With that being said, now I wanna get into how you
怎么把间隔重复投入实践并结合你自己的学习体系
can put spaced repetition into action and implement it into your own study systems.
我们将提到一些应用程序和电脑软件
And we’re gonna talk about apps and computer programs
你可以马上用到它们 不过我想先
that you can use in a minute here but first I want
讲一讲你可以用抽记卡做的一个系统
to talk about a system that you can use with your paper flash cards,
这被称为莱特内尔系统
which is called the Leitner System
我来教你们怎么做 第一步是决定在系统里
and here’s how it works. The first step is to decide on the number of boxes
要用多少箱子来装你的卡片
that you’re gonna use to hold the cards in your system.
我现在手上没有箱子 我就
Now I don’t actually own little boxes so I’ve just
用橡皮筋和写着“箱子”的便利贴来替代
substituted rubber bands and sticky notes that say “Box”
这也是能起作用的
but that actually works just as well
而且让这个方法更轻便了
and actually makes the system more portable,
所以这还挺酷的 然后这一个个的箱子
so that’s pretty cool, and from there each individual box
代表着不同的学习时间间隔
is going to represent a different study time interval.
箱子1里的卡片要每天学习 箱子2里面的卡片
So Box 1 might be studying every day, Box 2 might
可能隔天学习 以此类推
be studied every other day, and so on.
当你学习箱子里面的卡片时
And when you’re studying the cards in the boxes,
每次你学会了一张卡片 你就把它放到下一个盒子里
every time you get a card right it’s gonna graduate to the next box,
你看到这个卡片的次数就会越来越少
so you’re gonna see it less and less often.
但是如果你忘记了一张卡片的内容 你需要直接把它放回第一个盒子里
But if you get a card wrong, it’s gonna go all the way to box number 1,
不管它原来属于哪个盒子
no matter where it was.
通过这个方法 你可以获得两个主要的益处
And by using this system you get two main benefits.
第一 你在最大化地利用间隔效应
Number one, you’re maximizing your learning through the spacing effect,
第二 你的学习更有效率了
but number two, you’re also studying more efficiently
因为你把更多的时间花在需要注意的卡片上
because you’re spending more time on the cards that need the most attention
花更少的时间在你已经熟悉的卡片上
and less time on the ones you know really well
而不是在每张卡上花费相同的时间
rather than studying every single card equally.
这个卡片系统对于达成以上两个目标都是非常有效的
Now this paper system works really well for both of those goals
但是如果你想最大限度地利用调度算法
but if you wanna take advantage of more advanced scheduling algorithms
或者其他的特性 你需要找一个
and other features, you’re gonna need to find yourself
间隔重复法的应用程序 在这个领域有很多竞争者
a space repetition app and there are a lot
不过我想先集中介绍
of contenders in this area but I wanna focus
当下最受欢迎的一个程序
first on what is probably the most popular one
名叫 Anki
right now and that is called Anki.
Anki有一个很大的社群 它极其地自定义化
Anki has a huge community, it’s insanely customizable,
最棒的是 几乎在所有平台上都有这个软件
and best of all, it has apps for almost every
而且几乎全都是免费的
platform out there and almost all of them are free
除了iPhone上的这个应用程序
with the exception of the iPhone app, which oddly
它居然要价25美元
costs a whopping $25.
我认为它的价格这么高是因为
Now I think the price is that high because it’s their
它希望人们能支持这个应用程序
way of basically letting people support the app since
毕竟它在其它平台上都是免费的 但如果你的手机是iPhone
it’s free everywhere else but if you’re on an iPhone
而且你不想花那么多钱 别担心
and you don’t wanna pay that much, fear not because
Anki有一个姊妹网页应用叫做AnkiWeb
Anki also has a companion web app called AnkiWeb,
它可以用手机Safari打开
which is accessible from mobile Safari.
所以你可以免费使用它
So you can use that free if you want.
通过Anki 你可以很轻易地
Now with Anki, creating cards is really, really
制作卡片 并且我很喜欢它的一点是
easy and I really like the fact that you can add
它几乎可以添加任何媒体形式的内容到卡片上
basically any kind of media you want to your cards,
包括照片 这很棒 因为
including pictures, which is awesome because adding
往抽记卡上添加图片的确可与增加记忆的留存度
pictures to your flash cards can really help increase retention.
然而 Anki有一个最棒的特性就是
However, the killer feature of Anki is the ability
你可以在学习的同时给卡片的难度估分
to rate cards based on difficulty when you’re studying them.
所以本质上 当你把一张卡翻过去的时候
So essentially, when you turn a card over, you can
你可以告诉程序 把它从你的记忆深处挖掘出来
tell the program how hard it was for you to dredge
到底有多难
the answer up from the depths of your memory
然后程序会使用这个数据来决定
and it will use that data to decide how long it’s
你应该隔多久再看到这张卡片
gonna be before you see that card again.
这是间隔重复软件相对于抽记卡
And that’s really the main strength of space
最主要的优势所在
repetition apps versus a paper system.
通过算法 每一张卡片可以被跟踪
Each individual card can be tracked, can have
可以被评估和调整
a difficulty rating, and can be adjusted
你就可以从中获得
in the algorithm so you’re getting the most
间隔效应最大化的好处
benefit of the spacing effect.
Anki绝不是唯一一个间隔重复软件
Anki is definitely not the only space repetition
所以如果你在寻找替代品
app out there, though, so if you’re looking for
我这里有一些候选项
alternatives, I’ve got a few things in mind
可以提供给你 第一个是一个
for you to take a look at, number one being an app
叫做TinyCards(小小卡片)的软件 我在之前关于
called TinyCards, which I showed off in my previous
怎么做抽记卡的视频里展示过
video on how to make better flash cards.
TinyCards现在只能在iPhone上用
Now TinyCards is only for the iPhone, unfortunately,
但马上应该会推出安卓版
but there should be an Android version coming soon,
说实话 我觉得它比起Anki
and honestly, when compared to Anki I think it’s
要简单很多 也好看很多 而且
a lot more simple, a lot prettier, and the process
制作卡片的流程更快 更有趣
of making cards is more fun and faster because
因为他们有一个很好的添加图片到卡片上的系统
they have an excellent system for adding images to your cards.
除了TinyCards 还有其它的应用程序
Aside from TinyCards there are also apps like
例如Flashcards Deluxe Memrise SuperMemo Mnemosyne
Flashcards Deluxe, Memrise, SuperMemo, Mnemosyne,
Eidetic Quizlet已及很多其它的
Eidetic, Quizlet, and probably a bunch of others
我都不知道的软件
that I don’t even know about right now but I’m
但是你可以通过在下面评论来告诉我
sure you will let me know about down in the Comments.
在结束这个视频之前 我还想再
So before I wrap this video up I have a couple
提一些东西 第一个就是
more things I wanna mention, number one being
我给这个视频写的脚本
the script I wrote for this video is actually
有半篇我写的博客文章那么长
about half the length of the blog post I wrote
如果你想要知道更多的详情
so if you want a lot more detail, especially
尤其是关于记忆和间隔以及
pertaining to the memory bits and how the spacing
效应的工作原理 你可以点击
effect works, you can click the blog post link
下面描述栏里的博客文章链接或者
in the description down below or on the card
此刻屏幕上的卡片 你可以读到自己满意为止
on screen right now and read to your heart’s content.
我还要激动地告诉大家
Also, and I have been really excited to announce
过了这么久了
this for quite a long time now, there’s now
DFTBA.com终于出了官方的大学情报极客T恤
an official College Info Geek t-shirt on DFTBA.com
我对此真的超级兴奋
and I’m super, super stoked about this.
我已经订购了我的T恤
I’ve already ordered mine and there’s gonna be
下方详情栏里面会有购买链接和卡片
a link down in the description, also a card so
如果你也想要一件属于你自己的T恤
if you would like to get your very own shirt,
虽然它不一定能赋予你超能力
which may or may not grant superpowers, you can
但你可以点击任意链接订购一件
click either of those links and order one.
关于这些T恤的设计 很酷的一点是
Now one cool thing about these shirts’ design
它是真的由大学情报极客社团创造出来的
is it was actually created by the College Info Geek community.
我的好朋友阿什利设计了手写字体
My good friend Ashley did the hand-lettered design
但是T恤上面的标语
itself but the mantra or saying on the shirt was
是由Reddit新闻网上面的
actually decided upon by people in the College Info
大学情报极客社团的成员们决定的
Geek community over on Reddit, which I think is
我觉得这真的很酷 并且我也想继续
really, really cool, and I would love to continue
做关于社团的这个方面的内容
to play up this community aspect so if you get
如果你们买了一件T恤 我很乐意看到你们在推特上
a shirt I would love to see you tweeting awesome
发你们穿着它们拍的有趣的照片
pictures of you wearing it to send to me over
你们可以@我通过“@TomFankly” 我有可能会转推它们哟
on @TomFrankly and I will probably retweet them.
你们乐意的话也可以发到Reddit网站上
You can also put them in the Reddit as well if
除此之外 这就是今天
you like and other than that, that’s all I have
视频全部的内容了 非常感谢你们的收看
for this video, guys, so thanks so much for watching.
如果你们觉得这视频很有用 记得点个赞
And if you found it useful, give it a Like
支持一下我的频道 如果你想要每星期收看关于
to support this channel and you can also Subscribe
怎么变成一个更棒的学生的视频的话
with that button right down there if you wanna
你可以点击下面那个按钮来订阅我的频道
get new videos on being a more effective student every single week.
你可以点击那里的书的图片 来获得
You can also get a copy of my book on earning
我的一本关于提高学习成绩的书的副本
better grades by going to the picture of the book
点击你的鼠标按键
right there and clicking your mouse button.
你可以在那里找到之前的
You can find the previous video right over there
关于怎么有效使用抽记卡的视频
which was about how to use flash cards more
如果你想要找更多
effectively and if you wanna find that awesome
比这个视频详细的文章
article which is way more detailed than this
点击那里的阅读全文
video was, go to the Full Article thing right there.
如果你想要联系我
If you’d like to connect with me you can use
你可以点击下面社交媒体的链接
the social media links down below but there’s
说不定你可以通过朝海螺里大喊
also a non-zero probability that you can connect
来联系到我
with me by yelling into a conch shell,
你也可以试一试啊
so maybe give that a try too.

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视频概述

如何花更短的时间记住更多的东西?通过这个视频你就能知道!

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收集自网络

翻译译者

墨桪

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vicky

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eVajQPuRmk8

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