If you have pets like cats or dogs,
then you may have seen how they give birth.
There’s nothing particularly surprising about this.
Mammals are quite simple creatures.
But not all living things are born in the same way.
Moreover, some of the creatures on our planet breed so strangely
that it might blow your mind.
And today, you will see this with your own eyes.
Let’s get it on.
Suriname Sea Toads.
Attention. If you suffer from trypophobia,
that is you are afraid of clusters of holes,
then you’d better not see too closely to this screen.
What is that?
Suriname Sea Toad is a species of amphibians
of the pipidae family that lives in South America.
This toad looks just like a frog
but a very flat one, as if it were steam rolled.
The body has a protective color in the form of spots.
The four limbs of the toad have no membranes
because they are designed for digging holes and silt.
Suriname sea toads eat everything they find on the bottom
including worms, mollusks, and organic remains.
包括蠕虫 软体动物 以及生物体残骸
But the most interesting thing about this creature is not its diet,
but the way it reproduces.
Before the process, the female and the male perform a mating dance.
Then the female spawns eggs directly into the water
where the fertilization process takes place.
Then the female dives down and catches the eggs,
之后 雌性蟾蜍下潜 然后把这些受精卵
which get embedded on her back.
There the offspring is developing.
However, if a female hatches eggs for the first time,
she does not have any holes yet.
The male has to help her.
He presses her hind legs against her back
and make a seperate honeycomb for each egg.
Then the female has to wait until the embryos are formed.
Eggs on her back are enveloped with a special secretion
which protects them from external damage.
When the time comes,
fully developed small toads appear from their mother’s back,
ready for an independent life.
After their birth,
the mother slowly sheds the thin layer of skin used to carry them,
and can start the cycle again.
Centipedes are called the absolute worst kind of insects.
And for a good reason.
They are not the most pleasant creatures.
In addition, some of the species are also poisonous.
Scientists know eight thousand species of various centipedes live in different parts of the world.
living in different parts of the world.
Scrip writers use the image of a cebtipede
to make their scripts more creepy.
But their looks are nothing compared to their breeding process.
Anyone who sees that with their own eyes can easily be horrified and run away.
There is a centipede species that does not require males for breeding.
Yes, nature can do this sort of thing.
The female guards the laid eggs and a hole for several weeks,
clasping them with their feet.
At this point, it releases special substances that inhibit the development of mole.
Finally white and soft larvae emerge.
A real clump of disgusting feet and antenna.
After shedding skin several times,
young centipedes darken and start crawling around. Ugh.
小蜈蚣颜色变深 开始到处爬行 呃…
Many people know that the kangaroo is a marsupial from the family macropodidae.
There are about 69 species of kangaroos in the world.
They live in Australia, New Guinea and the nearby islands.
它们生活在澳大利亚 新几内亚 以及附近的岛屿上
Also everyone know that kangaroo females have a special pouch where they carry their cubs.
But not everyone knows that a kangaroo has a very short of pregnancy term.
A baby is born about a month after conception.
However, this is not a grown animal ready for life in the outside world.
然而 此时的袋鼠宝宝还不是个发育完全 能够应对外面的世界的动物
The size of a new-born kangaroo is only a couple of centimeters.
And it weighs about a gram.
In this embryonic state, the cub makes its way into the pouch,
and a tiny kangaroo does not yet have hind legs,
so he has to use the front ones.
Moreover, the mother does not help him.
She only licks the path to the pouch,
for the cub immediately starts sucking on the nipple.
Well, he doesn’t actually suck it,
because he is not yet able to. He is too small
Milk is secreted into his mouth with the help of a special muscle.
Another particular thing about the kangaroo
is that it has four nipples in his pouch.
And each of them secretes a different kind of milk.
So, kangaroos have four times of milk depending on the age of the cub.
因此 根据幼崽的年龄 袋鼠会分泌四种不同的乳汁
Sometimes a female has two cubs of different ages at once,
and both are still in the pouch.
In this case, two kinds of milks are secreted.
In about 190 days, the cub becomes large and strong enough
大约190天后 幼崽变得足够大 足够强壮
to climb out of the pouch.
At first, he only sticks his head out.
And this can continue for several weeks,
until the cub feels safe enough to get out.
He then starts spending more and more time in the outside world.
In about 235 days, he lives in the pouch for the last time.
Perhaps seahorses are one of the most unusual fish.
Actually, they do not look like fish,
rather like some kind of alien creature,
where else would you see something like that.
But the most particular thing about them is their breeding.
Because It is the males who carry eggs.
This happens after a long and thorough courtship
in course of which seahorses go through several phases.
In the end, when all the mating dances are over,
the female passes the egg to the male.
He has a special pouch on his belly
where he lays eggs and fertilizes them.
The intersurface of the pouch thickens which helps protect the offspring.
the male seahorse lives on a certain area about one square meter in size,
and does not travel beyond its borders.
The offspring remains in the pouch for two to four weeks,
and then newborn seahorses are released into the water.
The number of baby seahorses released by the male seahorse
is on average 100 to 1000 for most species.
Oh my god!
And this is not surprising.
Because the cubs are tiny,
they can easily be eaten by a predator,
or washed away by ocean currents.
Therefore, in order to survive seahorses deliver many babies.
因此 为了生存 海马会生很多宝宝
Less than 0.5％ of them survive to the adulthood.
However, like almost all of the types of fish,
seahorses do not care about their cubs after birth.
So the offspring have to fight for life on their own.
Although all sea urchins look exactly the same,
they belong to dioecious organisms,
meaning that it has distinct male and female individual organisms.
Sea urchins are quite fertile.
For example, a female sea urchin produces about 20 million eggs
during one breeding season.
Imagine if your dog has these many puppies.
Oh, they are adorable.
Sea urchins can breed all year around,
but most often they do it before the warm season.
They will release something like a cloud
but contains future offspring — male and female eggs.
Of course, other marine creatures immediately try to eat them.
But still many eggs survive and find each other in the ocean.
In a few hours,
they turn into microscopic balls covered with tiny hair,
它们变成一个小圆球 表面覆盖着极小的鞭毛 用显微镜才看得见
which moves the balls in all directions.
Soon they change stretch produce a thin calcareous skeleton
and form something like a tiny lunar lander.
It can drift for months feeding on algae along the way.
And all this time a microscopic sea urchin will grow inside.
In the end, it grows up enough to land in a suitable place.
Attach itself and start a real adult life.
Fans of Ronald Weasley, please get away from the screen.
Ronald Weasley的粉丝 请远离屏幕
Now we will talk about slugs.
Better out than in.
Slugs have both male and female reproductive organs,
that is they are hermaphrodites.
Usually a slug follows the mocus of another slug,
and can even eat that mucus.
Then the slugs find each other and begin the circle together.
In a few days after fertilization,
the slug lays about 30 translucent eggs in a hole on the ground,
or another similar place.
For example, between the stone walls or under a fallen log.
The development of offspring inside the eggs takes from 3 to 5 weeks, depending on the species.
In the end, completely formed tiny slugs hatch from the eggs.
And perhaps looking at them,
even people who are disgusted by slugs can be touched
because they are so small and cute.
Nevertheless, slugs grow very quickly,
and they are ready to reproduce in two months.
All the bees in the hive,
workers, drones and the queen bee,
无论是工蜂 雄蜂 还是蜂后
emerge from eggs laid by the queen bee.
There is only one queen bee for the whole family,
and her death often means the death of the entire hive.
The queen bee mates once in a lifetime.
Its main task is to lay eggs.
The rest of the work is done by working bees in the hive.
One can say that all the bees in the hive
are sisters and brothers on the maternal side.
But at the same time, they can have different fathers.
The fact is that the queen bee usually mates with several tens of drones,
and uses the genetic meterial of them all at once.
Despite the difference in breeding,
the birth process is the same for all bee species.
Each bee goes through three stages:
egg, larva and pupae.
分别是：卵 幼虫 蛹
The queen bee glues an egg to the bottom of a special comb.
In three days,
the bee puts some milk in the comb to feed the larva.
Aside from its main purpose, milk weakens the egg shell,
and the larva emerges from it.
The larva grows very quickly.
In three days, its body mass increases by 250 times.
Then the bees seal the comb with wax,
and the next stage begins – turning into a chrysalis.
The bee larva remains in a sealed form for 12 days.
And then it crawls outside as an adult insect.
African cichlids are fish from the family cichlids
that live in Great African Lakes.
They have many different features.
But cichlids are especially interesting,
as they carry their eggs in their mouths.
And it is much more convenient than it seems at first glance.
On the one hand, of course, it can not put many eggs in its mouth.
On the other hand, when the offspring of the fish is in its mouth,
it is much easier to save it from predators,
in any dangerous situation.
Cichlids can simply swim away from danger.
By the way, sometimes they hold in their mouths not only eggs,
but also young offspring.
This way cichlids can breed fewer children
with a higher chance of survival.
One should say that this method of bearing offspring is characteristic
of several species of fish and amphibians.
But for some reason,
cichlids are ones that are most often mentioned in this regard.
I will pick you up back to school.
That’s all for today.
See you soon.