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谈谈动物世界里那些不可思议的生殖方式

The Most Incredible Births in the Animal World

Hi, everyone!
大家好
If you have pets like cats or dogs,
如果你养了宠物 比如猫或狗
then you may have seen how they give birth.
那你可能见过它们生宝宝的场面
There’s nothing particularly surprising about this.
其实也没什么特别让人惊奇的地方
Mammals are quite simple creatures.
毕竟哺乳动物都是很简单的生物
But not all living things are born in the same way.
但是 不是所有生物都有一样的出生方式
Moreover, some of the creatures on our planet breed so strangely
更有甚者 我们星球上一些生物的繁殖方式如此奇特
that it might blow your mind.
简直会让你大开眼界
And today, you will see this with your own eyes.
那么 今天就让你们亲眼看看
Let’s get it on.
我们开始吧
Suriname Sea Toads.
苏里南海蟾蜍
Attention. If you suffer from trypophobia,
请注意! 如果你有密集恐惧症
that is you are afraid of clusters of holes,
也就是说你害怕密密麻麻的孔洞
then you’d better not see too closely to this screen.
那么你最好离屏幕远点
What is that?
这是个啥?
Suriname Sea Toad is a species of amphibians
苏里南海蟾蜍是一种生活在南美洲
of the pipidae family that lives in South America.
负子蟾科的两栖动物
This toad looks just like a frog
这种蟾蜍看起来像青蛙
but a very flat one, as if it were steam rolled.
但是体型很扁 像是被压路机压过似的
The body has a protective color in the form of spots.
它们的身体上覆盖着疙疙瘩瘩组成的保护色
The four limbs of the toad have no membranes
它们的四肢没有保护膜
because they are designed for digging holes and silt.
因为它们得用四肢挖洞和淤泥
Suriname sea toads eat everything they find on the bottom
苏里南海蟾蜍以它们能在水底发现的任何东西为食
including worms, mollusks, and organic remains.
包括蠕虫 软体动物 以及生物体残骸
But the most interesting thing about this creature is not its diet,
但是关于这种生物最有趣的不是它的饮食
but the way it reproduces.
而是它的繁殖方式
Before the process, the female and the male perform a mating dance.
在整个过程之前 雌性蟾蜍和雄性蟾蜍先进行求偶的舞蹈
Then the female spawns eggs directly into the water
然后雌性蟾蜍把卵子直接排到水中
where the fertilization process takes place.
准备在水中进行受精
Then the female dives down and catches the eggs,
之后 雌性蟾蜍下潜 然后把这些受精卵
which get embedded on her back.
嵌入它后背的孔洞里
There the offspring is developing.
然后就在这些孔洞里孕育新生命
However, if a female hatches eggs for the first time,
然而 在雌性蟾蜍第一次孵化受精卵时
she does not have any holes yet.
她的后背上并没有孔洞
The male has to help her.
所以雄性蟾蜍要帮助她
He presses her hind legs against her back
用后腿压着雌性蟾蜍的后背
and make a seperate honeycomb for each egg.
然后为每个受精卵做一个像蜂巢一样的单独的孔洞
Then the female has to wait until the embryos are formed.
接着 雌性蟾蜍要一直等到胚胎形成
Eggs on her back are enveloped with a special secretion
一种特殊的分泌物把后背的孔封住
which protects them from external damage.
以保护受精卵免遭外界的伤害
When the time comes,
孕周期结束后
fully developed small toads appear from their mother’s back,
发育完全的小蟾蜍就会从它们母亲的后背上出现
ready for an independent life.
准备好去独立生活
After their birth,
在它们出生之后
the mother slowly sheds the thin layer of skin used to carry them,
蟾蜍妈妈会慢慢地褪掉包裹它们的那层皮肤
and can start the cycle again.
然后可以开始新一轮的生育过程
Centipede.
蜈蚣
Centipedes are called the absolute worst kind of insects.
蜈蚣被称为最恶心的一种昆虫
And for a good reason.
至于理由嘛
They are not the most pleasant creatures.
它们的确不是最让人赏心悦目的生物
In addition, some of the species are also poisonous.
此外 还有一些种类的蜈蚣有毒
Scientists know eight thousand species of various centipedes live in different parts of the world.
科学家们已知有8000多种蜈蚣
living in different parts of the world.
生活在世界上不同的地方
Scrip writers use the image of a cebtipede
剧作家们采用蜈蚣的形象
to make their scripts more creepy.
让他们的剧作更加毛骨悚然
But their looks are nothing compared to their breeding process.
然而 蜈蚣的外形跟它们的繁殖过程比起来简直不值一提
Anyone who sees that with their own eyes can easily be horrified and run away.
目睹它们繁殖过程的人会很容易被吓跑
There is a centipede species that does not require males for breeding.
有一种蜈蚣不需要雄性就可以繁殖
Yes, nature can do this sort of thing.
对 大自然就是这么神奇
The female guards the laid eggs and a hole for several weeks,
雌性蜈蚣用脚抱紧她们产的卵
clasping them with their feet.
守卫着它们和洞穴长达数周
At this point, it releases special substances that inhibit the development of mole.
在这个阶段 她会释放一种能够阻止细菌滋生的物质
Finally white and soft larvae emerge.
最终 白色的软软的幼虫出现了
A real clump of disgusting feet and antenna.
一簇簇令人恶心的脚和触角
After shedding skin several times,
在褪过几次皮之后
young centipedes darken and start crawling around. Ugh.
小蜈蚣颜色变深 开始到处爬行 呃…
Kangaroo.
袋鼠
Many people know that the kangaroo is a marsupial from the family macropodidae.
很多人都知道袋鼠是袋鼠科的有袋动物
There are about 69 species of kangaroos in the world.
世界上大约有69种袋鼠
They live in Australia, New Guinea and the nearby islands.
它们生活在澳大利亚 新几内亚 以及附近的岛屿上
Also everyone know that kangaroo females have a special pouch where they carry their cubs.
并且大家也知道雌性袋鼠都有一个用来装幼崽的特殊的育儿袋
But not everyone knows that a kangaroo has a very short of pregnancy term.
但是 不是所有人都知道袋鼠的怀孕周期非常短
A baby is born about a month after conception.
怀孕大约一个月后袋鼠宝宝就出生了
However, this is not a grown animal ready for life in the outside world.
然而 此时的袋鼠宝宝还不是个发育完全 能够应对外面的世界的动物
The size of a new-born kangaroo is only a couple of centimeters.
新生的袋鼠宝宝只有几厘米长
And it weighs about a gram.
体重大概只有一克
In this embryonic state, the cub makes its way into the pouch,
还处于胚胎的状态 这时的幼崽需要进入育儿袋
and a tiny kangaroo does not yet have hind legs,
小袋鼠甚至还没有长出后腿
so he has to use the front ones.
因此 它只能利用前腿
Moreover, the mother does not help him.
而且 袋鼠妈妈也不帮助它
She only licks the path to the pouch,
她只是舔舔通往育儿袋的必经之路
for the cub immediately starts sucking on the nipple.
因为幼崽马上就开始吮吸袋鼠妈妈的乳头
Well, he doesn’t actually suck it,
事实上 它也不是真地吮吸乳头
because he is not yet able to. He is too small
因为它还没有吮吸的能力 它实在是太小了
Milk is secreted into his mouth with the help of a special muscle.
母乳会通过一种特别的肌肉的帮助 分泌到它嘴里
Another particular thing about the kangaroo
袋鼠还有另一个特别之处
is that it has four nipples in his pouch.
它的育儿袋里有四个乳头
And each of them secretes a different kind of milk.
并且每个乳头分泌不同的乳汁
So, kangaroos have four times of milk depending on the age of the cub.
因此 根据幼崽的年龄 袋鼠会分泌四种不同的乳汁
Sometimes a female has two cubs of different ages at once,
有时候 一只雌性袋鼠的育儿袋里同时有
and both are still in the pouch.
两个不同年龄段的幼崽
In this case, two kinds of milks are secreted.
这样的情况下 袋鼠妈妈会分泌两种乳汁
In about 190 days, the cub becomes large and strong enough
大约190天后 幼崽变得足够大 足够强壮
to climb out of the pouch.
能够爬出育儿袋
At first, he only sticks his head out.
一开始 它只是探出头
And this can continue for several weeks,
这种情形会持续数周
until the cub feels safe enough to get out.
直到幼崽感觉育儿袋外面足够安全 可以出去了
He then starts spending more and more time in the outside world.
它开始在外面的世界度过越来越多的时光
And eventually-
最终
In about 235 days, he lives in the pouch for the last time.
在大约235天后 它彻底离开育儿袋
Seahorses.
海马
Perhaps seahorses are one of the most unusual fish.
也许海马是最不同寻常的鱼类之一
Actually, they do not look like fish,
实际上 它们一点也不像鱼
rather like some kind of alien creature,
反而更像某种外星生物
where else would you see something like that.
你在别的地方还能见到那样的生物吗?
But the most particular thing about them is their breeding.
但它们最特别的一点莫过于它们的繁殖方式
Because It is the males who carry eggs.
因为海马雄性负责怀孕
This happens after a long and thorough courtship
这一切发生在漫长完整的求偶过程之后
in course of which seahorses go through several phases.
而求偶的过程会经历几个阶段
In the end, when all the mating dances are over,
最终 当所有的交配舞蹈结束后
the female passes the egg to the male.
雌性海马把卵子传给雄性海马
He has a special pouch on his belly
他的肚子上有一个特别的育儿袋
where he lays eggs and fertilizes them.
他把卵子放在育儿袋里 然后授精
The intersurface of the pouch thickens which helps protect the offspring.
海马育儿袋的内壁会变厚 有助于保护它的后代
During pregnancy,
在怀孕期间
the male seahorse lives on a certain area about one square meter in size,
雄性海马生活在大约一平方米的某个范围内
and does not travel beyond its borders.
并且不会远离这个范围的边界
The offspring remains in the pouch for two to four weeks,
海马的幼崽待在育儿袋里两到四周
and then newborn seahorses are released into the water.
接着新生的海马就被释放到海水里
The number of baby seahorses released by the male seahorse
对大多数种类的海马来说 被雄性释放到海水里的宝宝的数量
is on average 100 to 1000 for most species.
通常有100到1000只
Oh my god!
我的天呐!
And this is not surprising.
而这一点也不让人惊讶
Because the cubs are tiny,
因为海马幼崽实在太小
they can easily be eaten by a predator,
它们很容易被捕食者吃掉
or washed away by ocean currents.
或者被洋流冲走
Therefore, in order to survive seahorses deliver many babies.
因此 为了生存 海马会生很多宝宝
Less than 0.5% of them survive to the adulthood.
但只有不到0.5%的海马宝宝能活到成年
However, like almost all of the types of fish,
尽管如此 像大多数鱼类一样
seahorses do not care about their cubs after birth.
海马在生完孩子之后就不再照顾它们的幼崽
So the offspring have to fight for life on their own.
因此它们的幼崽不得不自力更生
Sea urchins.
海胆
Although all sea urchins look exactly the same,
尽管所有的海胆看起来都一个样
they belong to dioecious organisms,
但是它们属于雌雄异体生物
meaning that it has distinct male and female individual organisms.
这就意味着它们有着明显的雌性和雄性的个体
Sea urchins are quite fertile.
海胆非常多产
For example, a female sea urchin produces about 20 million eggs
例如 一只雌性海胆在一个繁殖季节内
during one breeding season.
会产大约2千万个卵
Imagine if your dog has these many puppies.
想象一下你的狗狗一下子生出这么多的狗宝宝
Oh, they are adorable.
哦 它们太可爱了
Sea urchins can breed all year around,
海胆一年四季都可以繁殖
but most often they do it before the warm season.
但是通常在温暖季节到来之前进行繁殖
They will release something like a cloud
它们会释放出一种像云絮一样的东西
but contains future offspring — male and female eggs.
也就是它们的后代——精子和卵子
Of course, other marine creatures immediately try to eat them.
其他海洋生物肯定会试图立刻吃掉它们
But still many eggs survive and find each other in the ocean.
但是仍然会有很多卵子存活下来并且完成受精
In a few hours,
几小时后
they turn into microscopic balls covered with tiny hair,
它们变成一个小圆球 表面覆盖着极小的鞭毛 用显微镜才看得见
which moves the balls in all directions.
这些辩毛使得这些圆球可以往各个方向移动
Soon they change stretch produce a thin calcareous skeleton
它们很快就长大了 并且长出细细的钙质的骨架
and form something like a tiny lunar lander.
最终形成像小型登月车一样的东西
It can drift for months feeding on algae along the way.
它可以漂流几个月 一路上以藻类为食
And all this time a microscopic sea urchin will grow inside.
与此同时 一个微小的海胆在它身体里生长
In the end, it grows up enough to land in a suitable place.
最终 成到足够大后就降落在一个合适的地方
Attach itself and start a real adult life.
固定好自己 开启真正的成年生活
Slugs.
蛞蝓
Fans of Ronald Weasley, please get away from the screen.
Ronald Weasley的粉丝 请远离屏幕
Now we will talk about slugs.
我们好来聊一聊蛞蝓
Better out than in.
吐出来最好
Slugs have both male and female reproductive organs,
蛞蝓同时有雌性和雄性的繁殖器官
that is they are hermaphrodites.
也就是说它们是雌雄同体
Usually a slug follows the mocus of another slug,
通常 一只蛞蝓顺着另一只蛞蝓的黏液
and can even eat that mucus.
甚至会吃掉那些黏液
Then the slugs find each other and begin the circle together.
然后这些蛞蝓找到彼此 一起开始了这个循环
In a few days after fertilization,
在受孕几天后
the slug lays about 30 translucent eggs in a hole on the ground,
蛞蝓会在地上的动力产下大约30颗半透明的卵
or another similar place.
或其他类似的地方
For example, between the stone walls or under a fallen log.
例如 在石墙的缝隙里或者倒地的木头下面
The development of offspring inside the eggs takes from 3 to 5 weeks, depending on the species.
根据品种的不同 蛞蝓的后代需在卵子里发育三到五周
In the end, completely formed tiny slugs hatch from the eggs.
最终 完全发育成熟的小蛞蝓从卵子中孵化出来
And perhaps looking at them,
看着它们
even people who are disgusted by slugs can be touched
或许觉得蛞蝓恶心的人也会被触动
because they are so small and cute.
因为它们实在太小太可爱了
Nevertheless, slugs grow very quickly,
不过 蛞蝓长得非常快
and they are ready to reproduce in two months.
它们在两个月后就可以再繁殖下一代
Bees.
蜜蜂
All the bees in the hive,
蜂巢里所有的蜜蜂
workers, drones and the queen bee,
无论是工蜂 雄蜂 还是蜂后
emerge from eggs laid by the queen bee.
都是从蜂后产的卵里面生出来的
There is only one queen bee for the whole family,
整个蜂族只有一个蜂后
and her death often means the death of the entire hive.
因此 蜂后的死亡意味着整个蜂巢的毁灭
The queen bee mates once in a lifetime.
蜂后一生只交配一次
Its main task is to lay eggs.
它的主要任务就是产卵
The rest of the work is done by working bees in the hive.
剩下的工作都由蜂巢里的工蜂完成
One can say that all the bees in the hive
我们可以说 蜂巢里所有的蜜蜂
are sisters and brothers on the maternal side.
都是母系的兄弟姐妹
But at the same time, they can have different fathers.
同时 它们可能拥有不同的父亲
The fact is that the queen bee usually mates with several tens of drones,
事实上蜂后通常与数十只雄蜂交配
and uses the genetic meterial of them all at once.
并且同时使用它们的遗传基因物质
Despite the difference in breeding,
尽管在品种上有所不同
the birth process is the same for all bee species.
所有的蜜蜂的生殖过程都是一样的
Each bee goes through three stages:
每一只蜜蜂都会经历三个阶段
egg, larva and pupae.
分别是:卵 幼虫 蛹
The queen bee glues an egg to the bottom of a special comb.
蜂后把卵粘在一个特别的蜂窝底部
In three days,
三天后
the bee puts some milk in the comb to feed the larva.
蜂后往蜂窝里放入一些乳汁来喂养幼虫
Aside from its main purpose, milk weakens the egg shell,
除了这个主要目的之外 乳汁还可以软化卵壳
and the larva emerges from it.
这样幼虫就更容易从里面孵化出来
The larva grows very quickly.
幼虫成长速度很快
In three days, its body mass increases by 250 times.
三天后 它的身体增长250倍
Then the bees seal the comb with wax,
然后蜜蜂就会用蜂蜡把蜂窝封起来
and the next stage begins – turning into a chrysalis.
接着就开始进入下一个阶段 变成蛹
The bee larva remains in a sealed form for 12 days.
蜜蜂的幼虫会在密闭的蛹里待上12天
And then it crawls outside as an adult insect.
然后变成成年的昆虫 破蛹而出
Cichlids.
慈鲷
African cichlids are fish from the family cichlids
非洲慈鲷鱼属于丽鱼科
that live in Great African Lakes.
它们生活在非洲的大型湖泊中
They have many different features.
它们有着许多不同的特征
But cichlids are especially interesting,
但是慈鲷鱼尤其有趣
as they carry their eggs in their mouths.
因为它们用嘴巴来孵卵
And it is much more convenient than it seems at first glance.
或许你开始不相信 但这样孵卵其实很方便
On the one hand, of course, it can not put many eggs in its mouth.
一方面 它肯定不能在嘴里放入太多鱼卵
On the other hand, when the offspring of the fish is in its mouth,
另一方面 当它的幼崽都被含在嘴里时
it is much easier to save it from predators,
就更容易在发生危险时
in any dangerous situation.
保护它们免遭捕食者的捕杀
Cichlids can simply swim away from danger.
慈鲷仅仅靠游泳就可以逃离危险
By the way, sometimes they hold in their mouths not only eggs,
顺便说一句 有时候它们不仅把鱼卵含在嘴里
but also young offspring.
还把幼崽含在嘴里
This way cichlids can breed fewer children
用这样的方式 慈鲷虽然生的孩子少
with a higher chance of survival.
但是孩子的存活率却更高
One should say that this method of bearing offspring is characteristic
不得不说一些鱼类和两栖动物的
of several species of fish and amphibians.
这种繁育后代的方法的确很独特
But for some reason,
但是出于某种原因
cichlids are ones that are most often mentioned in this regard.
关于这方面被提及最多的还是慈鲷鱼
Byebye.
再见
I will pick you up back to school.
放学后接你们哦
That’s all for today.
今天就到此结束
See you soon.
很快再见哦

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译制信息
视频概述

视频主要介绍了苏里南海蟾蜍 蜈蚣 袋鼠 蛞蝓 海马 蜜蜂 慈鲷等动物的独特生殖方式

听录译者

Licia

翻译译者

铲屎官王女士

审核员

审核员1024

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RVqYnqLpeuA

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