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最让人不安的画

The Most Disturbing Painting

艺术史上最恐怖的画作是什么
what’s the scariest painting in art history
这有一些强劲的竞争者
There are some strong contenders like:
杰勒德·大卫的《冈比西斯的判断》
“The Judgement of Cambyses” by Gerard David
耶罗尼米斯·博斯呈现的《地狱》
Hieronymus Boschs’ rendering of”Hell”
亨利·福塞利的《梦魇》
Henry Fuselis'”Nightmare”
爱德华·蒙克的《呐喊》
and Edvard Munchs'”The Scream”
但只有一幅画
But there’s only ever really
让我很不安
been one painting that has seriously disturbed me,
这副画
this one.
弗朗西斯科·戈雅的《萨图恩食子》
Francisco Goyas'”Saturn Devouring His Son”
你所看到的
What you’re seeing here,
是这位传奇的西班牙画家对希腊泰坦克洛诺斯的描绘!
is the legendary Spanish painter’s depiction of the Greek Titan Cronus:
他从父亲那里篡夺了权力
who after usurping power from his father, was
有人预言
told a prophecy that one of his own sons
他的一个儿子也会这么做并篡夺他的权力
would do the same and usurp him.
为了防止这样的事情发生 每当众神之母瑞亚生下孩子时
In order to prevent this every time his Queen Rhea bore a child,
克洛诺斯便把孩子吃掉
Cronus would eat it.
不幸的是 最后瑞亚悄悄地
Unfortunately for him in the end Rhea conspired
把他们最小的儿子宙斯藏起来
to hide away their youngest son, Zeus,
宙斯最终实现了这个预言 放逐了他的父亲
who eventually fulfilled the prophecy exiled his father
结束了泰坦的统治
and ended the reign of the Titans.
这是众所周知的希腊神话
The story is a well known Greek myth,
但看看戈雅是如何处理的
but look at how Goya handles it.
他做了一些重要的改变 首先
Some key changes jump out right away. First,
在神话中 克洛诺斯把他的孩子整个吞进肚子
in the myth Cronus devours his children by swallowing them whole.
事实上 他们仍然活在他的肚子里
In fact, they remain alive in his stomach.
戈雅的画更让人毛骨悚然
Goya’s painting is a much more gruesome affair.
他从彼得·保罗·鲁本斯那里得到了一些灵感
He takes some inspiration here from Peter Paul Rubens’,
这位佛兰德斯的巴洛克画家也描绘了同样的事件
a Flemish baroque painter who depicted the same event as well.
在鲁本斯的《萨图恩》中 泰坦似乎正在吮吸他孩子的生命
In Rubens'”Saturn”, the Titan seems to be sucking the life force from his child
即使对于这样一个恐怖的主题
even for such a terrifying subject-matter,
鲁本斯所展示的戏剧性 丰富性 甚至是美感都显示出一种他帮助使之出名的“巴洛克风格”
Rubens’ displays all the drama, richness, even beauty, that marks”The Baroque Style” he helped to make famous.
在戈雅的版本中 那种美感不复存在
In Goya’s version, that beauty is gone.
在黑暗中 我们发现了一个受惊的疯狂的怪物
We’re left with a frightened crazed monster
就好像是某个探险家
discovered in the dark as if by some explorer
拿着火把误入了洞穴游荡一般
with a torch who wandered into the wrong cave. Saturn,
在罗马语中 克洛诺斯叫作萨图恩
Cronus’ Roman name,
已经咬断了他孩子的头
has already chewed off the head of his child.
在孩子左臂的肘部 那黑色的嘴巴大开着
His black mouth opens around the elbow of the left arm,
准备在关节处咬断它
ready to bite it off at the joint.
他瘦削的身体别扭地蜷缩着
His angular body is crouching in an awkward position,
手指刺入孩子的脊柱
his hands dig into the spine,
血液顺着孩子的手臂
blood runs down his child’s arm and
脖子 肩膀流下来 呈现出一种令人震惊的主色调
neck and shoulder a startling primary color.
如果我们仔细察看 我们发
And if we take a closer look we noticed
这根本不是一个孩子
that this is not a child at all
萨图恩的孩子已长大成人
But one of Saturn’s kids grown up.
更可怕的是
There’s something even more terrifying
受害者知道发生了什么并试图反击
in knowing that the victim knew what was happening and tried to fight back.
但我认为最令人不安的是
But what’s most disturbing
这幅画被发现的时间与地点
of all I think is when and where this painting was found.
晚年时 弗朗西斯科·戈雅在马德里郊区买了一所房子 叫做”不问世事的别墅”
Late in his life, Francisco Goya purchased a house on the outskirts of Madrid called”La Quinta del Sordo”
意思是‘失聪人士的别墅’ 是以其前任主人的名字命名的
or The Villa of The Deaf after its previous owner;
有趣的巧合是 从他生命的那段时间开始
an interesting coincidence since by that time in his life,
戈雅也失聪了
Goya was deaf too.
他身心健康每况愈下
His physical and mental health declining,
戈雅画了14副壁画 通常被称为
Goya painted 14 murals often referred to as
黑色绘画
“The Black Paintings”
径直画于其家中的内墙上
Directly onto the interior walls of his home.
《萨图恩食子》
“Saturn devouring his son”?
在餐厅中
was in the dining room.
你现在看到的这些照片是在那之后的50年里拍摄的
The photographs you’re seeing now were taken over 50 years after that time.
戈雅从未提及这些画
Goya never mentioned the paintings himself.
也从未打算让任何人看
He never intended for anyone to see them
但直到今天 人们仍然对”黑色绘画”的含义感动困惑
but to this day, people still puzzle over the meaning of”The Black Paintings”.
为什么戈雅要在他那独居处
Why was Goya creating these pessimistic and fantastical scenes
创造出这些悲观虚构的场景呢
in the solitude of his home?
要了解这一点 不妨回顾一下戈雅的职业生涯
To understand this it might help to go back through Goya’s career
他在西班牙的萨拉戈萨长大
He grew up in Zaragoza, Spain.
出生于一个中下阶级的家庭 在六个孩子中排行老四
The fourth of six children in a lower middle-class family.
据说 他在萨拉戈萨 马德里和罗马学习绘画时
By all accounts, he was a light-hearted and joyful kid
是个无忧无虑的 快乐的孩子
as he studied painting in Zaragoza, Madrid and Rome.
他的第一份正式工作是在皇家挂毯厂
His first serious job was at the royal tapestry
在那里他制作了挂毯画
factory where he created tapestry cartoons to adorn the
来装饰这座城市的宫殿和富丽堂皇的住宅
palaces and stately homes of the city.
这些挂毯画
These tapestries take their cue from
从“洛可可风格‘中汲取灵感 优雅
“The Rococo Style”, elegant,
俏皮
playful,
还有贵族和农民享受着他们日常生活的轻松场景
light scenes of both nobility and peasantry enjoying the normal activities of their day.
戈雅最终成为国王查理四世的
Goya eventually became the court painter
宫廷画师 这是一位令人失望的君主
for King Charles IV, a disappointing monarch
与他的父亲查理三世不同
unlike his father Charles The III,
查理三世因推行改革而受到人民爱戴
who was beloved by the people for enacting reforms that began to bring
并给西班牙带来世俗的启蒙价值观
secular enlightenment values to Spain.
1793年 一场疾病使戈雅失聪
In 1793, an unknown illness left Goya deaf.
尽管他仍然从皇家顾客那儿收取酬劳
Though he still took commissions from his royal clientele,
这种疾病是他生命和艺术中一个黑暗的转折点
this disease was a dark turning point in his life and art.
你可以其1794年的《疯人院》中看到
You can see it in Yard With Lunatics from 1794
身体扭打着 痛苦地呐喊着
bodies grapple and cry out in anguish.
这幅画和挂毯画的不同之处
The difference between this and the tapestry cartoons,
令人震惊
is shocking.
他的听觉消失了 戈雅开始用
His hearing gone, Goya began to see the country
一种阴沉的 清晰的目光来看待他周围的国家
around him with a grim clarity in a series of etchings called
这一系列的版画被称作《奇想集》或《狂想曲》
Los Caprichos or The Caprices,
他反应了一种既悲剧又喜剧的西班牙文化
he sends up a Spanish culture that is both tragic and comic.
作为启蒙运动的学生 戈雅看到这个国家
A student of the Enlightenment himself, Goya sees the country
在走向现代化道路上的倒退
backsliding on the road to modernity.
君主的一味退让 人民太过迷信
The King is withdrawn and the people are
愚昧 不知道自己需要什么
superstitious and too stupid to know what they need.
可以看到 他把想象力的各个方面融合在一起
You can see him fusing all the corners
对结构真实的追求
of his imagination the quest for anatomical truth,
对社会批判的需求及对野兽和生物的迷恋
the need for social critique and an obsession with beasts and creatures.
这一切可以贴切称为‘’理性沉睡 心魔生焉‘
It’s all summed up in this one aptly titled”The Sleep of Reason produces monsters”.
接下来的几年里 西班牙的情况变得更加糟糕
In the following years, things got worse for Spain.
拿破仑入侵了这个国家 残忍地杀害了那些反抗他战役的人
Napoleon invaded the country and brutally massacred those who resisted his campaign.
戈雅目睹了这场流血事件 这深深地影响了他
Goya was witness to the bloodshed and it affected him deeply.
1808年5月3日 这一主题的画作
His painting on the subject, the 3rd of May 1808,
是对战争 反抗和暴行
is a revelatory depiction of war,
一种启示性的描绘
resistance and brutality.
在此之前 战争在绘画中是一个高度戏剧化的主题 在这里
Before this, war was a highly composed theatrical subject in painting. Here,
戈雅只展示了暴力
Goya gives nothing but brute force.
这是一种没有技巧的情感
It’s emotion unmediated by artifice.
五年之后 西班牙才重新夺回王位
It would be five years until Spain regained its throne.
在此期间 变革者制定了《1812年宪法 》
In the interim resistors developed The constitution of 1812,
要求对国民主权 出版自由和企业自由
which called for Liberal Reforms like National Sovereignty,
进行开明的改革
Freedom of the Press and Free Enterprise.
但新国王费迪南德七世获得权力后
But on gaining power, the new King Ferdinand VII,
立即粉碎了宪法 并逮捕那些制定宪法的人
squashed the Constitution right away and arrested those who made it. Goya,
戈雅隐居了 心灰意冷
withdrew, disheartened
这个在他年轻时候已经走向一个
the country which in his youth had reached
新世界的国家 现在又被独裁专制所吞噬了
toward a new world, was now swallowed again by autocracy.
战争及疾病留下的心灵创伤
Scarred by war, scarred by illness,
他开始在家中的墙上画出噩梦般的场景
he began to paint nightmare scenes onto the walls of his home.
其中一个故事中 一个年轻人
In one, a young man is being eaten
被预言要篡夺王位而被其父亲吃掉了
by the father he was prophesied to usurp.
现在戈雅明白了 进步了也可能倒退
By now Goya knows progress isn’t assured and when it’s defeated,
当进步的事业被击败时 会产生痛苦
it’s not painless
是恐怖的 缓慢的 受害者感受得到它正在发生
It’s horrific and slow and the victim can feel it happening.
你可以从很多方面解读《萨图恩食子》
There are a lot of ways that you can read”Saturn devouring his son”.
也许戈雅是在试图驱除他心中的恶魔
Maybe Goya was trying to exorcise the demons
或是他国家的恶魔
of his mind or the demons of his country.
又或许他只是想如实地描绘出
Or maybe he was just trying to paint honestly
人性中令人恐惧的一面
about one terrifying facet of man’s nature,
用他一生中学到的 倡导的技能与技巧
using the skills and techniques he learned and pioneered through a lifetime.
‘’黑色绘画‘’改变了艺术史 但或许最恐怖的是
“The Black Paintings” changed the history of art, but what’s maybe scariest of all
戈雅根本不在乎
is that Goya didn’t care.
他不在乎我们怎么看待这幅画
He doesn’t care how we read this painting
因为他不是为我们或任何人创作的
because he didn’t paint it for us or for anyone.
‘’萨图恩食子‘’是无法阐释的
“Saturn devouring his son” exists beyond interpretation.
其巨大的恐怖是无法调解的
It’s brute force horror without mediation.
在黑暗的房间里 一堵黑暗的墙上
A monster looking out from a dark wall
一个怪物向外张望
in a dark room,
咀嚼着
…chewing…

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视频概述

提到最让人不安的画你会想到什么?是杰勒德·大卫的冈比西斯的判断,还是博斯的地狱,又或是爱德华·蒙克的呐喊 一起来看看吧

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

lulu

审核员

审核员 YF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=g15-lvmIrcg

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