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孤僻的顶级程序员:Linux操作系统之父

The mind behind Linux | Linus Torvalds

克里斯•安德森:这真是件奇怪的事
Chris Anderson: This is such a strange thing.
你的Linux系统 运行在全球数百万台电脑里
Your software, Linux, is in millions of computers,
极大地推动了互联网
it probably powers much of the Internet.
并且我认为
And I think that there are, like,
还有15亿台安卓设备
a billion and a half active Android devices out there.
每一台都运行着你的软件
Your software is in every single one of them.
这非常了不起
It’s kind of amazing.
你肯定有一个宏伟的总部来实现这一切
You must have some amazing software headquarters driving all this.
我曾经这么想——但看到照片时 我惊呆了
That’s what I thought — and I was shocked when I saw a picture of it.
我是说
I mean, this is —
这就是Linux世界的“总部”
this is the Linux world headquarters.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
[掌声]
[Applause]
林纳斯•托瓦兹:好吧 看起来是不怎么样
Linus Torvalds: It really doesn’t look like much.
我得说
And I have to say,
这张照片里最有意思的地方
the most interesting part in this picture,
大多数人都会看到
that people mostly react to,
那张移动办公桌
is the walking desk.
是我办公室里最有趣的
It is the most interesting part in my office.
虽然我很少用它了
and I’m not actually using it anymore.
我觉得两者是有联系的
And I think the two things are related.
我的工作方式……
The way I work is …
我不想受到太多外部的干扰刺激
I want to not have external stimulation.
你们可以看到 墙壁是淡绿色的
You can kind of see, on the walls are this light green.
据说精神病院墙面就是这种颜色
I’m told that at mental institutions they use that on the walls.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
这颜色能让你平静
It’s like a calming colour.
不像那些会刺激到你的东西
it’s not something that really stimulates you.
这里你们看不到我的主机 只能看到显示器
What you can’t see is the computer here, you only see the screen,
而我对电脑最主要的要求是
but the main thing I worry about in my computer is —
它不必多么大或性能多么强 虽然我也喜欢那样
it doesn’t have to be big and powerful, although I like that —
但是它必须绝对的安静
it really has to be completely silent.
我认识一些在谷歌工作的人
I know people who work for Google
他们在家都有自己的小型数据中心
and they have their own small data center at home,
但是我没有
and I don’t do that.
我的办公室也许是你们见过最无聊的一个
My office is the most boring office you’ll ever see.
我喜欢独自一人坐在那里 享受宁静
And I sit there alone in the quiet.
如果有猫进来
If the cat comes up,
它会坐在我大腿上
it sits in my lap.
我喜欢听猫打呼噜
And I want to hear the cat purring,
而不是烦人的电脑风扇声
not the sound of the fans in the computer.
克:太了不起了
CA: So this is astonishing,
你这样子工作
because working this way,
才能运行这庞大的技术帝国
you’re able to run this vast technology empire —
确实是一个帝国
it is an empire —
这是开源(软件)强大力量的最好例证
so that’s an amazing testament to the power of open source.
请告诉我们你是如何理解开源的
Tell us how you got to understand open source
和它又是如何促进Linux的发展
and how it lead to the development of Linux.
林:我现在还是独自工作
LT: I mean, I still work alone.
真的 我独自一人在家工作
Really — I work alone in my house,
经常穿着浴袍干活
often in my bathrobe.
当摄影师出现 我才穿上衣服
When a photographer shows up, I dress up,
所以(照片里)我是着装的
so I have clothes on.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
我一直以来就是这样工作的
And that’s how I’ve always worked.
Linux也是这样诞生的
I mean, this was how I started Linux, too.
Linux并不是一个合作的产物
I did not start Linux as a collaborative project.
它是我一系列项目中的一个
I started it as one in a series of many projects
纯粹出于自己当时的需要
I had done at the time for myself,
部分是因为我需要最后的成果
partly because I needed the end result,
但更多是因为我享受编程的过程
but even more because I just enjoyed programming.
所以这一段旅程的终点
So it was about the end of the journey,
直到25年后的今天都还没到来
which, 25 years later, we still have not reached.
当初我只是想做一个完全属于自己的项目
But it was really about the fact that I was looking for a project on my own
压根就没想过开源这件事
and there was no open source, really, on my radar at all.
可在那之后
And what happened is …
项目发展起来 变得颇具规模 你就会想跟别人炫耀
the project grows and becomes something you want to show off to people.
真的 感觉就像 “哇 看我做的多厉害!”
Really, this is more of a, “Wow, look at what I did!”
但说实话——最开始并没这么好
And trust me — it was not that great back then.
我把它放到网上供人下载
I made it publicly available,
当时甚至还不是开源的
and it wasn’t even open source at that point.
当然 所有代码都是开放的 但我并没有想过
At that point it was source that was open, but there was no intention
要用我们今天所熟知的开源方法
behind using the kind of open-source methodology that we think of today
来改进它
to improve it.
我当时想的是
It was more like,
“看 这是我折腾了半年的成果
“Look, I’ve been working on this for half a year,
我想听听大家的意见”
I’d love to have comments.”
有人来找过我
And other people approached me.
在赫尔辛基大学
At the University of Helsinki,
我有个朋友是做开源软件的
I had a friend who was one of the open source —
当年还叫“免费软件”
it was called mainly “free software” back then —
实际上是他向我介绍的这些概念
and he actually introduced me to the notion that,
“嘿 你可以用那些已有的开源许可证”
hey, you can use these open-source licenses that had been around.
我考虑了一段时间
And I thought about it for a while.
我其实有点担心商业利益牵涉其中
I was actually worried about the whole commercial interests coming in.
我想 很多人一开始会跟我一样
I mean, that’s one of the worries I think most people who start out have,
担心自己的工作成果会被人利用 不是吗?
is that they worry about somebody taking advantage of their work, right?
于是我决定 “不管了”
And I decided, “What the hell?”
然后……
And —
克:然后某一天
CA: And then at some point,
一些人对你的代码提出了些建议 你觉得
someone contributed some code that you thought,
“哇哦 真是不错 我都没想到这一点
“Wow, that really is interesting, I would not have thought of that.
这对改进软件很有帮助”
This could actually improve this.”
林:其实最开始没有多少人直接改进代码
LT: It didn’t even start by people contributing code,
而是提出了很多想法
it was more that people started contributing ideas.
让别人看一下你所做的项目
And just the fact that somebody else takes a look at your project —
我想在其他行业也是这样
and I’m sure it’s true of other things, too,
但在编程的时候就更是如此
but it’s definitely true in code —
有人对你的代码感兴趣
is that somebody else takes an interest in your code,
仔细研究过 能给你反馈
looks at it enough to actually give you feedback
给你建议
and give you ideas.
对我而言是非常重要的一件事
That was a huge thing for me.
当时我21岁 还很年轻
I was 21 at the time, so I was young,
但在那之前 我人生的一半时间都在敲代码
but I had already programmed for half my life, basically.
之前的每一个项目 我都是独自完成的
And every project before that had been completely personal
有人开始评论我的代码
and it was a revelation when people just started commenting,
给予反馈 真是头一遭
started giving feedback on your code.
他们甚至还没开始改代码
And even before they started giving code back,
但对我来讲已经足以载入史册 因为我觉得
that was, I think, one of the big moments where I said,
“我爱世人!”
“I love other people!”
别误会
Don’t get me wrong —
其实我并不是一个合群的人
I’m actually not a people person.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
我也不是真的爱世人
I don’t really love other people —
[笑声]
[Laughter]
但是我爱计算机
But I love computers,
我喜欢通过发邮件互动
I love interacting with other people on email,
因为那会起到缓冲作用
because it kind of gives you that buffer.
但我确实喜欢人们给予评论 参与我的项目
But I do love other people who comment and get involved in my project.
让我的项目快速成长
And it made it so much more.
克:有没有那样一个时间点 你发现自己一直在做的项目
CA: So was there a moment when you saw what was being built
突然开始成型了
and it suddenly started taking off,
你想 “等一下 这可能是个巨大的工程
and you thought, “Wait a sec, this actually could be something huge,
不仅仅是个人的项目 我已得到良好的反馈
not just a personal project that I’m getting nice feedback on,
但在整个技术世界里是一种爆炸式的发展”?
but a kind of explosive development in the whole technology world”?
林:还真没有
LT: Not really.
对我而言 最重要的时刻 并不是它变大的那一天
I mean, the big point for me, really, was not when it was becoming huge,
恰恰是在它还不够大的时候
it was when it was becoming little.
对我而言 当我不再独自工作
The big point for me was not being alone
有10个人 或者100个人加入进来
and having 10, maybe 100 people being involved —
这才是一种突破
that was a big point.
之后的事情就顺其自然了
Then everything else was very gradual.
对我来说 从100人到100万人 并不是那么重要
Going from 100 people to a million people is not a big deal — to me.
好吧 我的意思是 如果你……
Well, I mean, maybe it is if you’re —
[笑声]
[Laughter]
如果你是想卖掉自己的成果 那就会很重要
If you want to sell your result then it’s a huge deal —
别误解我的意思
don’t get me wrong.
如果你感兴趣的是科技本身
But if you’re interested in the technology
是这个项目本身
and you’re interested in the project,
那么最重要的就是找到志趣相投的人
the big part was getting the community.
之后这个群体会自发壮大
Then the community grew gradually.
并没有一个特别明显的时间点 我会觉得
And there’s actually not a single point where I went like,
“哇哦 这事儿快成了!”因为
“Wow, that just took off!” because it —
我是说——这个时间非常漫长
I mean — it took a long time, relatively.
克:所有我采访的技术专家们都对你赞不绝口
CA: So all the technologists that I talk to really credit you
说你极大地改进了他们的工作
with massively changing their work.
不光是Linux
And it’s not just Linux,
还有Git
it’s this thing called Git,
一种软件开发的管理系统
which is this management system for software development.
简单介绍一下它以及你在其中扮演的角色
Tell us briefly about that and your role in that.
林:我们遇到的问题之一
LT: So one of the issues we had,
(在项目开始后)一段时间后才开始显现
and this took a while to start to appear,
就是当你……
is when you …
从10个或者100个人参与一个项目
When you grow from having 10 people or 100 people working on a project
增长到1万人的时候 而这
to having 10,000 people, which —
关于(Linux)内核 我们碰到的问题是
I mean, right now we’re in the situation where just on the kernel,
每次更新都有1000人参与
we have 1,000 people involved in every single release
而更新频率是每两、三个月一次
and that’s every two months, roughly two or three months.
这其中有些人作用不大
Some of those people don’t do a lot.
有很多人能做出小小的改进
There’s a lot of people who make small, small changes.
但要进行维护
But to maintain this,
所需要的工作量就会大大增加
the scale changes how you have to maintain it.
我们吃尽了苦头
And we went through a lot of pain.
有时候甚至整个程序 都仅仅是为了对源代码进行维护
And there are whole projects that do only source-code maintenance.
CVS曾经是最流行的
CVS is the one that used to be the most commonly used,
我恨透了它 连碰都不想碰
and I hated CVS with a passion and refused to touch it
我喜欢更基础、更有趣的方法
and tried something else that was radical and interesting
但其他人又不喜欢
and everybody else hated.
克:(笑)
CA: (Laughs)
林:我们陷入了僵局
LT: And we were in this bad spot,
成千上万的人想参与进来
where we had thousands of people who wanted to participate,
但很多时候 我成为了那个断点
but in many ways, I was the kind of break point,
我无法让自己跨出那一步
where I could not scale to the point
同上千人合作
where I could work with thousands of people.
因此Git是我的第二个大项目
So Git is my second big project,
它存在的意义就是维护我的第一个大项目
which was only created for me to maintain my first big project.
事实上这就是我的工作方式
And this is literally how I work.
我编程并不是为了
I don’t code for —
我编程是因为好玩
well, I do code for fun —
但我也想做一些有意义的事情
but I want to code for something meaningful
因此我设计每一个程序 仅仅是因为我自己需要
so every single project I’ve ever done has been something I needed
而且
and —
克:因此 实际上Linux和Git的出现
CA: So really, both Linux and Git kind of arose
都是意外的收获
almost as an unintended consequence
仅仅因为你不想跟太多人一起工作
of your desire not to have to work with too many people.
林:千真万确 没错
LT: Absolutely. Yes.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
克:太牛了林:可不是吗
CA: That’s amazing. LT: Yeah.
[掌声]
[Applause]
你带来了技术革新
And yet, you’re the man who’s transformed technology
不是一次 而是两次
not just once but twice,
我们试图去探寻背后的原因
and we have to try and understand why it is.
你给了我们一些线索 但是……
You’ve given us some clues, but …
这是一张你小时候的照片 你手里拿着魔方
Here’s a picture of you as a kid, with a Rubik’s Cube.
你刚才提到 你从10岁、11岁就开始编程了
You mentioned that you’ve been programming since you were like 10 or 11,
人生的一半
half your life.
你是那种电脑天才 技术宅
Were you this sort of computer genius, you know, übernerd,
在学校里无所不能的明星吗?
were you the star at school who could do everything?
你是个什么样的孩子?
What were you like as a kid?
林:没错 我觉得自己就是宅男的原型
LT: Yeah, I think I was the prototypical nerd.
我是说 当年……
I mean, I was …
我并不喜欢跟人打交道
I was not a people person back then.
那是我弟弟
That’s my younger brother.
显然我对魔方更有兴趣
I was clearly more interested in the Rubik’s Cube
完全无视我弟弟
than my younger brother.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
我还有个妹妹 她不在照片里
My younger sister, who’s not in the picture,
当我们全家聚在一起的时候
when we had family meetings —
我家人不算多 但我有好几个侄子侄女
and it’s not a huge family, but I have, like, a couple of cousins —
她会事先给我打预防针
she would prep me beforehand.
在我进屋之前 她会说
Like, before I stepped into the room she would say,
“好的 你要注意什么什么……”
“OK. That’s so-and-so …”
因为我其实……
Because I was not —
我是个技术宅
I was a geek.
我喜欢电脑
I was into computers,
喜欢数学
I was into math,
喜欢物理
I was into physics.
我擅长这些
I was good at that.
但也没到出类拔萃的地步
I don’t think I was particularly exceptional.
就像我妹妹说的
Apparently, my sister said
我最突出的品质就是不放弃
that my biggest exceptional quality was that I would not let go.
克:好的 那我们就来聊聊这个 这很有意思
CA: OK, so let’s go there, because that’s interesting.
你不轻言放弃
You would not let go.
也就是说 不是因为技术宅或者聪明
So that’s not about being a geek and being smart,
而是因为……固执?
that’s about being … stubborn?
林:没错 就是固执
LT: That’s about being stubborn.
就像
That’s about, like,
我开始做一件事情
just starting something
我不会说 “好的 我不干了 我要去干点别的
and not saying, “OK, I’m done, let’s do something else —
看 比如那个!”
Look: shiny!”
我发现我在做其他事情的时候也会这样
And I notice that in many other parts in my life, too.
我在硅谷生活了7年
I lived in Silicon Valley for seven years.
一直在同一家公司上班 那可是在硅谷哦
And I worked for the same company, in Silicon Valley,
从未换过
for the whole time.
这简直闻所未闻
That is unheard of.
尤其在硅谷这个地方
That’s not how Silicon Valley works.
硅谷最大的特点就是 人们总在跳槽
The whole point of Silicon Valley is that people jump between jobs
一会这一会那
to kind of mix up the pot.
而我不是这样
And that’s not the kind of person I am.
克:但在Linux系统发展的过程中
CA: But during the actual development of Linux itself,
这种固执有时会让你和别人产生冲突
that stubbornness sometimes brought you in conflict with other people.
给我们讲讲这个
Talk about that a bit.
维持已有成果的质量是不是非常必要?
Was that essential to sort of maintain the quality of what was being built?
你会如何来形容之后发生的事情?
How would you describe what happened?
林:我不确定这是不是非常必要
LT: I don’t know if it’s essential.
还是说回到“我并不合群”这一点
Going back to the “I’m not a people person,” —
有的时候我还……
sometimes I’m also …
可以说
shall we say,
不太理解他人的感受
“myopic” when it comes to other people’s feelings,
经常会说话伤到别人
and that sometimes makes you say things that hurt other people.
对此我感到很抱歉
And I’m not proud of that.
[掌声]
[Applause]
但与此同时
But, at the same time, it’s —
有人告诉我 我应该友善一些
I get people who tell me that I should be nice.
然后我会跟他们说 可能你是友善
And then when I try to explain to them that maybe you’re nice,
但你应该更加富有侵略性一些
maybe you should be more aggressive,
他们会把这个当成我的不友善
they see that as me being not nice.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
我想说的是我们是不同的
What I’m trying to say is we are different.
我不是个合群的人
I’m not a people person;
对此我并不感到骄傲
it’s not something I’m particularly proud of,
但这就是我
but it’s part of me.
而我喜欢开源软件的一点就是
And one of the things I really like about open source
它能让形形色色的人们在一起工作
is it really allows different people to work together.
我们不必相互喜欢
We don’t have to like each other —
有时候我们甚至互相讨厌
and sometimes we really don’t like each other.
是真的——我们经常吵得不可开交
Really — I mean, there are very, very heated arguments.
但是你会 你会发现许多事情
But you can, actually, you can find things that —
甚至都没法同意保留不同意见
you don’t even agree to disagree,
因为大家的兴趣点真的不一样
it’s just that you’re interested in really different things.
回到我刚才说过的
And coming back to the point where I said earlier
我担心商人们利用我们的劳动成果
that I was afraid of commercial people taking advantage of your work,
但没过多久 我发现
it turned out, and very quickly turned out,
这些商人都是非常非常好的人
that those commercial people were lovely, lovely people.
他们做那些我不感兴趣的事
And they did all the things that I was not at all interested in doing,
关注点与我完全不同
and they had completely different goals.
他们使用开源软件的方法跟我不一样的
And they used open source in ways that I just did not want to go.
但正因为是开源的 他们可以这么干
But because it was open source they could do it,
而且实际上效果很好
and it actually works really beautifully together.
我甚至认为跟我使用的效果一样好
And I actually think it works the same way.
我们需要合群的人 需要能与人交流的人
You need to have the people-people, the communicators,
需要温暖友好的人
the warm and friendly people
就像那些
who like —
[笑声]
[Laughter]
热情欢迎你 带你走进这个圈子的
really want to hug you and get you into the community.
但不是每个人都能做到
But that’s not everybody.
比如我就做不到
And that’s not me.
我关注的是技术
I care about the technology.
有的人关注用户界面
There are people who care about the UI.
我死也做不来用户界面
I can’t do UI to save my life.
举个例子 如果我被困在一个孤岛上
I mean, if I was stranded on an island
逃出生天的唯一办法 就是设计一个漂亮的用户界面
and the only way to get off that island was the make a pretty UI,
那我宁愿死在那儿
I’d die there.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
人跟人是不一样的
So there’s different kinds of people,
我并不是在找借口 只是想解释给大家听
and I’m not making excuses, I’m trying to explain.
克:我们上周见面的时候
CA: Now, when we talked last week,
你聊到自己的一些其他特点
you talked about some other trait that you have,
我觉得很有意思
which I found really interesting.
这是关于品位的
It’s this idea called taste.
我这里有一些图片
And I’ve just got a couple of images here.
我觉得这一段代码就没什么品位
I think this is an example of not particularly good taste in code,
而这一段要好一些
and this one is better taste,
相信大家一看便知
which one can immediately see.
这两段代码有什么不一样?
What is the difference between these two?
林:这是
LT: So this is —
在座的有哪些人写过代码?
How many people here actually have coded?
克:我的天啊
CA: Oh my goodness.
林:我敢保证
LT: So I guarantee you,
刚刚举手的每一个人
everybody who raised their hand,
肯定都做过单向链表
they have done what’s called a singly-linked list.
它被用在
And it’s taught —
这儿 第一段品位不怎么好的代码
This, the first not very good taste approach,
基本上是在你刚开始学编程的时候学到的
is basically how it’s taught to be done when you start out coding.
你没必要理解代码的含义
And you don’t have to understand the code.
我觉得对我来说最有意思的
The most interesting part to me
是最后一个“if”语句
is the last if statement.
因为在这个单向链表里要做的
Because what happens in a singly-linked list —
是要移除链表里已经存在的一个元素
this is trying to remove an existing entry from a list —
不同之处在于 它是位于开头的第一个元素
and there’s a difference between if it’s the first entry
还是位于中间的一个元素
or whether it’s an entry in the middle.
如果是头元素
Because if it’s the first entry,
你需要将指针指向头元素
you have to change the pointer to the first entry.
而如果位于中间
If it’s in the middle,
你需要将指针指向它的上一个元素
you have to change the pointer of a previous entry.
这是两种完全不同的情况
So they’re two completely different cases.
克:而这个更好
CA: And that’s better.
林:这个更好
LT: And this is better.
它没有if语句
It does not have the if statement.
这无关紧要
And it doesn’t really matter —
这里你不必了解为何没有“if”语句
I don’t want you understand why it doesn’t have the if statement,
你需要了解的是
but I want you to understand
有时候你可以从不同角度看问题
that sometimes you can see a problem in a different way
重写代码 排除特例
and rewrite it so that a special case goes away
完美覆盖所有情况
and becomes the normal case.
这就是好的代码
And that’s good code.
同时也很简单
But this is simple code.
这是最基本的原则
This is CS 101.
这不重要——当然 细节很重要
This is not important — although, details are important.
对我来说 我愿意与之共事的人
To me, the sign of people I really want to work with
必须有好的品位 这就是为何……
is that they have good taste, which is how …
我向你举这个愚蠢的例子
I sent you this stupid example
毫不相干 因为它实在太短了
that is not relevant because it’s too small.
好的品位不止于此
Good taste is much bigger than this.
好的品位体现在能看清全局
Good taste is about really seeing the big patterns
并且本能地知道该怎么把事情做好
and kind of instinctively knowing what’s the right way to do things.
克:好的 让我们来总结一下
CA: OK, so we’re putting the pieces together here now.
你有品位
You have taste,
某种程度上说 这对于程序员们意义重大
in a way that’s meaningful to software people.
你是
You’re —
[笑声]
[Laughter]
林:我觉得它对这里的一些人意义重大
LT: I think it was meaningful to some people here.
克:你是个非常有才华的电脑程序员
CA: You’re a very smart computer coder,
你异常固执
and you’re hellish stubborn.
但肯定不止这些
But there must be something else.
我是说 你改变了未来
I mean, you’ve changed the future.
你一定有种展望宏伟未来的能力
You must have the ability of these grand visions of the future.
你是个梦想家 是对吗?
You’re a visionary, right?
林:其实在过去两天里 我在TED大会
LT: I’ve actually felt slightly uncomfortable at TED
觉得不太自在
for the last two days,
因为有这么多人在看着我 是吧?
because there’s a lot of vision going on, right?
我并不是一个梦想家
And I am not a visionary.
我也没有什么五年计划
I do not have a five-year plan.
我只是一名工程师
I’m an engineer.
而且我觉得 真的
And I think it’s really —
我是说——我非常乐意跟梦想家在一起
I mean — I’m perfectly happy with all the people
他们行走四方 仰望苍穹
who are walking around and just staring at the clouds
看着满天星辰说 “我想到那儿去”
and looking at the stars and saying, “I want to go there.”
但我只想低头看路
But I’m looking at the ground,
填好眼前的坑坑洼洼
and I want to fix the pothole that’s right in front of me
不让自己掉进去
before I fall in.
我就是这样的人
This is the kind of person I am.
[欢呼声]
[Cheers]
[掌声]
[Applause]
克:上周你跟我聊过他们俩
CA: So you spoke to me last week about these two guys.
他们是谁?你跟他们有什么关系?
Who are they and how do you relate to them?
林:这其实是技术界的一个老梗了
LT: Well, so this is kind of cliché in technology,
特斯拉和爱迪生之争
the whole Tesla versus Edison,
特斯拉是一个爱梦想的科学家 总有着疯狂的想法
where Tesla is seen as the visionary scientist and crazy idea man.
大家都喜欢特斯拉
And people love Tesla.
你看 还有人把自己公司也叫这个名字
I mean, there are people who name their companies after him.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
另一个人是爱迪生
The other person there is Edison,
经常被嘲讽成一个单调乏味的人
who is actually often vilified for being kind of pedestrian
而且
and is —
他最有名的一句话就是
I mean, his most famous quote is,
“天才是1%的灵感加上99%的汗水”
“Genius is one percent inspiration and 99 percent perspiration.”
而我是爱迪生一派的
And I’m in the Edison camp,
尽管人们经常讨厌他
even if people don’t always like him.
如果你比较一下这两位
Because if you actually compare the two,
特斯拉很能抓眼球
Tesla has kind of this mind grab these days,
但真正改变世界的是谁?
but who actually changed the world?
爱迪生也许不是个讨喜的人
Edison may not have been a nice person,
但他做了很多事
he did a lot of things —
他也许没那么聪明
he was maybe not so intellectual,
没那么有梦想
not so visionary.
我觉得自己更像爱迪生而不是特斯拉
But I think I’m more of an Edison than a Tesla.
克:TED大会这一周的主题是梦想
CA: So our theme at TED this week is dreams —
宏伟、大胆、无畏的梦想
big, bold, audacious dreams.
而你就像那个的解药
You’re really the antidote to that.
林:我会试着收敛一些
LT: I’m trying to dial it down a bit, yes.
克:太好了
CA: That’s good.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
我们爱你 我们爱你
We embrace you, we embrace you.
谷歌和其它许多公司
Companies like Google and many others have made, arguably,
通过你的软件 赚了上亿美元
like, billions of dollars out of your software.
你生气吗?
Does that piss you off?
林:不会
LT: No.
原因有很多
No, it doesn’t piss me off for several reasons.
其中之一是 我过得不错
And one of them is, I’m doing fine.
真心不错
I’m really doing fine..
另一个原因就是
But the other reason is —
如果我不将它开源 而过于纠结的话
I mean, without doing the whole open source and really letting go thing,
Linux就不会发展成今天这样
Linux would never have been what it is.
它也给我带来不喜欢的经历 比如 公开场合讲话
And it’s brought experiences I don’t really enjoy, public talking,
但同时 这也是一种历练
but at the same time, this is an experience.
相信我
Trust me.
很多事情让我成为了一个快乐的人
So there’s a lot of things going on that make me a very happy man
我觉得我当初的选择没有错
and thinking I did the right choices.
克:开源的想法
CA: Is the open source idea —
我想这是最后一个话题
this is, I think we’ll end here —
开源的想法已经在全世界实现了吗?
is the open source idea fully realized now in the world,
还是说还有潜力可挖
or is there more that it could go,
还有很多可以做的?
are there more things that it could do?
林:我有两个想法
LT: So, I’m of two minds there.
我认为开源软件如此成功的原因之一
I think one reason open source works so well in code
归根结底在于
is that at the end of the day,
代码在某种程度上是非黑即白的
code tends to be somewhat black and white.
我们有非常明确的方法来区分
There’s often a fairly good way to decide,
一段代码是行还是不行
this is done correctly and this is not done well.
代码运行要么成功 要么失败
Code either works or it doesn’t,
这就意味着没什么可争议的
which means that there’s less room for arguments.
但尽管如此 我们还是有很多争执 是吧?
And we have arguments despite this, right?
在其它许多领域
In many other areas —
人们探讨过公开政治和其它类似的事情
I mean, people have talked about open politics and things like that —
有时候真的很难说清楚
and it’s really hard sometimes to say
你也可以在其它领域采取相同的原则
that, yes, you can apply the same principles in some other areas
只是因为黑与白产生的不仅只有灰色
just because the black and white turns into not just gray,
还有许多不同的颜色
but different colors.
所以 科学界的开源显然是一种回归
So, obviously open source in science is making a comeback.
科学最初是开源的
Science was there first.
但之后变得越来越封闭
But then science ended up being pretty closed,
只存在那些昂贵的期刊上
with very expensive journals and some of that going on.
开源让科学回归了
And open source is making a comeback in science,
我们有了arXiv和开放期刊
with things like arXiv and open journals.
维基百科也改变了世界
Wikipedia changed the world, too.
还有其他许多例子
So there are other examples,
我觉得未来还会有更多
I’m sure there are more to come.
克:但你不是个梦想家
CA: But you’re not a visionary,
这些事跟你没啥关系
and so it’s not up to you to name them.
林:当然
LT: No.
[笑声]
[Laughter]
得靠你们去实现了 对吗?
It’s up to you guys to make them, right?
克:没错
CA: Exactly.
林纳斯·托瓦兹
Linus Torvalds,
为Linux感谢你 为互联网感谢你
thank you for Linux, thank you for the Internet,
为那些安卓手机感谢你
thank you for all those Android phones.
感谢你来参加TED 展现你自己
Thank you for coming here to TED and revealing so much of yourself.
林:谢谢
LT: Thank you.
[掌声]
[Applause]

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视频概述

林纳斯•托瓦兹带来了两次技术革新——第一次是开发出Linux内核,推动了因特网,第二次是开发出Git,一种源代码管理系统,被全世界开发者广泛使用。在这次难得的演讲中,TED策划人克里斯•安德森采访了托瓦兹,后者非常开诚布公地讨论了自己的性格特点,以及由此形成的独特哲学,无论是对工作、对工程学还是对人生。“我不是个有远见的人,我是一名工程师,”托瓦兹说,“我非常乐意跟梦想家在一起,他们行走四方,仰望苍穹……但我是低头看路的那种人,我只想填好眼前这个坑,不让自己掉进去。”

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翻译译者

B11101001

审核员

知易行难

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=o8NPllzkFhE

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