ADM-201 dump PMP dumps pdf SSCP exam materials CBAP exam sample questions

19世纪的微观世界——埃伦伯格的故事 – 译学馆
未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

19世纪的微观世界——埃伦伯格的故事

The Microcosmos of the 1800s | The Story of Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg

《微观旅途》
When scientists began observing microbes,
在科学家们研究微生物伊始
many of the tools that we rely on today,
我们现在依赖的科研用具
of course, had not yet been invented.
在当时还未曾面世
Now, microscopes existed,
诚然 那时已有显微镜
but they were generally simpler tools.
但大多都很简陋
And they also, of course, lacked cameras
当然 他们也缺少
that could take a snapshot of the organisms and objects being so closely watched.
能够在极近距离下进行拍摄微生物的相机
Still, the scientists were exploring
即便如此 科学家们依旧
the uncharted territory of the microcosmos
探索着这个未知而神秘的微观世界
and words alone would not suffice to describe the strange beings they uncovered.
仅仅用文字 描绘不出这些科学家们发现的奇妙生灵
So early microscopic research was not just a scientific endeavor,
因此早期的微生物研究不仅是科学成果
it was an artistic one,
更是一门艺术
relying on illustrations of diatoms and rotifers
凭着硅藻 轮虫等微生物
and other creatures that could then
以及其它生物绘图的传播
be disseminated to those who were curious to see these new wonders.
才得以满足对这些新发现充满好奇的大众
One of the most impressive collections of microbial illustrations
其中有一幅最受瞩目的微生物绘图
was drawn by Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg,
由克里斯汀·戈特弗里德·埃伦伯格
a German naturalist in the 19th century
一位19世纪的德国博物学家所绘制
who amassed thousands and thousands of geological and biological samples,
他收集了成千上万的地质与生物样本
and who in turn produced thousands of sketches
并将样本在显微镜下的形象
based on the observations he made under the microscope.
绘制了成千上万的图谱
Today, we will be taking a bit of a turn from our normal content,
今天 我们来稍稍切换一下视频的内容
shifting our focus from microbes to a scientist
将视角从微生物转到一位科学家上
whose extensive documentation of them influenced
他对微生物的广泛记录
the fields of microbiology and micropaleontology.
影响了微生物学及微古生物学的发展
We’re going to be talking about Ehrenberg’s life
我们将通过Ehrenberg笔下的微生物绘图
while showing you his drawings,
向你讲述他的传奇一生
which come from the collection of his works maintained
这些绘图由柏林自然历史博物馆
at the Museum of Natural History in Berlin.
收录并保存
And we will also share our own videos of those same species
同时 我们也会在视频中 配上与绘图相对应的同种生物
so you can see how the details he sketched out by hand
便于你将他笔下描绘的细节
stack up against what our cameras can record from our microscopes today
同我们的相机在显微镜下记录的微生物进行对比
So let’s start with the early days of Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg’s scientific career.
咱们就从Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg早期的科研生涯讲起吧
Born in 1795,
他生于1795年
Ehrenberg earned his doctorate in 1818 from the University of Berlin.
1818年 在柏林大学取得博士学位
In his thesis,
在他的论文里
he described 250 species of fungi from around the city,
他载述了分布在城市周边的250种真菌
but most notable was his observation
但他最显著的观测成果
that fungi are born from spores
则是发现了菌类由孢子衍生
and not–as many theorized at the time–spontaneously generated.
而非当时的主流学说认定的——自发产生
Two years later,
两年后
Ehrenberg joined an archaeological expedition to Egypt
他加入了考古远征队 远赴埃及
that would end up somewhat disastrous.
但结果却极为惨淡
At one point,
一方面
the funders claimed to have “lost” the money meant for the travelers.
赞助方声称“丢失”了为本次旅行者的资助金
Then, one of Ehrenberg’s compatriots almost died from a snake bite.
另一方面 他的一位同胞因毒蛇咬伤而几近死亡
And then later actually died of Typhus.
而后朋友因斑疹伤寒死去
Despite the physical and emotional trials,
尽管遭受了生理与心理的双重打击
Ehrenberg was able to send tens of thousands
他仍为德国提供了成千上万的
of animal, plant, and rock samples to Germany.
动植物采样及岩石样本
Except that when he returned home five years later,
遗憾的是 当他在五年后归国时
many of those samples had been damaged,
许多样品已经损毁
and another bunch had been sold.
另一部分则被卖掉了
This was a discouraging outcome.
这确实是个遗憾的结局
But when Ehrenberg was offered the chance
但在1829年 当Ehrenberg得知有机会
to join the esteemed naturalist Alexander Humboldt
同受人敬仰的博物学家Alexander Humboldt一起
on an expedition to Russia and Siberia in 1829,
加入前往俄罗斯和西伯利亚的远征队时
he seized the opportunity.
他抓住了机会
Fortunately, this expedition turned out to be much less calamitous.
幸运的是 此行不像上次多灾多难
Both of these expeditions provided Ehrenberg
两次远征中收集的众多样本
with a wealth of samples to draw from in his study of the natural world.
为他的创作提供了大量素材
And more importantly,
更重要的是
they would shape his fascinations with microbes,
这种他称为“纤毛虫纲”的微生物
which he called “Infusoria.”
使他对微生物无比着迷
Ehrenberg was loyal to his microscope,
Ehrenberg十分钟爱他的显微镜
relying on the same one for decades
数十年来都坚持使用同一个显微镜
to study the “Infusoria” sampled from various waters.
用以研究不同水样中的纤毛虫样本
He uncovered some of the ways
他发现了这些鲜为人知的生物
these little known creatures were connected
与它们繁衍生息的广大世界
with the larger world they lived in,
进行交流的几种途径
like the planktonic microorganisms
例如 浮游着的微生物
he realized were the source of phosphorescence in the Red Sea,
正是红海发出磷光的原因
and the diatoms whose silica casings became part of the Earth.
而硅藻的硅化外壳成了地球的一部分
Now many of the samples he observed under the microscope
时至今日 他在显微镜下观察的样本
were embedded into mica and covered in Canada balsam.
大多都镶入云母或被加拿大香脂胶包裹
Magnifying his various specimens 300 times,
他用一只纤细的灰铅笔
Ehrenberg drew out what he saw with a fine grey pencil,
将放大300倍的各种样本记录下来
sometimes adding pigment using watercolor.
有时他会用水彩着色
But no man can be correct all the time,
但人无完人
and Ehrenberg’s refusal to update his microscope
Ehrenberg拒绝使用新型显微镜
may have led to one of his most notable mistakes.
可能也因此酿成了他最大的差错
He thought that all of the organisms he observed
他认为他观察的所有微生物
must be animals, even the unicellular ones.
都是动物 甚至是单细胞生物
In some cases, what he claimed were eggs and sexual organs
有些例子中 他声称为卵子与生殖器的部分
were later revealed to be nuclei.
在后来被证实为细胞核
Still, mistakes aside,
不过 撇开错误不谈
his work further solidified the study of Infusoria,
他的科研成果进一步巩固了对纤毛虫纲的研究
and his collections and remarks on microbial fossils
而他在微生物化石方面的记录与成就
paved the way for micropaleontology.
则为微古生物学铺平了道路
While Ehrenberg’s later expeditions
尽管Ehrenberg以后的探险距离
were not quite as distant as his first two,
不如他第一次及第二次远征
this was an age where naturalists were venturing all over the globe to gather samples.
那是一个博物学家遍览全球 收集样品的时代
And Ehrenberg happened to be corresponding with quite a few of those naturalists.
而Ehrenberg正好与许多博物学家有联系
They would send him bits of living things,
他们从世界各地向Ehrenberg邮寄了许多生物
rock, soil, and more from just about everywhere.
诸如岩样 土壤和其他东西
It’s like a postcard for your naturalist pen pal.
就像是博物学家们为笔友互赠明信片
Charles Darwin even sent him dust
查尔斯·达尔文甚至将佛得角群岛附近
that had blown on to his ship near the Cape Verde islands.
被风吹起后落在船上的泥土赠与他
In 1854,
1854年
Ehrenberg published one of his most famous works: Mikrogeologie.
Ehrenberg出版了他最著名的书籍之一《Mikrogeologie》
I don’t speak German so I could just say Microgeology.
我不会说德语 就直接称它《微观地质学》吧
It’s a 2-volume text
这本书共有两册
that compiled observations on North American and European sediments
囊括了对北美及欧洲的沉积物
and the microbes they housed.
以及对其中所含微生物的观察
The book would cost you $72,
这本书售价72美元
which was not cheap in 1854,
这在1854年的时候 可不便宜
but it might be worth it for 4,000 of these illustrations.
但为了这4000张绘图 也挺值的
Ehrenberg died in 1867,
Ehrenberg于1867年逝世
after which his collection was eventually moved
他去世后 他的作品被转移到
to the Museum of Natural History in Berlin.
柏林自然历史博物馆中
Part of the collection’s value lies in just how vast it is, both in the types of samples it contains
他的部分作品 因其包含样品种类之繁复
and the geographical range they come from.
来源地区之广泛而价值连城
In total, there are more than 40,000 microscope sample preparations,
总计共有 超过4万个显微镜观察样本
thousands of specimens and illustrations, and hundreds of letters.
上千个标本和绘图 以及上百封信
His daughter Clara helped with both the drawings
他的女儿Clara帮忙收集绘图
and compiling an index to link all these samples together
并制作了所有样本图片的索引
which has proven essential in making sense of his immense work.
这在解读他的诸多成果时具有重要意义
But the knowledge contained in this collection
但其中所包含的知识
would become hard to reach for some time.
有时也很令人费解
For decades, a mix of war, politics,
数十年来 由于战争 政治和经济的因素
and finances kept it inaccessible.
许多人都没有阅览此书的途径
It was even at one point believed to be lost.
有段时间 人们甚至以为它失踪了
Fortunately, that was not true, and in the late 1960s,
幸运的是 一切都是谣传 在1960年后期
curators began to restore it.
管理员们开始修复这部合集
Progress was slow and briefly threatened when in 1982,
修复工作进展缓慢 在1982年还差点被毁坏
a fire broke out in the museum’s roof
当时遇上博物馆失火
close to where the collection was stored.
火源离书籍位置很近
The museum curators responded quickly to save it,
但幸亏管理员们反应及时
and ultimately these historical documents survived
最终将这些历史相关的记录文件救了下来
with only a little water damage.
只是打湿了一部分文件
And through all of these dire situations,
尽管历经千难万险
the curators persevered in their intention to make the collection accessible.
管理员们的悉心照料让这些作品得以保存
In 1998,
在1998年
they released a CD-ROM containing scanned images
他们发行了包含绘图 信件和索引的
of the illustrations, letters, and indexes.
一套光盘扫描件
And now, if you want to explore the images at your leisure,
现在 如果你想在闲暇之时 探索这些图片的话
the museum has made them available to download on their website.
可在博物馆网站上直接下载
And why wouldn’t you?
话说回来 为什么不呢
So there’s a link in the description.
在简介里附有网址链接
The more recent availability of the collection
将这些资料提供给大众
has inspired more scientific work.
更能推动科学研究的发展
A group of Brazilian scientists studied Ehrenberg’s records
一个来自巴西的科学家小组
on diatom samples taken from their country
研究了Ehrenberg记录的巴西硅藻样本
essentially repatriating data
填补了以往的数据空白
and allowing for a study of biodiversity across time.
让他们能研究 历史前后的生物多样性
Another group of researchers extracted
另一个研究小组
and examined bacteria from some of Darwin’s dust samples
提取并检验了一些达尔文的泥土样本
confirming just how resilient bacteria can be.
确认了细菌具有强大的复原能力
Technology, of course, has given us new ways
科技让我们有更多的方式
to document and share the microbial world.
来记录和分享微观世界
One of the coolest parts of our job
在我们制作《微观旅途》的每一期视频时
as we assemble each episode of Journey to the Microcosmos
最激动人心的一点
is that we get to spend so much time
就是我们可以花大量的时间
watching microbes and appreciating their beauty,
观察 并欣赏微生物之美
A pursuit that Ehrenberg could surely relate to.
Ehrenberg对此肯定也有同感
But the fact that we can record what we see on video
但实际上 视频中的微生物记录
is built on advances in microscopes and cameras.
都有显微镜和相机的辅助
Moreover, when we want to share what we see with the world,
而且 我们想和世界分享我们的观察时
we don’t have to send you images via mail
我们不必邮寄图片
or compile them over two decades.
或是编写图书二十年
We just hit a button on YouTube,
我们只需将视频上传到YouTube
and the whole world can watch if it chooses.
点击一下 整个世界都能看到
That same technological progress has made Ehrenberg’s collection more accessible.
同样的科技 也让Ehrenberg的作品更加容易获取
In an age of big data,
在大数据时代
his illustrations and his documents are a physical trove of information
他的绘图和文档记录是一份宝藏
whose promise we’re still understanding.
我们明白他的寄望
It’s a common mistake to think of
很多人都错误地认为
science and art as separate endeavors,
科学和艺术是分开的
but they’re linked by creativity and by the human desire
但两者被人类的创造力和好奇心连在一起
to make sense of the world around us.
让我们理解周围的世界
Time and invention have only given us more ways
时间和发明给我们提供更多
to engage science and art together,
通往科学和艺术的路径
and in the same way that we’ve found beauty
同样地 我们在前人的照耀下
and meaning in the stars above us,
发现美好 获得启迪
there are also answers in the infusoria that surrounds.
这也是“纤毛虫”带给我们的答案
Thank you for coming on this journey with us
感谢您和我们一起
as we explore the unseen world that surrounds us.
踏上探索周围未知世界的旅程
Thank you to all of the curators
感谢所有的管理员
who protected Ehrenberg’s work,
保护了Ehrenberg的科研成果
and also, hey, thanks to Ehrenberg himself.
同时 也要感谢Ehrenberg本人
I know he’s not around to hear it,
我知道 他现在听不到这句感谢
but his work is appreciated.
但他的作品会继续流传
And of course thank you to all of the people
当然了 也感谢这些
whose names are on the screen right now.
出现在屏幕上的会员
If you like this show, they’re the reason it can exist.
您对本栏目的喜爱 就是栏目开设原因
They are our supporters on Patreon.
这是在众筹网上的赞助会员
If you would like to join them,
如果你想加入会员
check out patreon.com/journeytomicro.
搜索patreon com/journeytomicro
There’s a link in the description.
简介里附有链接哟
If you want to see more from our Master of Microscopes James,
如果想要了解更多《显微镜大师:James》
you can check out Jam & Germs on Instagram.
您可在Ins上搜索Jam & Germs
And if you want to see more from us every week,
如果您想每周收看本栏目的话
just go to youtube.com/microcosmos to see what we’ve been up to.
那就去YouTube看看我们最新的动态吧

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

微观世界的发现离不开前人的耕耘及后人的传承。在人类对大自然探索的道路上,不变的是科学中蕴含的美以及人们对微观世界永不停歇的好奇心。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

刘小贵

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PKMUJdn09OU

相关推荐