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伴随人类终身的微生物 – 译学馆
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伴随人类终身的微生物

The microbes that live with us from cradle to grave

和组成我们身体的细胞共存的
Alongside the cells that make up our bodies,
有数亿的微生物
there are trillions of microscopic organisms.
不仅有脏器里帮我们消化的有益细菌
It’s not just the friendly bacteria in our guts that help us digest food.
还有些存活在我们的皮肤 嘴里以及阴道里
Bacteria live on our skin, in our mouths and in the vagina.
不单单有细菌
And it’s not just bacteria –
我们人体还是病毒 真菌以及古生菌的温床
we’re home to populations of viruses, fungi and archaea too.
这些微生物从什么时候开始出现在体内呢
When does this colonisation begin?
大部分科学家认为 人在出生后才携带了细菌
Most scientists think we acquireour first bacteria when we’re born
出生之前 胎儿生活在无菌环境里
and before that, babies developin a sterile environment.
但最近一些研究
But recently, a few studies have found traces
在包裹着胎儿的羊水和胎盘中
of bacterial DNA in the placenta and in the amniotic fluid
发现了细菌DNA的痕迹
that surrounds the foetus,
也在新生儿的初便里发现了细菌DNA
as well as in meconium – a baby’s first poo.
这能证明细菌在我们出生之前就有了吗
Could this be evidence ofbacteria living with us before birth?
可能吧 但许多科学家认为 这些发现是样本被污染的结果
Maybe,but many scientists think these findings could be the result of contamination.
这件事至今仍有争议
There’s an ongoing debate.
无论答案是什么
Whatever the answer,
大家都同意 一开始较多的微生物是在出生时或出生不久后才有的
everyone agrees that the first major colonisation occurs during and just after birth.
婴儿从阴道分娩出来 在通过产道时
Babies born by vaginaldelivery get a dose of bacteria
沾上了来自母亲的大量细菌
from their mothers as theypass through the birth canal.
出生后 婴儿又从空气 接触到的物品
After birth, the baby acquiresmore microbes from the air
以及周围的人群中接受到更多细菌
and from contact withobjects and people around her.
在她成长过程中
As she grows,
影响她体内微生物群的因素有很多——
many factors influence the makeup of her microbiota –
她的饮食 她是否服用抗生素或者其它药
her diet, whether or not she takes antibiotics or other drugs,
她和多少人互动
how many people she interacts with,
她是否有宠物 她住在哪里 还有可能是基因组成
whether she has pets, where she lives and potentially also her genetic makeup.
生活在农村 周围都是动物和泥土的孩子
Children that live in rural areassurrounded by animals and dirt
和在城市环境长大的孩子有不同的微生物群
host different sets of microbes to children brought up in urban environments.
如果孩子没有接触各种各样的微生物
If children aren’t exposed to a wide variety of microbes,
他们似乎更可能
they seem to be more likely to
患自身免疫性和过敏疾病 例如哮喘和湿疹
develop autoimmune and allergicconditions, such as asthma and eczema.
这被称为卫生假设理论
This is known as the hygiene hypothesis,
这是微生物如何
and it’s one example of how
在生活中影响我们的健康的一个例子
our microbiota influencesour health throughout our lives.
成年后 我们的身体里的微生物
By adulthood, our bodies contain as many microscopic organisms
像人类细胞一样多 甚至更多
as human cells, if not more.
我们的身体机能依赖着这些微小群体
Our physiology relies on these communities.
例如 它们能抵抗有害细菌 帮助我们消化食物
For example, they protect us from harmful bacteria and help us digest food.
微生物分解食物的同时 释放代谢分子
As microbes break down food, theyproduce molecules called metabolites
这种分子在血液中循环
which circulate in the bloodstream,
到达我们身体的所有组织并影响新陈代谢
reaching all tissues of the body and affecting our metabolism.
多元化肠道微生物群落有助于健康的新陈代谢
A diverse community of gut microbescontributes to a healthy metabolism.
较单一的微生物群与炎性肠道疾病有关
A less diverse microbiota is associatedwith inflammatory bowel disease,
例如肥胖症和2型糖尿病
obesity and type 2 diabetes.
一些研究甚至显示
Some studies even suggest
微生物新陈代谢能影响我们的大脑和精神健康
that microbial metabolites can affect the brain and influence our mental health.
随着年龄的增长 我们体内的微生物持续变化
As we get older, our microbiota continues to change.
研究表明 老年人的肠道微生物群
Studies show that the gut microbiota of older people differs
和年轻人的不同
from that of young adults,
可能促成与衰老有关的免疫系统和脑功能的变化
potentially contributing to ageing related changes to our immune system and brain function.
仍然有太多
There’s an awful lot still to learn
关于我们体内生活的这么多微生物
about how the many microorganisms that live with us
如何影响我们的幸福以及我们的健康需要了解
contribute to our wellbeing and influence our health.
我们需要更好地理解为什么微生物因人而异
We need a better understanding ofwhy microbes differ between people
并且这种不同怎样影响我们的生物学
and how these differences affect our biology.
尤其是 我们需要更多
And,in particular, we needmore studies of microbiomes
非白种人以及世界各地的微生物研究
in non-white populations andfrom all regions of the world.
有一点很清楚 没有这些微生物就没有现在的我们
What is clear is that without these microbes, we wouldn’t be here.

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视频概述

在你的体内有上万亿种微生物:细菌、病毒、真菌和古细菌——统称为微生物群。在过去的十年里,我们了解到这些社区有助于塑造我们的生理机能,并为我们的健康做出贡献。但仍有许多问题:我们体内什么时候第一批微生物?我们的微生物群在我们的一生中是如何变化的?这些变化在人与人之间是如何不同的?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c_ZRZkU-FEw

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