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肉食悖论

The Meat Paradox

想象一下 你正坐下来吃饭 点了一份香肠肉卷
Imagine you’re sitting down to lunch and you order a sausage roll.
但当它被端上来时 却伴随着不寻常的信息
Though when it arrives, it’s accompaniedby an unusual message.
许多的动物 像猪和牛啊
“ Many animals – pigs and cows –
被残忍的屠杀 遭受着残酷可怕的死亡
were slaughtered, suffered a cruel and horrible death and felt
并饱受折磨就为了给你的午餐提供鲜肉
pain to provide the meat for your lunch.” So,
尽管如此 你还要吃它吗?
do you still eat it?
那…为什么呢?
And… why?
从表面上看 整个情况就是让人感到不舒服的
On the outside, the whole situation is justuncomfortable.
你想要吃肉
You want to eat meat,
但你也认为虐待动物是不道德的
but you also think that animal torture is immoral.
在你的内心深处 你的大脑正在崩溃
On the inside, your brain is freaking out.
人们对肉类的饮食偏好
This psychological conflict
和他们对动物痛苦的反应之间的这种心理冲突
between people’s dietary preference for meat and their response
被称为“肉食悖论”
to animal suffering is known as“The Meat Paradox”
而你对肉食悖论的反应
And your response to The Meat
可以告诉你一些关于你如何做决定的
Paradox can tell you some pretty interesting things about
非常有趣的事情
how you make decisions.
现在 回到是否吃香肠肉卷的两难困境中
Now, think back to the sausage roll dilemma
到底为什么 你可能仍然会吃它
and why you potentially still ate it.
你也许会说“它已经是我的盘中餐了
You might say,”it’s already on my plate.
我能怎么办?”或者是
What am I going to do?” or
“人类是超级食肉动物 我们本就该吃肉
“ humans are a Super Predator and we’re
我们只是在自然选择的游戏中
meant to eat meat and we’re just doing our part in
做好自己的那一部分”
the game of natural selection.”
但是茱莉亚·肖博士却称之为 胡说八道
But Dr. Julia Shaw would call bullshit!
我想说这是
I’d say that is the ultimate,
试图将出卖道德的最终结果
ultimates cop out for trying to outsource morality
然后说 吃肉并没有那么糟糕
and say, meat eating is not so bad
肖博士是伦敦大学学院的研究助理
Now Dr. Shaw is a research associate at UCL,
同时也是我第一次读到关于肉食悖论的
and the author of the new book EVIL, where I first read about
新书《EVIL》的作者
the Meat Paradox
所以 我自然而然地想和她谈谈
So, naturally, I wanted to come and speak with her
了解为什么我们经常重复那些对自己
to understand why we often repeat behaviours
对他人或动物有害的行为
that harmful either to ourselves, or to others, or to animals
肉食悖论的矛盾在于 我们认为动物很可爱
The meat paradox is the inconsistency between our belief that animals are cute
我们需要保护它们
And we need to protect them.
我们也许不应该虐待它们
And we probably shouldn’t torture them.
而另一方面呢
And on the other hand,
它们却变成美食并被吃掉 而在此过程中
eating them and turning them into meat and in the process
被放进养殖厂并以不同的方式折磨它们
putting them in factory farms and torturing them in various ways.
那么很明显这两种想法是相互矛盾的
And so clearly these two beliefs are inconsistent with each other.
这就是我们所说的认知失调
And that’s what we call cognitive dissonance
即我们同时持有两种信念
is that we hold two beliefs at the same time
悖论就在其间
And the paradox lies in the middle.
现在让我们回过头来了解一下
Now it’s helpful to take a step back and understand
认知失调的概念是从何而来是很有帮助的
Where this idea of cognitive dissonance came from
认知失调背后的想法实际是来自于
The idea behind cognitive dissonance actually came from
60年代的由一个叫Festinger的人做的一项研究
a study in the 60s by someone called Festinger
他让参与者拿起线轴
who took participants and made them
并把它们放进托盘里
take spools and put them in a tray.
然后让参与者把托盘装满线轴
And then he had participants fill the tray with spools
接着他把它们倒出来
and then he had the dump them
再重复做一次
back out and do it again.
就这样 反反复复
So back in, back out, back in, back out.
他让他们做这些极其无聊的任务
And so he made them do these really boring task.
他们的想法是 在完成了这个
And the idea was that they would after they did
十分无聊的任务后 寻找下一批参与者
this really boring task, go to the next participant,
告诉他们这是一项非常有趣的研究
say that it was a really fun study,
所以他们要么得到一美元
and then they would get either paid
要么得到20美元来说谎
$1 or they’d get paid $20 to say this lie.
你可以说我得到了20英镑
So either you can say I got paid 20 pounds.
这也没关系
And so it’s fine.
那么 我说
And so I’m, the reason I said
这是个有意思的任务的原因是
at the reason I said it was an enjoyable task is because
因为我从中得到了报酬
I got paid money for it.
所以 我不需要改变我对它的感觉
And so I don’t need to change how I felt about it.
但是如果你只得到1英镑
But if you only got paid one pound
而这并不足以让你觉得
and instead that’s not enough to make you feel like that
可以当做欺骗自己的借口
excuse is lying you instead.
而这就是他发现的
And this is what he found a change how you feel
改变你对任务的感觉
about the task
你会认为
and you instead think that,
你知道吗 把线轴放在托盘里然后拿出来
you know what, putting spools in trays and taking them out
没问题
Fine
我实际上玩的挺高兴的
I actually had a pretty good time.
结果是
And so what’s happened is
你在这两件事上
that you’ve had this cognitive dissonance between
产生了认知失调
these two things at you.
你不喜欢做的事
The thing you didn’t like to do
你却说你喜欢
saying you liked it and you had to
你必须得让它们一致
bring them into alignment somehow
所以他称这种经历为两种不同的观念的
And so he called this experience having this two Inconsistent beliefs
认知失调
Cognitive dissonance.
这种前后矛盾的行为发生在许多其他的领域
And this inconsistent behaviour happens in lots of other areas.
就像我们买快时尚的东西 一方面我们认为
I like when we buy fast fashion, so on the one hand we think
少付员工工资或是让人们
that it’s not okay to underpay people or to put people in
处于危险的工作环境中是不好的
really dangerous working conditions.
但我们还是去便宜的商店
And yet we show up at cheap shops
买非常便宜的东西
and we buy things that are really cheap
仅仅因为它的标价
just because of the price tag.
差不多是这样
Um…so there’s that.
还有一些更复杂的事情 比如
And then there’s other more complicated things like,
一方面就像色情电影一样
like porn where on the one hand, it’s
花钱找人跟你上床是不好的
not okay to pay someone to have sex with you,
而在许多国家色情是合法的
but porn is legal in many countries where
但卖淫是不允许的
prostitution is not.
所以有很多此类例子
So there’s a lot of inconsistencies on very low levels
但也有更极端或更严重的情况
but also and more extreme or more severe levels. Um,
这就引出了
that really point to questions
我们作为人类该如何处理这个问题
as to how do we deal with this as human beings?
我们该如何处理这些矛盾
How do we deal with these inconsistencies?
现在回到肉食悖论
Now back to The Meat Paradox
我们需要做的就是
And so what we need to do is either
要么为我们需要吃肉找借口
we need to excuse meat eating
说 没关系 我们需要吃肉
by saying it’s okay because we need it
没关系的 这是人文上的事情
It’s okay because it’s culturally something
这是我们该做的事情
It’s something we do,
又或者是我们需要做一个素食主义者 对我们
or we need to be Vegan and actually be consistent with our cute animals
可爱的小动物始终如一 然后说 你知道吗
approach and say, you know what?
把小动物变成肉是不好的 因为它们很可爱
It’s not okay to turn animals into meat because they’re cute.
所以你始终坚持自己的行为和思想
And so you’re a consistent in your actions and your thoughts.
我们对肉食悖论的反应说明了什么
What does our response to the meat paradox say about ourselves?
我认为这表明我们在道德上经常存在严重的矛盾
I think it’s shows that we are often deeply inconsistent in our morality.
而“肉”就是一个极好的例子 告诉我们
I think that “meat” is one good example where there’s lots of excuses.
我们总是有很多的借口不断地告诉自己
We’re constantly telling ourselves a story
这样做是可以的
that it’s okay to do so
因为其他人也在这样做
because everybody else is doing it.
因为有这个行业 这不是我们的问题
Because there’s industry and it’s notour problem. Um,
我认为这
and I think it’s,
这一点在其他行业也有很多体现
it’s just reflected on in so many ways on it in other industries.
所以我们只需要非常 非常小心
And so we just need to be very very careful
至少我们可以接受这样一个事实
that we can at least accept the fact that
我们是虚伪的 不要生气
we’re being hypocritical and don’t get angry
例如 当有人挑战我们的时候
For example, when someone challenges us and says,
如果这种行为存在问题
if there are problems with that behaviour, uh,
我们实际上反而会反思
instead that we actually reflect on it.
如果不一致的话
And then if it isn’t consistent,
理想情况下 我们确实会改变我们的行为
that ideally we do change our behaviour more in line with
更符合我们的深度 更周全 然后不这样做了
our deeper, more compass and we stop,
例如 吃更多的动物产品
for example, eating as many animal products
我们停止疯狂地污染地球
We stop polluting the planet
停止购买廉价的衣服
like crazy and we stop buying cheap clothes
只是因为它的标价
just because of the price tag
所以关于这一点 你可能会想 谁在乎呢?
So what this point, you may be thinking… who cares?
或者是我现在该怎么办?
Or what do I do now?
如果你能改变你的行为
If you can modif your behaviours to bring them
让它更符合你的道德信仰 好极了
more in line with your moral beliefs, great!
但你最应该做的事情就是
But the most achievable thing that you can do
不要批评那些
is to not criticize other people
违背这些信念的人
who behave against those beliefs
我们为自己的行为创造了这些事后的借口
we’re fantastic creating these post hoc excuses
但我们仍然对他人的行为
for our own behavior, but we still remain highly critical
持高度批判的态度
of other people’s behavior
肉食悖论是没有解决方案的
There is no solution to The Meat Paradox
但香肠卷里却蕴含着一个信息
but there is a message wrapped up in the sausage roll.
我们都是矛盾的个体
We’re all inconsistent beings.
当我们不能做到更好时
And when we can’t behave better,
我们就能更好地理解他人
and we can be more understanding of others
更好地对待他们 所以
and treat them better. So,
友善待人
be nice.
几年前 我看了一部
Now a few years ago I watched this
名为《我们的科学》的新西兰的纪录片
New Zealand documentary called The Science of Us
讲的是在达尼丁进行的一项大型纵向研究
that’s about this huge longitudinal study in Dunedin
研究结果非常有趣
The findings from it were so interesting,
事实上 我们一直在思考这个问题
actually think about it all of the time,
然后我很兴奋地发现它现在可以在CuriosityStream上买到了
and I’m stoked to find out it’s now available on CuriosityStream
就是今天视频的赞助者
who is the sponsor of today’s video.
他们是一个订阅流媒体服务 拥有数以千计的记录片 纪实类作品
They’re a subscription streaming servicewith thousands of documentaries, nonfiction
和一些世界上最好的电影制作人的原创作品
titles and originals from some of the world’s best filmmakers.
每个月 $2.99可以无限制访问
Unlimited access starts at two ninety nine a month,
但对于《打磨脑细胞》 的观众来说
but for BrainCraft viewers is the first 30-days
如果你在 curiositystream.com/braincraft 注册
are completely free if you sign up
并在注册期间
at curiositystream.com/braincraft
使用《打磨脑细胞》的优惠码
and use the promo code braincraft during
头三十天将是免费的哦
the sign up praises
谢谢观看
Thanks

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视频概述

人都是矛盾的个体

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Q6Rx9WAkcY

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