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生命的意义

The meaning of life according to Simone de Beauvoir - Iseult Gillespie

一个人不是生来就是女性 而是被塑造成女性 ——西蒙·德·波伏娃《第二性》
At the age of 21,
在法国最富盛名的大学
Simone de Beauvoir became the youngest person
参加哲学科考试的人中
to take the philosophy exams at France’s most esteemed university.
21岁的西蒙·德·波伏娃是最年轻的一个
She passed with flying colors.
她以优异的成绩通过了
But as soon as she mastered the rules of philosophy,
波伏娃掌握了哲学原理后
she wanted to break them.
就想要打破陈规
She’d been schooled on Plato’s Theory of Forms,
她学的是柏拉图的理念论
which dismissed the physical world
这一理论对物质世界不屑一顾
as a flawed reflection of higher truths and unchanging ideals.
认为其对更高真理和不变理想的反映存在缺陷
But for de Beauvoir,
但对德·波伏娃来说
earthly life was enthralling, sensual,
俗世生活是感性迷人的
and anything but static.
绝不是一潭死水
Her desire to explore the physical world to its fullest
她想把物质世界探索到底
would shape her life,
这一愿望塑造了她的一生
and eventually, inspire a radical
最后波伏娃受到启发
new philosophy.
发现了一种激进的新哲学
Endlessly debating with her romantic
她不断地和自己的
and intellectual partner Jean Paul Sartre,
爱情与精神伴侣让·保罗·萨特辩论
de Beauvoir explored free will, desire, rights and responsibilities,
德·波伏娃对自由意志 欲望 权利和责任
and the value of personal experience.
以及个人经历的价值进行了探索
In the years following WWII,
在二战刚结束的那几年
these ideas would converge into the school of thought
这些思想汇集成了一个学派
most closely associated with their work:
学派的思想与他们的著作息息相关:
existentialism.
存在主义
Where Judeo-Christian traditions taught that
犹太基督教传统认为
humans are born with preordained purpose,
人类带着命定的目的来到世间
de Beauvoir and Sartre proposed a revolutionary alternative.
但波伏娃和萨特提出了另一个革命性的想法
They argued that humans are born free,
他们认为人类出生时是自由的
and thrown into existence without a divine plan.
人的存在不是上天的安排
As de Beauvoir acknowledged,
德· 波伏娃意识到
this freedom is both a blessing and a burden.
这份自由既是福祉也是负担
In “The Ethics of Ambiguity”
她在《建立一种模棱两可的伦理学》中提出
she argued that our greatest ethical imperative
我们在伦理上要做的最重要的事
is to create our own life’s meaning,
就是创造自己人生的意义
while protecting the freedom of others to do the same.
同时捍卫别人创造意义的自由
As de Beauvoir wrote,
德·波伏娃写道
“A freedom which is interested only in denying freedom
“一种只想否定自由的自由
must be denied.”
必须被否定”
This philosophy challenged its students
认同这一哲学的人面临着的挑战是
to navigate the ambiguities and conflicts our desires produce,
需要在欲望带来的不确定性和矛盾中
both internally and externally.
找到内心和外界的方向
And as de Beauvoir sought to find her own purpose,
在德·波伏娃寻找人生意义的过程中
she began to question:
她开始质疑
if everyone deserves to freely pursue meaning,
如果每个人都应当有追寻意义的自由
why was she restricted by society’s
为什么她还要被社会所定义的
ideals of womanhood?
女性理想形象所束缚呢?
Despite her prolific writing,
虽然她在不断写作与教学
teaching and activism,
积极参加社会活动
de Beauvoir struggled to be taken seriously by her male peers.
德·波伏娃还是很难得到男性同僚们的认可
She’d rejected her Catholic upbringing
她远离了家里的天主教环境
and marital expectations
拒绝遵循对她的婚姻期待
to study at university,
在大学里做研究
and write memoirs, fiction and philosophy.
写回忆录 小说和哲学著作
But the risks she was taking by embracing this lifestyle
但是她选择这一生活方式所承担的风险
were lost on many of her male counterparts,
是她的很多男性同僚们难以想象的
who took these freedoms for granted.
他们认为这些自由是理所应当的
They had no intellectual interest
他们对波伏娃
in de Beauvoir’s work, which explored women’s inner lives,
探索女性内心世界的作品
as well as the author’s open relationship and bisexuality.
以及作者本人的开放式关系和双性恋身份毫不关心
To convey the importance of her perspective,
为了让大家明白女性的视角有多重要
de Beauvoir embarked on her
德·波伏娃开始写
most challenging book yet.
她最具挑战性的那本著作
Just as she’d created the foundations of existentialism,
波伏娃不仅是存在主义的奠基人
she’d now redefine the limits of gender.
现在她又将重新定义性别限制
Published in 1949, “The Second Sex” argues that,
出版于1949年的《第二性》中提到
like our life’s meaning,
跟人生的意义一样
gender is not predestined.
性别也不是命定的
As de Beauvoir famously wrote,
德·波伏娃的下面这句话很有名
“one is not born, but rather becomes, woman.”
“一个人不是生来就是女性 而是被塑造成女性”
And to “become” a woman, she argued,
“被塑造成”女性 她写道
was to become the Other.
就是被塑造成“另一类人”
De Beauvoir defined Othering
德·波伏娃将“另类化”定义为
as the process of labeling women
给女性贴标签的过程
as less than the men who’d historically defined,
这一标签即为“女性比男性低一等”
and been defined as, the ideal human subjects.
男性从古至今都被定义为完美的人类主体
As the Other, she argued that women were considered
她提出 作为另一类人的女性
second to men,
被认为是比男性低一等的
and therefore systematically restricted from pursuing freedom.
因此女性对自由的追寻受到了体系的限制
“The Second Sex” became an essential feminist treatise,
《第二性》成为了女权主义的核心专著
offering a detailed history of women’s oppression
详细讲述了女性受压迫的历史
and a wealth of anecdotal testimony.
也用许多趣闻轶事进行论证
“The Second Sex”’s combination of personal experience
《第二性》既包含个人经历
and philosophical intervention
也有哲学思想的介入
provided a new language
为女权主义理论的探讨
to discuss feminist theory.
提供了一种新的话语体系
Today, those conversations are still informed by de Beauvoir’s insistence
德·波伏娃坚持认为 在追求平等的过程中
that in the pursuit of equality,
“哲学与生活是一体的”
“there is no divorce between philosophy and life.”
这一思想至今仍影响着女权主义的探讨
Of course, like any foundational work,
当然 跟所有的奠基性著作一样
the ideas in “The Second Sex”
在《第二性》出版后
have been expanded upon since its publication.
其中的思想不断得到拓展
Many modern thinkers have explored
很多现代思想家探究了
additional ways people are Othered
人被异化的其他途径
that de Beauvoir doesn’t acknowledge.
这些途径是德·波伏娃没有意识到的
These include racial and economic identities,
例如种族与经济认同
as well as the broader spectrum of
以及我们现在了解到的
gender and sexual identities we understand today.
范围更广的性别与性身份
De Beauvoir’s legacy is further complicated by accusations of sexual misconduct
德·波伏娃的两个大学学生指控她性骚扰
by two of her university students.
这让后世对德·波伏娃看法变得更复杂了
In the face of these accusations,
因为这些指控
she had her teaching license revoked
她的教师资格证被撤销
for abusing her position.
理由是滥用职权
In this aspect and others,
在各个方面
de Beauvoir’s life remains controversial—
德·波伏娃的生活都存在争议
and her work represents a contentious moment
她的作品也体现了早期女权主义刚出现时
in the emergence of early feminism.
十分具有争议性
She participated in those conversations for the rest of her life;
她余生一直在参与女权主义探讨
writing fiction, philosophy, and memoirs
写小说 哲学著作和回忆录
until her death in 1986.
直到1986年去世
Today, her work offers a philosophical language
她的著作提供了一种哲学话语体系
to be reimagined, revisited and rebelled against—
当下对这一体系的反思 审视与挑战
a response this revolutionary thinker might have welcomed.
或许是这位革命性的思想家很愿意看到的
Did you know that Marie Curie is the only person
你知不知道玛丽·居里是唯一一个
to have won Nobel Prizes in two different scientific discipline,
在两个不同科学领域获得诺贝尔奖的人
or that the most successful pirate of all time was a woman.
史上最成功的海盗是一名女性
Check out these videos to learn more about these legendary women.
来看看这些视频 了解更多女性的传奇事迹吧

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视频概述

简要介绍了波伏娃的人生经历和思想。

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ws2Y2cWme8c

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