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化学的地图

The Map of Chemistry

The Universe is made of matter.
宇宙是由物质构成的
98% of this matter (ignoring the dark matter)
物质中(忽略暗物质)
is pure Hydrogen and Helium,
98%的成分是纯粹的氢和氦
but thankfully, billions of years ago
但值得庆幸的是 数十亿年前
supergiant stars fuse the hydrogen and helium into all the other elements
超巨星将氢和氦融合成所有其他元素
and then exploded them all over the Universe
之后在整个宇宙中爆炸
and that’s where chemistry came from.
这就是化学的来源
These elements grouped together
这些元素组合成
into a vast array of different molecules,
大量不同的分子
and these molecules combined with each other
而这些分子相互之间
in a stupendous number of complicated ways.
以数量惊人的复杂方式相互结合
Chemistry is the subject that studies this matter in all of its forms
化学就是一门研究各种形态物质
and how it all interacts.
及他们之间如何相互作用的学科
It goes from simple atoms
化学的研究内容从简单的原子
right through to complex biological molecules
一直延伸到复杂的生物分子
like proteins and DNA.
如蛋白质和DNA
It is a huge, fascinating and complex subject,
化学是个庞大 迷人且复杂的学科
and this video is all of that condensed.
这段视频是关于化学相关内容的浓缩
Humans have had an interest in Chemistry for a very long time,
人类对化学的兴趣由来已久
we wouldn’t be what we are today
如果没有关于火的化学反应
if it was not for the chemical reaction of fire.
我们就不会是今天的样子
We used this to develop other chemical techniques
我们利用这一点开发出其他化学技术
from cooking food, making metal from ores
从烹饪食物 到用矿石制造金属
or making glass amongst many others.
或是制造玻璃等
Since then many advances of human civilisation
从那时起 人类文明的许多进步
have been built on the back of advances in chemistry
都建立在化学进步的基础上
like metal working, or manufacturing fertiliser,
如金属加工 制造肥料
or making new materials and drugs.
或制造新材料和药物
Lets look at what falls under the umbrella of chemistry.
我们来看一下化学都包含哪些内容
First there is matter
首先是物质
and all the different things that matter is made of.
以及所有由物质组成的不同事物
At the very smallest scale we start with atoms and the periodic table
在最小的维度上 我们从原子和元素周期表开始
that organizes all the different types of atom,
元素周期表中 把所有不同类型的原子组织起来
called chemical elements.
每组不同类型的元素被称为化学元素
Elements in each column have similar chemical properties.
每列中的元素具有相似的化学性质
Atoms are made of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
原子由原子核中的质子和中子
with electrons surrounding them
以及核外电子组成
and most of chemistry is due to how these electrons behave.
化学的大部分是由于这些电子的行为
By joining together atoms you get molecules
通过将原子连接在一起 会得到分子
and different kinds of molecule are called chemical compounds.
不同种类的分子被称为化合物
Chemical compounds usually have very different chemical properties
化合物通常具有与组成它们的元素
to the elements they are made from.
非常不同的化学性质
Think about it, Hydrogen is very explody,
试想一下 氢很容易爆炸
oxygen is very burny,
氧很容易燃烧
but combine them into H2O you get water,
但把它们结合成水分子 就形成水
the least explody burny thing around.
水是目前存在的爆炸性和可燃性最小的东西
Compounds don’t have to be made of singe molecules,
化合物不一定由单一分子构成
many solids like metals or salts have a crystal structure,
许多固体 如金属或盐具有晶体结构
made of repeating groups of atoms called unit cells.
由称为晶胞的重复原子基团组成
If you have several substances together you have a mixture,
如果几种物质在一起 就构成了混合物
like the air around you or a cake.
比如周围的空气或一块蛋糕
Now lets move onto how atoms stick together
现在让我们来谈谈原子是如何通过化学键
with the very important subject of bonding.
这一非常重要的课题结合在一起的
Atoms bond together in several different ways
原子以几种不同的方式成键
where they reduce their combined energy by
他们通过
stealing or sharing electrons,
窃取或共享电子或将其移动
or moving them into different configurations.
形成不同的构型来减少其组合能量
A universal rule in science is everything is always trying to minimise their energy
科学中的一条普遍规律是一切事物都在试图最小化它们的能量
and bonding is one way that atoms achieve that.
而成键是原子实现这个原则的一种方式
Understanding how energy moves around in chemical substances
了解能量在化学物质中如何运动
is vital to understand when reactions will or will not happen.
对于了解化学反应在何时是否会发生至关重要
For example wood won’t react with oxygen to start burning spontaneously,
例如 木材遇到氧气时不会自发燃烧
but if you give it enough energy to begin with it will.
但如果你一开始给它足够的能量 它就可以燃烧
Another example where energy is very important
另一个关于能量的非常重要的例子是
is where you can speed up a reaction between two other compounds
你可以通过引入催化剂
by introducing a catalyst,
来加速另外两种化合物的反应速度
and the catalyst make it more energetically favourable,
催化剂使反应能效更高
and so speeds up the reaction.
因此加快了反应速度
Energy also determines when compounds will exist in the different forms,
能量还决定了化合物何时以不同的形式存在
solid, liquid, or gas.
固体 液体或气体
Which form they will be found in comes from the temperature
化合物的形态取决于
that they are at and the pressure that they are under.
化合物所处的温度和压力
The values vary for each material,
使得每种材料形态变化的值都不一样
but in general things are solid at low temperature and/or high pressure,
但通常情况下 低温高压下形成固体
and gas at high temperature and low pressure.
在高温和低压下为气体
Another really interesting from of matter is a plasma
另一个非常有趣的物质是等离子体
which is where you rip electrons off atoms in a gas
这是指在气体中剥离原子所带的电子
to make them into ions,
使其成为离子
this is what is used to make neon lights.
这种方法被用来制造霓虹灯
Chemical reactions form the core of chemistry:
化学反应构成了化学的核心:
which compounds react with each other,
哪些化合物相互反应
why they react, and what is left over after a reaction.
它们为什么反应 以及反应后剩下什么
There are many different kinds of reaction
有许多不同类型的反应
which can be categorised in different ways.
可以用不同的方式进行分类
All of these reactions are governed by a set of fundamental rules called chemical laws
所有这些反应都受一组称为化学定律的基本规则控制
the foundation of which is the conservation of mass and energy
其基础是质量守恒和能量守恒
which means that no matter or energy is created or destroyed in a chemical reaction,
守恒是指在化学反应中 物质和能量都不会被创造或破坏
they just change to different forms.
它们只是转变成不同的形式
Kinetics is the study of how fast reactions happen,
动力学是研究反应发生的速度
and the things that control what the reaction rates are.
以及控制反应速率的因素
A reaction where electrons are transferred from one reactant to another
电子从一种反应物转移到另一种反应物的反应
is called a Oxidation-Reduction reaction,
被称为氧化还原作用
or a redox reaction for short.
或者简称为氧化还原反应
Oxidation means a loss of electrons from a substance,
氧化意味着物质中电子的损失
and reduction means the gain of electrons,
还原意味着电子的获得
and they have to happen together.
它们必须同时发生
An example is sodium and chlorine,
例如钠和氯
chlorine is the reducing agent, and sodium is the oxidising agent.
氯是还原剂 钠是氧化剂
Another important property of substances is that PH,
物质的另一个重要特性是其PH值
whether they are an acid or a base.
无论是酸还是碱都有PH值
There are several theories to model acid-base reaction,
有几种可以模拟中和反应的理论
but one way to think about it is that acids are substances
但有一种思路是 酸是一种在化学反应中
that have a hydrogen ion ready to give up in a chemical reaction
随时准备放弃氢离子的物质
and a base is a substance that takes a hydrogen ion.
而碱是一种获得氢离子的物质
If there are a number of different chemical compounds
如果有许多不同的化合物
which can react with each other back and forth.
可以相互来回反应
There can be swings between one substance and another.
一种物质和另一种物质之间可能存在变化
Equilibrium is where the amount of each substance is constant,
平衡是指 尽管在反应正在发生的过程中
even though a reaction may still be taking place.
每种物质的量也是恒定的
This can also happen in phase changes like from solid to liquid or liquid to gas.
这也可能发生在从固体到液体或从液体到气体的相变中
So those are the basics of chemistry.
这些是化学的基础
Research in chemistry looks at how these rules apply in different chemical systems.
化学研究着眼于这些规则如何应用于不同的化学系统
So now I’m going to move on to look at the different fields in chemistry.
现在我要继续看化学的不同领域
Theoretical chemistry attempts to explain the structures of atoms and molecules
理论化学试图使用数学方式去解释
and how they interact using mathematical methods.
原子和分子的结构以及它们如何交互
It is very closely related to theoretical physics and quantum chemistry,
它与理论物理和量子化学密切相关
and often uses techniques in computational chemistry
经常使用计算机化学的技术 计算机化学是
where atoms, molecules and reactions are simulated in a computer.
在计算机中模拟原子 分子 及其反应
Now, simulating the proper quantum behaviour of anything more complicated than a hydrogen atom
现在 模拟比氢原子更复杂的物体的正确的量子行为
is very difficult/impossible for multiple bodies.
对于多个物体来说是非常困难/不可能的
So many cutting edge techniques in computer science
计算机科学中的许多尖端技术
are used to try and simulate molecules and how they interact with each other.
被用来尝试和模拟分子以及它们之间如何相互作用
In fact this is one of the most exciting applications of quantum computers
事实上 这是量子计算机最激动人心的应用之一
because they would be able to directly simulate chemical systems,
因为它们能够直接模拟化学系统
and would help with things like discovering novel materials and drugs and a whole lot more.
并有助于发现新材料和药物等更多东西
Physical Chemistry studies chemical systems in terms of their physics,
物理化学从物理的角度研究化学系统
so things like energy, force, time, motion, thermodynamics, quantum properties amongst others.
比如能量 力 时间 运动 热力学 量子性质等等
There are many sub-fields, like looking at the electronic properties in Electrochemistry
有许多子领域 例如研究电化学中
which is important for developing better batteries
对开发更好的电池很重要的电子化学
or Materials Science, which is trying to create materials with new properties
或者 试图创造具有极限强度
like extreme strength, durability or self-healing.
耐用性 自愈性等新特性材料的材料科学
This is a critical problem with building Earth based nuclear fusion reactors
这是建造依赖新材料的地球
which are reliant on new materials.
核聚变反应堆的一个关键问题
Analytical chemistry is like detective work,
分析化学就像侦探工作
you’ve got a sample of something
当你拿到某种物质的样品
and you need to work out what it is made of,
需要找出样品的组成成分
and the amount of the different components.
以及不同成分的数量
Chemists have developed a huge array of techniques
化学家们已经开发了大量的技术来
to probe and measure different properties of different materials.
探测和测量不同材料的不同性质
Traditional techniques involve wet chemical techniques,
传统技术涉及湿化学技术
like precipitation, which separates compounds
如沉淀 它根据化合物蒸发的温度
depending on what temperature they evaporate.
来分离化合物
There’s also a huge array of modern techniques
还有大量的现代技术
like chromatography
如色谱法
where different compounds move at different speeds
不同的化合物在溶液中以不同的速度移动
through a solution and so separate.
从而分离
Or the many different kinds of spectroscopy,
或者是许多不同种类的
that can detect materials by shining light on them,
可以通过光照来检测材料的光谱学
or mass spectrometry,
或者是通过将材料投入电场或磁场
where the materials are flung though electric or magnetic fields
根据其质量进行分离的
to separate them according to their masses.
质谱法
And finally we get to the huge fields of Inorganic, Organic and Biochemistry.
最后我们进入了无机 有机和生物化学的广阔领域
Organic and Biochemistry look at the chemistry of living things
有机和生物化学研究有关有生命物体的化学
and Inorganic chemistry looks at everything else,
无机化学研究其他方面相关的化学
although there is still a large amount of crossover.
但其研究领域仍有大量交叉
Most of the inorganic compounds that are studied are man-made,
无机化学所研究的大多数无机化合物都是人造的
and a lot of the motivation is to find chemicals with new properties
其主要动机是寻找具有新特性的化学制品
that can be used in the chemical industry and the wider world.
这些化学制品可用于化学工业和更广泛的世界
In fact there are very few areas of human endeavour
事实上 有人类努力研究的领域中
where inorganic chemistry has not been used in some way.
极少有不涉及无机化学的领域
There is medicine and agriculture, special fluids like detergents or emulsifiers,
有医药和农业 特殊液体 如洗涤剂或乳化剂
special coatings, materials, pigments or fuels for many industrial purposes.
特殊涂料 材料 颜料或许多工业用途的燃料
Within chemical production itself catalysts are very important
在化学生产本身中 催化剂非常重要
as they speed up other chemical reactions.
因为它们加速了其他化学反应
Inorganic chemistry also bleeds into materials science,
无机化学也渗透到材料科学中
making solids with novel crystal structures
例如制造具有新型晶体结构的固体
like high temperature superconductors for example.
如高温超导体
The list is is endless.
清单是无穷无尽的
Now between inorganic and organic chemistry sits organometallic chemistry.
现在介于无机化学和有机化学之间的是有机金属化学
This looks at organic compounds which are bonded with a metal
这项研究着眼于 与金属结合
and are typically used in reactions in the chemical industry often as catalysts.
且通常用作化工反应催化剂的有机化合物
Organic chemistry looks at the structure and behaviour of the molecules of life
有机化学研究生命分子的结构和行为
which are typically built from a small set of different atoms:
这些分子通常由一小部分不同的原子组成:
carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen, plus a few others.
碳 氢 氧和氮 以及其他一些原子
Organic chemists also look at making new organic compounds with useful properties.
有机化学家也在研究制造具有有用性质的新有机化合物
Organic molecules all contain carbon
有机分子都含有碳
and the carbon hydrogen bond is the most common structure in organic chemistry.
碳氢键是有机化学中最常见的结构
There are a huge number of applications of organic chemistry in industry:
有机化学在工业中有大量应用
fertilisers, pesticides, lubricants, polymers and plastics.
化肥 农药 润滑剂 聚合物和塑料
In the consumer world there’s fragrances, flavourings and preservatives,
在消费领域 有香料 调味品和防腐剂
and of course drugs in the pharmaceutical industry.
当然还有制药行业的药物
And finally, out of organic chemistry comes biochemistry
最后 从有机化学中产生了生物化学
which studies the chemistry of living organisms.
生物化学研究关于活的生物体的化学
Biochemistry studies components that can be inorganic, like water or minerals,
生物化学研究无机成分 如水或矿物质
but also looks at the biggest and most complex molecules like proteins, fats and DNA.
但也研究最大最复杂的分子 如蛋白质 脂肪和DNA
At the other end this field also blends into molecular biology
另一方面 该领域还融入了分子生物学
which looks in the finest detail at how life arises out of the chemical processes inside cells.
以最精细的细节研究生命是如何从细胞内的化学过程中产生的
Within biochemistry there are four main classes of molecules called biomolecules.
在生物化学中 有四大类分子被称为生物分子
Carbohydrates are used for structures and storing energy.
碳水化合物用于结构和储存能量
Lipids which make up fats.
脂质 用来构成脂肪
Proteins, which are very large molecules made from amino acids
蛋白质 是由氨基酸组成的非常大的分子
that have a huge array of different functions in the body.
这些氨基酸在体内具有大量不同的功能
And nucleic acids that are used to convey genetic information.
以及用于传递遗传信息的核酸
Research in biochemistry has had a huge impact on medicine
生物化学的研究对医学产生了巨大的影响
helping us understand infectious and genetic diseases,
帮助我们了解传染病和遗传病
improving organ and tissue transplantations,
改进器官和组织移植
working out what is wrong with you with clinical diagnostics
研究临床诊断中的问题所在
and of course understanding nutrition:
当然还有了解营养:
looking at the functions of vitamins and minerals in our body.
观察维生素和矿物质在我们体内的作用
Biochemistry has also important for agriculture:
生物化学对农业研究土壤
studying soils, fertilisers and pest controls
肥料和害虫控制也很重要
and there’s many other applications too.
还有许多其他应用
So that is my attempt to summarise all of chemistry in about 12 minutes,
这是我在大约12分钟内总结所有化学知识的尝试
no simple task as it’s so incredibly complicated.
这不是一项简单的任务 因为它非常复杂
It has always amazed me that something so complex as a human
始终让我震惊的是 像人类这样复杂的生物
is built on a foundation of a huge number of simple chemical reactions.
是建立在大量简单化学反应的基础上的
Your consciousness right now is a function of the chemistry going on in your braincells
你们此刻有思想意识 是因为在你们的大脑细胞中正在进行化学反应
oxygen being passed from your blood,
大脑接收从血液中传递的氧气
and sugars being metabolised inside them.
糖类物质在大脑细胞中进行新陈代谢
Chemistry spans a huge mountain of complexity from a single atom
化学覆盖了从原子开始的大量物质
to the cells that keep you alive,
从单个原子到维持生命的细胞
and I find it endlessly fascinating.
我发现它无限迷人
Like with all my other videos there’s a poster available,
和我所有其他视频一样 这里有一张海报
and so if you want to get hold of that, check out the links in the description below.
你可以在下方的简介中领取
Otherwise thanks again for watching, and for me, its back to the drawing board.
再次感谢你的观看 对我来说 又是一个新的开始

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视频概述

化学的领域奥妙无穷 十二分钟浓缩介绍带您走进化学的世界

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

早早

审核员

审核员SRY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P3RXtoYCW4M

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