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播放视频

这个人差点成为了比尔盖茨

The Man Who COULD Have Been Bill Gates [Gary Kildall]

您收看的是冷流科技
You are watching ColdFusion TV.
本视频是一个新系列的第二集
This video is the second episode of a new series
所根据的是我的《新思维》一书
based on my book New Thinking,
书中主要讲述了科学和技术的伟大历史
which is basically the grand history of science and technology
时间范围是从工业革命直到今天
from the Industrial Revolution till today.
《新思维》
New Thinking
这个故事讲述的是一件十分有趣的事
This story is about something I find pretty interesting.
主角是加里·基尔代尔
It’s about Gary Kildall,
本可以成为比尔·盖茨的人
the man who should have been Bill Gates.
这绝对是个有趣的故事
It’s an absolutely fascinating story.
我认为这件事应该让更多人知道
I think that more people should know about it.
序幕
Prelude
1977年 苹果刚取得了巨大成功
The year is 1977, and Apple had just become extremely successful
他们推出了第一台个人电脑 Apple II
with their first PC – the Apple II.
这是首个现成的量产个人电脑
It was the first mass production personal computer
无需自己组装
that you didn’t have to assemble yourself.
JB 想要知道我的表现为何比其他管理者好
JB wanted to know why I’m doing better than all the other managers.
这也不是秘密 我有一台苹果电脑
It’s no secret. I have an Apple.
虽然三段楼梯下面有台大型电脑
Sure, there’s a big computer three flights down
但它不会测试选项 不会画图表
but it won’t test my options, do my charts
不会编辑报告 不像我的苹果
or edit my reports like my Apple.
往前移动
Move forwards like that
整个段落也可以移到你所要的地方
or you can move whole paragraphs around to any where you want them.
太神奇了
Amazing.
数不尽的东西 用同一台苹果电脑都能做到
You can use the very same Apple to do a zillion other things.
可以说 苹果比笔更有威力
You could say that the Apple is mightier than the pen.
苹果 个人电脑
Apple, the personal computer.
PC行业增长到10亿美元
PC industry was already worth 1 billion dollars
只花了三年时间
just three years after it had begun.
电脑首次从家中提升效率
For the first time, computers amplified productivity
以及人类智力
and human intellect from within the home.
当时向企业出售大型主机的IBM
IBM who was in the corporate computer business of selling large mainframes
也刚看到了商机
just saw the dollar signs.
这是机会中的机会
This was the opportunity of all opportunities.
到了1980年 IBM注意到了
By 1980, IBM had turned their attention
苹果在PC市场的成就
to Apple success in the PC market
发现他们对PC的判断错了
and realized that they were wrong about the PC.
它不再只是爱好者的玩意儿
It wasn’t just a hobbyist’s toy anymore,
它可能真的有用
it could actually be useful.
问题是 IBM公司规模很大
The problem for IBM is that they were a huge company.
官僚气息浓厚 做决策时也很缓慢
They were bureaucratic and very slow when it came to decisions.
光是设计出PC 也要花上好几年时间
It was going to take years for them just to come up with a PC design.
他们要怎样才能及时竞争呢?
So how were they going to compete in a timely manner?
答案来自于公司中的一个秘密小组
The answer came in the form of a secret small team within the company.
这个小组的任务
This small team was assigned the task
是发明一台面向商业的个人电脑
to create a business orientated personal computer.
他们开始执行任务时
When they got to work, the decision was made
决定使用现成零件 以加速设计流程
to use off-the-shelf parts to speed up the design process.
IBM使用非自家零件 是很不寻常的事情
Using non-IBM parts is very unusual for the company.
利用这个方法 不需要从头组建电脑
With this method, instead of building a computer from scratch,
一年内 完整产品就做出来了
they managed to have a complete product within a year.
1980年 IBM把PC的硬件凑起来了
In 1980, IBM had the PC hardware cobbled together.
唯一需要的就是软件
The only thing needed was software to run on them.
IBM需要的是一套操作系统
What IBM needed was an operating system.
操作系统就像是电脑的数字交通警察
An operating system is like a computer’s digital traffic cop.
它会管理档案的储存
It keeps track of how files are stored
以及电脑硬件的操作
and how the computer handles hardware,
比如鼠标器 屏幕 软盘驱动器等等
such as a mouse, screen, floppy disk drive and etc.
基本上 它是现代电脑运行的基础
Basically it’s the basis that allows for a modern computer to run.
在这里 故事开始白热化
At this point, this is where the story starts heating up.
IBM是当时最大的技术公司
IBM was the biggest tech company of the time.
不管制造什么PC 对世界都会有巨大影响
So any PC that they made would have an incredible impact on the world.
它会运行什么样的软件呢?
So what software was going to run on it?
为了独霸天下 各个操作系统互相争斗
This was the battle for one operating system that would rule them all.
这次战役风险极高
The stakes are high.
这里的每一项决策 影响着未来的一切
Every decision here impacts the rest of all history.
电脑史上最令人感叹的悲剧就此上演
And herein lies one of the saddest stories in computing history.
比尔·盖茨 vs 本该成为比尔·盖茨的人
Bill Gates vs The Man Who Should Have Been Bill Gates
1980年 IBM在设计个人电脑的时候
While building their PC in 1980,
找了微软设计操作系统
IBM approached Microsoft to build the operating system.
在还没提起这个项目之前
Before saying a word about the project,
IBM 误以为比尔·盖茨是办公室的实习生
IBM asked Bill Gates who was initially mistaken for the office intern
于是叫他签署保密协议
to sign a non-disclosure agreement.
比尔·盖茨必须把IBM的计划保密
Bill Gates had to keep IBM’s plan a secret
不能告诉任何人
and he couldn’t tell a single soul.
当IBM把计划告诉盖茨的时候
When IBM told Gates what they were doing,
盖茨说 微软并没有操作系统
he remarked the Microsoft didn’t have an operating system.
这位25岁的程序员就向IBM介绍了加里·基尔代尔
The 25-year-old programmer would point IBM in the direction of Gary Kildall.
加里既谦虚 又很有礼貌
Gary was a meek and mild-mannered man.
他虽然平易近人
But despite being unassuming,
却已经为PC操作系统开辟了道路
he had already paved the way for operating systems in personal computers.
1971年 基尔代尔设计了一套编程语言
In 1971, Kildall had made a programming language
针对的是英特尔的第一款微处理器4004
for Intel’s first CPU, the 4004.
但他很快就发现 他必须找方法
But he quickly realized that there had to be a way to
控制微处理器和电脑其余部件之间的互动
control how the chip interacted with the rest of the computer system.
1972年 他用CP/M解决了这个问题
In 1972, he solved this problem with CP/M,
CP/M 是“微电脑控制程序”的缩写
which stands for Control Program for Microcomputers.
这就是第一套PC操作系统
This was the very first PC operating system.
在CP/M推出之前 每一台电脑都要有专门定制的软件
Before CP/M, each computer had to have tailor-made software.
想象一下
Imagine it like this –
这就像是制作不同种类的汽油
It would be like having different types of fuel
来适应路上的每一款车
for every single car model in existence.
有了CP/M这类操作系统
With an operating system like CP/M,
程序员只需要写一次软件
a programmer only needed to write software just once
其他的就由CP/M处理
and CP/M would take care of the rest.
这样 不同电脑就能运行同一套软件了
It was a way to run the very same software on different computers.
写出这样的软件 再自然不过了
It just was a very natural thing to write.
事实上 很多人正是需要这类操作系统
It turns out a lot of people have a need for an operating system like that.
所以这套操作系统应运而生
And so uh, it was a very natural thing.
它是我写给自己用的
I wrote it for my own use.
尽管如此 加里对商业没什么兴趣
Despite this, Gary didn’t really have much interest in business matters,
写软件只是嗜好而已
and was just doing this as a hobby.
但他太太多萝西说服他去创业
But his wife, Dorothy, convinced him to start a business
对软件实行授权收费
and start licensing his creation.
于是 数字研究(DR)公司诞生了
The result was a company called Digital Research.
1979年 DR已经成为了操作系统的行业标准
By 1979, Digital Research became the industry standard for operating systems.
基本上 DR是1970年代末的微软
In essence, they were the Microsoft of the late 1970s
而加里则等同于比尔·盖茨
and Gary was equivalent to Bill Gates.
加里生命中最糟糕的一天
The Worst Day of Gary’s Life
IBM刚刚找了比尔·盖茨
So IBM had just approached Bill Gates and asked him
要求他为新PC设计操作系统
if he could make an operating system for their new PC.
比尔·盖茨就把加里介绍给了他们
And Bill Gates pointed them in the direction of Gary.
IBM 毫不浪费时间 听取了比尔的建议
So, keen to waste no time, IBM takes Bill’s advice
拜访身在西雅图的加里
and pays a visit to Gary in Seattle.
比尔给加里打电话警告他
Bill calls Gary on the phone to give him some warning
告诉他有人即将来访
that someone is coming to visit.
由于签了保密协议
Because of the non-disclosure agreement,
盖茨不能具体透露来访者是什么人
Gates couldn’t reveal exactly who was coming to visit.
比尔喊道 “好好对待他们 他们很重要”
Bill exclaimed, quote, treat them right, they’re important guys, endquote.
可惜的是 加里是个慢性子的人
Unfortunately, Gary was a somewhat chilled out guy
所以没太重视比尔的警告
and didn’t really get the full urgency of what Bill was warning.
他可能以为 又是一间小公司
Perhaps, he thought it was just another small company,
不是世界上最大的技术公司
and not the largest tech company on the planet.
因此IBM来访的时候 加里不在家
Because of this, Gary isn’t home when IBM visits.
他乘坐私人专机 出门公干去了
He’s out, flying one of his private planes on business.
最后IBM与加里的太太多萝西交谈
IBM ends up talking to Gary’s wife, Dorothy,
她当时是DR的运营部主任
who was now head of operations in Digital Research.
IBM的律师开始强迫她签署保密协议
The lawyers of IBM began pushing her to sign a non-disclosure agreement,
假装他们没来过
essentially to say that they were never there.
多萝西对此感到不满 拒绝签署文件
Dorothy wasn’t impressed by this and refused to sign the document.
IBM团队脾气暴躁
The IBM team had a short temper.
他们的谈判没有取得任何成果
After going nowhere with negotiations,
一怒之下 团队决定离开加里的家
they became frustrated and decided to leave Gary’s house.
几天后 IBM再次找了比尔·盖茨
A few days later, IBM would approach Bill Gates a second time.
盖茨性格果断 善于把握时机
Gates, being deterministic and opportunistic in nature,
不可能让加里得到第二次机会
was never going to give Gary a second chance.
他认为IBM很有潜力
He saw that IBM had the potential
有可能把个人电脑市场变得截然不同
to change the PC market into something entirely different.
换上清新的商业形象
A new cleaned up business image
改掉之前的书呆子爱好者形象
instead of the geeky enthusiast image it had.
这笔交易就此成交了
So here comes the clincher.
比尔·盖茨鬼鬼祟祟地做了一件事
Bill Gates decided to do something pretty sneaky.
他告诉IBM 微软有能力设计操作系统
He told IBM that Microsoft could in fact make an operating system,
尽管当时他们没有操作系统
even though they didn’t have one.
微软决定 直接购买操作系统
What Microsoft decided to do was just buy an operating system
卖方是同一条路的小型公司 要价7.5万美元
from a small company down the road for $75,000.
这套操作系统名叫“快速肮脏操作系统”
This operating system was called the Quick and Dirty Operating System,
简称为Q-DOS
or Q-DOS, for short.
如果你觉得这个名字好奇怪
If you think that that’s a bit of a weird name,
这是有原因的
there’s a reason for it.
基本上 软件的代码抄袭了CP/M
The code used for the software was essentially a ripoff of CP/M,
也就是加里设计的操作系统
the operating system that Gary had made.
有了这个翻版CP/M
So with this ripoff of CP/M,
微软手上就有了一套可以运作的操作系统
Microsoft now had their hands on a functioning operating system.
Q-DOS变成了微软DOS 简称MS-DOS
Q-DOS would become Microsoft DOS or MS-DOS for short
它将安装在每一台IBM PC中
and would be packaged to the every IBM PC.
所以 如果你曾使用过MS-DOS的话
So if you’ve ever used MS-DOS,
你就是在使用“微软肮脏操作系统”
it could be said that you were using the Microsoft Dirty Operating System.
但它正式更名为“微软软盘操作系统”
However this name would be officially changed to Microsoft Disk Operating System.
当然 MS-DOS最后也变成了微软Windows
And of course, MS-DOS would eventually become Microsoft Windows.
1981年8月 第一台IBM PC推出
The first IBM PC was released in August of 1981.
预计销售量为25万台
It was predicted to make 250,000 sales,
但它极为成功
but it was a smash hit,
几年内就售出了200万台
selling two million units in a couple of years.
IBM超越了苹果 成为世界上最大的PC制造商
IBM had now overtaken Apple as the world’s largest PC manufacturer.
这样一来 白领阶层可以接触PC了
With this event, it was now truly OK for the white collar class to get into PCs.
PC不再局限于爱好者和怪咖了
It was no longer for hobbyist, freaks and enthusiasts.
与此同时 加里成为了《电脑记事》的联合主持人
Around this time, Gary became the co-host of the show Computer Chronicles,
该电视节目详细地描述了
a TV program that followed in detail
当时PC技术的进步
the progress of personal computers at the time.
加里 我们将讨论携带型电脑 膝上型电脑
Gary, we’re gonna be talking about things like transportables, lap portables,
但你先看看这个携带型电脑
but I want to show you this portable over here.
这台电脑似乎很小
This looks like a pretty small computer,
但这其实只是键盘而已
but in fact this is just the keyboard.
我可以在电脑上进行编程
I can program my things into my computer
实际上 这才是电脑
and in fact, this is the computer.
当然 它现在是腕上型电脑
And of course it is now a wrist portable.
我不知道这东西到底有没有用
Now, I don’t know whether this does anything very useful or not.
其实对于携带型电脑 我质疑的就是这个
In fact that’s my question about this whole subject of portables.
这是不是另一项没有意义的技术呢?
Is this another case of technology in search of a purpose?
不是的 斯图尔特
I don’t think so, Stewart.
这只是技术的新维度
It’s just a new dimension in technology.
在过去 我们拥有更快的处理器 更多的记忆体等
We have had faster processors, more memory and so forth in the past.
我们现在尝试的是
Now, what we’re looking for is
把速度和能力全包装在较小的空间里
trying to get all that speed and power into a smaller package.
“史上最伟大的一宗交易”
“The Greatest Deal in History.”
对比尔·盖茨来说 一切准备就绪
So everything was falling into place for Bill Gates.
他即将成为世界上最富有的人
He was getting set to be the richest man in the world.
肮脏操作系统是整个方案的一半
The Dirty Operating System was one half of the equation,
如果再加点商业头脑 方案就完整了
but some smart business sense would complete it.
IBM PC是由现成零件做成的
Because the IBM PC was made from off-the-shelf parts,
所以其他制造商 如康柏 惠普
other manufacturers such as Compaq an HP
也开始使用同样的零件制造PC复制品
began making their own PC clones with the very same parts.
根据交易条款 微软将MS-DOS授权给IBM
The deal for Microsoft was that MS-DOS would be licensed to IBM
并收取5万美元的一次性费用
by Microsoft for a one-time fee of $50,000.
但这笔交易暗藏了陷阱
But there was a catch.
微软并没向IBM提起交易的非专属性质
Microsoft never mentioned to IBM that their deal was non-exclusive.
不久 微软向IBM的所有竞争者出售MS-DOS
Soon Microsoft was selling MS-DOS to all of IBM’s competitors,
每卖一台电脑 就收取授权费
taking a licensing fee from every computer sold.
这笔授权交易堪称史上最伟大的交易
This licensing deal has been called the greatest deal in history.
它让比尔·盖茨成为了亿万富翁
It made Bill Gates a billionaire.
相反 加里在关键时刻缺席
Gary’s failure, to not be there at the right time
则被称为商业史上最大的失败之一
is conversely called one of the biggest business failures in history.
IBM个人电脑销售量日渐增加
Once the sales of the IBM PC took off,
加里才意识到自己失去了什么
Gary had realized what he had lost.
他当下罕见地脱下了善良性格
For a rare moment, he would shed off his kind nature
威胁向IBM提告
and threatened to sue IBM.
IBM的和解方案是 每出售一台PC
In a settlement, IBM agreed to offer
同时提供 CP/M 和 MS-DOS
CP/M alongside MS-DOS with every PC sold.
加里·基尔代尔很高兴
Gary Kildall was pleased.
现在 人们可以选择自己最喜欢的软件
People could now choose for themselves which software they liked best.
正义终于得到了伸张
Justice had finally been served.
但是 问题只有一个
There was only just one problem though.
两种软件推出的时候
When both software packages were released,
MS-DOS 的售价是40美元
MS-DOS sold for $40,
CP/M 则是240美元
and CP/M, $240.
对两种几乎一样的软件来说 这是彻底的灾难
This was a complete disaster for almost identical pieces of software.
因此 加里的CP/M软件
For this reason, Gary’s CP/M software
到了1980年代末期就没落了
would fade into obscurity by the late 1980s.
加里输给了他自己的软件的复制品
Gary had lost to a clone of his own creation.
可惜的是 他对此难以接受
Sadly, he didn’t take it well.
这些事让他受到打击
He was so crushed by the events that
导致他后来不再向微软或IBM提告
he didn’t ever bother suing Microsoft or IBM again.
由于错失了生命中的最大机会
The strain from missing out on the greatest opportunity of many lifetimes
多萝蒂倍感压力 于是与加里离婚
would eventually cause Dorothy to divorce Gary.
他也开始回避《电脑记事》节目
He would also shy away from the show The Computer Chronicles.
接下来几年里 个人电脑变得普遍
The ubiquity of personal computers in the following years
导致加里不管去到哪里 都会想起他的失败
meant that Gary would forever be reminded of his failure everywhere he turned.
基尔代尔变得抑郁 开始酗酒
Kildall slipped into a bout of depression and alcoholism.
遗憾的是 加里在1994年去世
Sadly, in 1994, Gary would die
他在一间摩托车酒吧涉及殴斗 死于头部创伤
from head injuries in a fistfight at a biker bar.
今天 这位发明个人电脑操作系统的加里
Today, Gary, the man who invented the operating system for personal computers
在技术史上少有提及
is only a faint footnote in technology history.
所以我认为
So I think that it’s important that
我们一定要记得他对电脑发展史的贡献
we keep his contribution to the evolution of computing alive.
在我看来 这一切只是加里经历的一系列不幸遭遇
I can see that it was just a series of unfortunate events for Gary.
但我们可以学到的教训是
But if we can take any lessons away from them,
一定要充分利用每一次机会
it might be make the most of every opportunity.
这是1983年播出的《电脑记事》第一集
This was the very first episode of the Computer Chronicles broadcast back in 1983.
我们当初推出节目的时候
When we first launched the series,
加里·基尔代尔坐在我旁边 担任联合主持人
sitting by my side as co-host was Gary Kildall.
但加里不只是电视节目主持人而已
But Gary was a lot more than a TV host.
事实上 加里是PC史上最重要的人物之一
Gary in fact was one of the most important individuals in the history of personal computing.
加里去年逝世
Gary died last year,
留下的遗产在技术界是少有人能及的
leaving a legacy not matched by many in this field.
这则故事到此结束
That‘s the end of that story.
今晚非常悲伤
It’s a pretty sad night,
但我想 我还是要与你分享
but I thought I’ll just, um, share with you,
这件事少有人知道
cuz it’s a pretty unknown.
我想很多人不熟悉基尔代尔和他的贡献
I think a lot of people don’t know about Gary Kildall and what he did.
感谢您收看 我是达高高
So thanks for watching. This has been Dagogo.
您观赏的是 ColdFusion
You’ve been watching ColdFusion.
如果刚巧碰上这个频道 请订阅我们
Feel free to subscribe, if you just stumbled across this channel.
下个视频中再见
And I’ll catch you again soon for the next video.
祝大家今天过得开心
Cheers guys! Have a good one!
ColdFusion 新的思维
ColdFusion, it’s new thinking.
《新思维》今年迟些时候推出
“New Thinking” coming later this year.
电子版和纸质版均有出售
Available in both digital and hardcopy.

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视频概述

什么让他差点就成了比尔·盖茨?参考《新思维》(人物传记)

听录译者

jm

翻译译者

搬那度

审核员

审核员YX

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sDIK-C6dGks

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