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美国的建立:路易斯安那购地案

The Making of a Nation: Louisiana Purchase

We the people
我们即人民
Hi. I’m Kelly Jean Kelly, and this is Monticello.
嗨我是凯莉·金·凯莉 这个就是蒙蒂塞洛
It is the home of Thomas Jefferson – America’s third president.
这是美国第三任总统托马斯·杰斐逊的故居
Jefferson took office in 1801.
杰弗逊于1801年上任
When he left in 1809, the United States had doubled in size.
而当他1809年卸任时 美国领土面积翻了一番
This is the story of the Louisiana Purchase.
这就是著名的路易斯安那购地案
The Louisiana Purchase was very controversial in its day.
购地案在当时颇具争议
President Jefferson didn’t have the formal authority to go ahead with this,
尽管杰斐逊总统没有正式的购地权力
but everyone recognized that it was
但是大家意识到
very much in our national interest to proceed.
购地行为对于国家非常有益
It makes us a continental republic.
这将会使美国成为了一个大陆共和国
It makes us the largest republic in world history,
也是世界史上最大的共和国
and the possessor of natural resources
而且自然资源最多
greater than any other country in the world.
超过任何一个国家
They don’t know all that at the time.
那时他们不知道这些
Um, but they know that they’ve now stepped across the continent.
但他们知道他们已经跨越了整个大陆
and that they’ll never be stopped.
而且他们永远不会停止前进
Louisiana Purchase
路易斯安那购地案
The Louisiana Purchase was basically a real estate deal.
路易斯安那购地案就是一个地产交易案
In 1803, the U.S. bought about
1803年美国购买了大约
2 millions square kilometers of land
200万平方公里的土地
called ‘’Louisiana Territory” from France.
叫做路易斯安那地区 它原属于法国
That is a big piece of land.
这是一片广阔的土地
It includes all or part of 15 current U.S. states (not just Louisana),
它包括美国现有的15个州的全部或部分地区(不仅仅是路易斯安那州)
as well as the Mississippi River.
同时也包含了密西西比河
The Louisiana Purchase was
路易斯安那购地案
also an important foreign policy move.
也是一个非常重要的外交政策举措
Buying Louisiana Territory ended
购买路易斯安那地区的行为
the French presence in North America.
结束了法国对美洲北部地区的控制
But the Louisiana Purchase
但是路易斯安那购地案
wasn’t a great political maneuver.
并不是一场很好的政治策划
It was more like an accident.
更像是一件偶然事件
And it happened under the most unlikely president.
并且它是发生在最不可能的总统任期内
President Jefferson did not expect to buy so much land for the U.S.
杰斐逊总统当时并没想过要为美国购买这么一大块土地
In fact, he had completely different goals as president.
事实上 作为总统他有完全不同的目标
He wanted to reduce the debt,
他当时想减少美国负债
and he wanted to reduce the power of the federal government.
而且他也想削弱联邦政府的权力
The Louisiana Purchase did
然而路易斯安那州购地案
not accomplish either of those goals.
并没有完成其中任何一个目标
It’s a violation of all the political principles .
这违背了他所有信仰的政治主张
he claims to believe in
至少是他宣称相信的主张
He not only believes
他不仅认为
the federal government should be weak,
联邦政府权力应该被削弱
But he believes the executive branch
还认为行政机构
should essentially be invisible.
根本不应该存在
And he doesn’t even want to have records
他甚至不希望
in the executive branch at all.
在这个机构里留存任何记录
He doesn’t want people to think of the office of president
他不想人们把总统办公室看作是一个
as anything monarchical or powerful.
充满君主专制或权力的地方
So why does a president who doesn’t want to be too powerful
那么为什么一位不想拥有太多权力的总统
decide to buy this big piece of land?
会决定购买这么一大块土地呢?
In order to understand that,
为了更好的理解这点
We need to look across the Atlantic Ocean to Europe.
我们需要越过大西洋看向欧洲
The political leader of France at that time was Napoleon Bonaparte.
当时法国的政治领导是拿破仑·波拿马
He was fighting a war with other European powers.
他那时候正在和欧洲其他强国争战
Now, president Jefferson did
当时 杰斐逊总统
not really want to get tangled up with Europe’s affairs.
并不想卷入到欧洲事务中
But a piece of information made him change his mind.
但是有一条消息让他改变了主意
Jefferson learned that Spain
杰弗逊发现西班牙
had secretly given Louisiana Territory to France.
秘密地把路易斯安那地区划归给法国
All of a sudden, Jefferson realized that Napoleon
突然 杰斐逊意识到
Could easily control the area right next to the U.S.
拿破仑能够轻松地控制和美国接壤的地区
Jefferson would have to do something.
杰斐逊必须做点什么
President Jefferson was most interested
杰斐逊最感兴趣的地区是
in this place-New Orleans.
新奥尔良
He wrote to the American ambassador to France:
他写信给驻法国的美国大使
‘’There is on the globe one single spot,
“在地球上有一个特别的地点
The possessor of which is our natural and habitual enemy.
无论拥有者是谁 都会成为我们的天敌和宿敌
It is New Orleans.‘’
这个地点就是新奥尔良地区”
In other words,whoever owned
换句话说 无论谁拥有
New Orleans was the enemy of the United States.
新奥尔良地区都会是美国的敌人
But why was this place so important?
但这片地区为什么这么重要呢?
Let’s ask some local experts to find out.
让我们问问当地专家了解下
So Jefferson said whoever owned the port of New Orleans.
为什么杰斐逊说无论谁统治新奥尔良地区
was the sworn enemy of the United States.
都将是美国不共戴天的敌人
And I keep wondering, why was it such a big deal?
我想知道 这件事为什么会如此重要?
Well, whoever controlled the port of New Orleans pretty much controlled
因为无论谁控制了新奥尔良地区
the entire trade up and down the Mississippi River Valley.
实际上是控制了整个密西西比河上下游的贸易活动
And at that point the United States
而当时美国
was growing towards the Mississippi River
正是依赖着密西西比河发展起来的
and most of the shipping
并且绝大部分的航行
that was done in the country was done up and down the river.
都需要途径这条河流的上游到下游
The thing to remember about the Mississippi River is it drains a huge
关于密西西比河只需要记住一件事
a huge basin, a huge swath
这条河滋养着一片巨大的盆地
of the American continent,
它流经大片美洲大陆 从阿勒格尼
all the way from the Alleghenies in western Pennsylvania, Pittsburgh,
到宾夕法尼亚州的西部 经过匹斯堡
over to the pacific slope, in Idaho.
再到太平洋沿岸的爱达华州
That’s a lot of land, a lot of territory. So this is a powerful river,
真的是很大一片地 有很多的州
So this is a powerful river,
所以这是一条孕育生命的河流
just pouring all that water into one central conduit
所有的支流都流入这条大河
and of course it all flows right past New Orleans.
河流流经整个新奥尔良地区
Jefferson himself noted that over one-third of America’s goods
杰斐逊注意到美国超过1/3的货物运输
passed through New Orleans.
都需经过新奥尔良州
He knew that American farmers
他知道美国农民
and trappers needed free and easy access
和畜牧业者需要一条自由通行之路
to New Orleans to sell their products.
去新奥尔良州售卖他们的货物
In other words,
换句话说
that small, European city was the key to growing the U.S. economy.
那些欧洲国家的小城市是美国经济增长的关键
Well, back in the days before steam propulsion,
在蒸汽机时代到来之前
they had to load up all of the goods that they could produce,
人们不得不装载生产的所有的产品
whether they were crops, or beaver pelts, or lumber,
无论是农产品 还是海狸皮 或者木材
whatever they could pull together to sell,
不论他们卖什么
and they would load them up on flat boats.
都会把货物装载在船上
All of those western rivers eventually join up with the Mississippi
所有这些西方的河流最终都汇入到密西西比河
and the Mississippi comes right by New Orleans.
而密西西比河则流经新奥尔良地区
And that’s why the river became so important,
这就是密西西比河变的如此重要的原因
and that’s why New Orleans,
也是新奥尔良重要的原因
Which had been the backwater of empire,
曾经是落后帝国后方水源
and began as merely as a listening post
只是用来监听
onto Spanish America and the Floridas,
西班牙美洲地区和佛罗里达州的消息的监听点
suddenly is vaulted into this port of major significance.
突然变成了一个意义重大的港口的原因
It became almost overnight like Cold War Berlin
它几乎一夜之间变成了像冷战时期的柏林
for these imperial powers
各帝国之间力量博弈
that are tussling and wrangling over who is going to control it.
在谁应该拥有这篇土地的控制权问题上充满了争议
So president Jefferson asked an American diplomat
所以杰斐逊总统命令一位外交官
to try to buy New Orleans from Napoleon.
尝试从拿破仑手里买下新奥尔良地区
Robert Livingston was the American ambassador to France at the time.
罗伯特·利文斯顿是当时美国的驻法外交大使
And later, James Monroe,
随后 詹姆斯·门罗
who was the governor of Virginia then, joined him in Paris.
即当时的弗吉尼亚州州长也来到巴黎和他一起工作
Congress said the U.S. government could spend 2 million dollars.
国会说美国政府可以花费2百万美元
for the city of New Orleans and part of Florida.
收购新奥尔良地区以及佛罗里达州的部分地区
But Jefferson said the ambassador could offer up to 10 million dollars.
但杰斐逊授权大使们可以提价到最高1千万美元
The goal was just to have access to the Mississippi River,
仅仅是为了拥有密西西比河的控制权限
and a way to get goods to market.
以及将货物运送到市场上的要道
That’s all they wanted to buy was New Orleans.
他们只想要购买新奥尔良地区
They weren’t thinking about this huge territory,
并没有考虑到这一片广大的领土
just New Orleans,
只要新奥尔良地区
that’s all they wanted.
这就是他们想要的全部
Just to ensure navigation rights and the right of deposit,
仅仅是确保航行权利和存货权
the right to warehouse goods temporarily in New Orleans.
即暂时在奥尔良地区安置货物的权利
But Napoleon Bonaparte had a different idea in mind.
但拿破仑·波拿马有不同的想法
You see, he was having serious problems in a former French colony
当时 在一个前法国殖民地上 他遇到了严重的麻烦
called Saint-Domingue – a place that today we call Haiti.
这个地方叫“圣多米尼克” 现在被我们称为“海地”
The island had a profitable sugar trade.
这个岛屿拥有利益丰厚的糖类贸易
Napoleon had wanted to seize control of the island again,
拿破仑想要再次控制这个岛屿
and use the money to extend the French empire into North America.
然后用钱将法兰西帝国延伸到北美洲
But the people who lived in Saint-Domingue refused to return to slavery.
但是居住在圣多米尼克的人民拒绝再次沦为奴隶
They fought Napoleon’s troops, and eventually destroyed his army.
他们和拿破仑的军队斗争 并最终击败了他的军队
Napoleon had to give up on his dream of a North America empire.
拿破仑不得不放弃他北美帝国的梦想
When Monroe and Livingston came calling,
当门罗和利文斯特前来表明
and say we want to buy New Orleans,
他们想买新奥尔良地区时
he says, well, look, I give you all of Louisiana, 15 million dollars.
他说 这样吧 一千五百万美元 我就给你整个路易斯安那
You might say that,
你可能会说
as W. E. B. Du Bois,
正如伟大的非裔美国历史学家
the great African-American historian once said,
W·E·B杜波依斯曾说过的那样
is that Louisiana is Haiti’s gift
路易斯安那州是海地送给
to Thomas Jefferson and the United States.
托马斯·杰斐逊和美国的礼物
And that’s how the Louisiana Purchase happened,
这就是路易斯安那购地案的始末
or as they say in France, the sale of Louisiana, took place.
或者就如法国人所说的 路易斯安那售卖案 就那样发生了
For only a few more million dollars,
仅仅多花了几百万美元
the U.S. got all they were hoping for and more.
美国就得到了比预期更多的收益
President Jefferson was shocked – but delighted.
杰斐逊总统感到非常震惊 并非常高兴
He understood the value of Louisiana territory.
他十分清楚路易斯安那州的地区价值
The fertile, diverse land was good for farming and trade.
这些多样化又肥沃的土地非常利于农业生产和贸易
Jefferson believed it was good
杰斐逊相信
for America’s system of government, too.
这对于美国政府体系也是有益的
He hope the U.S. would remain an agricultural country,
他希望美国仍然保持为一个农业大国
populated mostly by framers who governed themselves.
自我管理的农场主占了人口大部分
He spoke of the country as an “empire of liberty”-
他把美国称为“自由帝国”
even though about one in five people living
尽管当时五分之一
in the U.S. at the time was a slave.
生活在美国的人民是奴隶
The Louisiana Purchase also increased
路易斯安那购地案
American political and economic stability.
增加了美国在政治和经济上的稳定性
And it established the U.S. as one of the largest countries in the world,
并且使美国成为了世界上最大的国家之一
with enough natural resources to be an international power.
并拥有足够丰富的自然资源成为国际强国
The Louisiana Purchase
路易斯安那购地案
is one of the things
是杰斐逊总统
that President Jefferson is best known for.
最知名的事迹之一
But, buying the area meant that he had to go against
但是 购买一块地区也意味着他不得不违背
some of his most important ideas.
一些他最重要的理念
He said that I know I’m violating my own principles here.
他说 我知道自己在这件事情上违反了我的原则
And for a while he think
并且有段时期
he wants to propose a constitutional amendment
他想要提议对宪法进行修正
that might allow this to be legal.
来使这件事变得合法
But his advisors, chiefly James Madison,
但是以詹姆斯·麦迪逊为首的顾问们说
say you can’t do that
你不可以这么做
because Napoleon has agreed to do this in
因为拿破仑同意此事
a kind of emotional outburst
只是一时心血来潮
and we’re not sure that he’s going to stick with his decision
我们并不确定他是否会坚守他的决定
and he might go back on us.
也许他会在此事上反悔
This is such an incredible opportunity that if we lose it,
如果我们失去了这个绝佳的机会
We’ll regret it til our dying days.
我们至死都会后悔
So there is no constitutional amendment.
所以没有任何修正宪法的提案
The U.S. Congress agreed.
美国国会也同意了此事
The Louisiana Purchase was just
路易斯安那购地案
too good an opportunity to miss.
是历史上绝好的不可错失的机会
It essentially doubled the size of the country
它将美国的面积扩大了一倍
and cost only about 4 cents an acre.
并且每英亩仅仅花了4分钱
And it made New Orleans part of the U.S.
并且它使新奥尔良成为了美国的一部分
But the city’s early history
但这个城市早期作为
as part of Spain and France is still alive
西班牙和法国一部分的历史仍然被保留了下来
in the architecture, the food, and the street names.
例如建筑风格 食物 以及街道的名字
A lot of the architecture of what we call the French Quarter
有许多我们称之为法式风格的建筑
is actually Spanish colonial or Spanish Caribbean.
实际上是西班牙殖民地或者是西班牙加勒比地区的风格
As you go around the city, we have Bourbon streets,
当你走在街上 会看到我们有波旁街
named after the French and Spanish royal family,
是以法国和西班牙的王室家族来命名的
Dauphin Street, which is the French prince.
还有多芬街是以法国王子命名的
I could go on and on and on,
我可以举出类似的很多例子
but a lot of those names are just enshrined in our street names.
但大部分的这些名称也仅是以街道名来铭记
New Orleans is also known for its music.
新奥尔良地区也因它的音乐而举世闻名
Its unique sound grew out of its unique population.
它独特的音乐来自于它独特的人民
People from France, Spain, Africa, the Caribbean
这些人来自于法国 西班牙 非洲 以及加勒比地区
all lived together, danced together, and made music together.
他们在一起生活 跳舞 创作音乐
Where else could jazz have arisen,
除了新奥尔良以外 还有哪里可以兴起爵士乐
traditional jazz, except in New Orleans?
特别是传统的爵士乐呢
I mean partly because people had to live so close to one another
一部分原因是这里的人们住的非常近
You couldn’t really have segregated racial
你无法按照种族
enclaves or even ethnic enclaves
分开这些地区
because everyone had to hug the ribbon of land close to the river.
因为每个人都得将自己同靠近这条河的土地紧紧关联在一起
That’s the high ground.
这是最重要的一点
That mix of traditions and people was important in politics, too.
传统文化和人民的融合在政治上也是非常重要的
As time went on, New Orleans helped push the United States
随着时间的推移 新奥尔良地区推动着美国
toward more racial equality and fairer laws for everyone.
去让每个人能更加享受到种族平等以及法律的公平性
Well, it’s hard to imagine
难以想象
what American history (would’ve) looked like
如果新奥尔良不是美国的一部分
had New Orleans not been part of it.
美国在历史上会是什么样子
I mean, just in terms of race relations, that Afro-Creole community,
比如就拿种族关系方面来说 非洲克里奥尔社会团体
a remarkable group of political,
一个在内战期间
intellectual radical around the time of the Civil War.
由充满才能的激进分子组成的优秀政治团体
And they’re the ones, I think,
我认为
did a lot to kind of coax Lincoln toward the idea of
是他们做了很多来使林肯怀揣着
equal citizenship and even limited suffrage.
人人平等的目标 甚至是有限的选举权
And they also, I think, probably pushed the envelope of racial equality
我认为他们也可能比其他地方
father than anywhere else.
更加推动了种族平等
That’s New Orleans. But what about the rest of the Louisiana Purchase?
那就是新奥尔良 但路易斯安那购买案涉及的其他地区呢
President Jefferson and the members of Congress had virtually no idea
杰斐逊总统和国会议员实际上并不知道
what the North American continent looked like
北美洲大陆
west of the Mississippi River.
和密西西比河以西是什么样子的
Yet now it was – from the point of view of the U.S. government, at least
然而当时 至少在美国政府看来
– officially part of the country.
那片区域正式成为了美国领土的一部分
One of them, Fisher Ames, says it’s just so wild and big it’s like outer space.
他们中的一人 费舍尔·艾姆斯说 这片区域如此原生态和广袤
it’s like outer space.
它就像外太空
We don’t know what’s there
我们不知道那里有什么
Jefferson himself thought that there might be dinosaurs out there.
杰斐逊本人认为那里可能有恐龙
It just so happened that the area from let’s say the Ohio River to the Rockies
事实就是从俄亥俄河到洛基山脉的这片区域
is the richest and the most fertile area of it’s size
比任何一个有此规模的国家
of any country in planet.
都富饶肥沃
And it essentially –
它本质上
even though the term doesn’t come into existence for another 30 year – (means)
(尽管后来的30年并非如此)
“manifest destiny”, the notion that this American republic
意味着“天定命运” 美国这个共和国
is going to become the dominant power on the North American continent,
将成为北美大陆主导力量的概念
is assured once the Louisiana Purchase goes into effect.
也一定会在路易斯安那购地案生效那一刻实现
The Louisiana Purchase pushed the United States in a whole new direction.
路易斯安那购地案推动美国走向全新的方向
It doubled the size of the country.
使得国家的规模扩大了一倍
It give American settlers in the West access to the Mississippi River
让美国西部的居民能够进入密西西比河
and the port of New Orleans.
以及新奥尔良的港口
And it made it possible for the United States
它使美国登上世界舞台上
to become a player on the world stage.
成为可能
Of course, President Jefferson was curious
当然 杰斐逊总统对于
about this new territory that the country had just bought.
这个国家刚刚购买的新领土很好奇
In fact, he’d already asked someone to explore it.
事实上他已经派去了一些人去探索它
That will be our next chapter in the Making of
那将是我们下一章的
a Nation with VOA Learning English.
VOA英语学习内容
I’m Kelly Jean Kelly.
我是凯丽·金·凯丽

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本视频讲诉路易斯安那购地案的相关历史

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晓义

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L7PpqvuUSoA

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