未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

3D电影中的魔法元素!

The magic ingredient that brings Pixar movies to life | Danielle Feinberg

在我7岁的时候
When I was seven years old,
有位好心的大人问我长大后想做什么
some well-meaning adult asked me what I wanted to be when I grew up.
我自豪地说:一名艺术家
Proudly, I said: “An artist.”
不 你不会 他说道
“No, you don’t,” he said,
当艺术家你是养不活自己的!
“You can’t make a living being an artist!”
我7岁的小小毕加索梦想破灭了
My little seven-year-old Picasso dreams were crushed.
但是我重整旗鼓
But I gathered myself,
去寻找新的梦想
went off in search of a new dream,
最终我确定要当一名科学家
eventually settling on being a scientist,
也许会成为下一个爱因斯坦
perhaps something like the next Albert Einstein.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
我一直都热爱数学和科学
I have always loved math and science,
后来还爱上了写代码
later, coding.
因此在大学里我决定学习电脑编程
And so I decided to study computer programming in college.
在大学三年级的时候
In my junior year,
我的计算机图形教授向我们 展示了这些神奇的短片
my computer graphics professor showed us these wonderful short films.
我们全班都是第一次见到电脑动画
It was the first computer animation any of us had ever seen.
我惊奇地看着这些短片 简直惊呆了
I watched these films in wonder, transfixed,
激情的火花在我的脑中迸发
fireworks going off in my head,
我想 这就是我梦想的工作
thinking, “That is what I want to do with my life.”
所有我学到的数学、科学和编程
The idea that all the math, science and code I had been learning
整合在一起可以用来创造这些世界角色
could come together to create these worlds and characters
以及故事的这种想法
and stories I connected with,
对我来说充满了魔力
was pure magic for me.
就在两年之后 我开始在
Just two years later, I started working
创造这些电影的地方工作 皮克斯动画工作室
at the place that made those films, Pixar Animation Studios.
在这里我真正学会了如何制作那些电影
It was here I learned how we actually execute those films.
为制作电影
To create our movies,
我们在电脑里制作了3D世界
we create a three-dimensional world inside the computer.
我们从一个点连成线 线构成面
We start with a point that makes a line that makes a face
这样创造角色
that creates characters,
或者树、或者石头逐渐形成了一片森林
or trees and rocks that eventually become a forest.
因为这是一个3D世界
And because it’s a three-dimensional world,
我们可以在那个世界里移动镜头
we can move a camera around inside that world.
我被这一切深深吸引住了
I was fascinated by all of it.
然后我第一次尝试了布光
But then I got my first taste of lighting.
布光实际上就是在这个3D世界里放置光源
Lighting in practice is placing lights inside this three-dimensional world.
我有光源的图标能够在里面移动
I actually have icons of lights I move around in there.
这里你们可以看到我加了一个光源
Here you can see I’ve added a light,
我打开的是软件里的粗略版光源
I’m turning on the rough version of lighting in our software,
打开阴影
turn on shadows
然后放置光源
and placing the light.
当我放置一个光源时
As I place a light,
我会想在现实生活中看上去应该是什么样子
I think about what it might look like in real life,
但同时也要平衡我们在艺术和故事上的需要
but balance that out with what we need artistically and for the story.
所以开始它看起来会像这样
So it might look like this at first,
但是随着我们在接下来的几个星期中
but as we adjust this and move that
不断进行各种调整和移动
in weeks of work,
在粗略模式下看起来就变成这样了
in rough form it might look like this,
在最终模式中是这样
and in final form, like this.
就在布光完成的这个瞬间 我完全地爱上了它
There’s this moment in lighting that made me fall utterly in love with it.
这是我们从这样
It’s where we go from this
变成这样的地方
to this.
这是所有部分整合在一起的时刻
It’s the moment where all the pieces come together,
突然整个世界活了过来
and suddenly the world comes to life
就好像这是一个真实存在的地方
as if it’s an actual place that exists.
这个时刻永远也不会被淡忘
This moment never gets old,
尤其对一个想成为艺术家的7岁的女孩来说
especially for that little seven-year-old girl that wanted to be an artist.
随着我不断学习布光
As I learned to light,
我学会了用光去辅助故事的叙述
I learned about using light to help tell story,
去设置一天中的时间
to set the time of day,
去创造气氛
to create the mood,
去引导观众的视线
to guide the audience’s eye,
如何使一个角色有感染力
how to make a character look appealing
或使其在一个凌乱的场景里显得突出
or stand out in a busy set.
你们看到瓦力了吗?
Did you see WALL-E?
(笑声)
(Laughter)
他在这儿
There he is.
就像你们看到的
As you can see,
我们能在电脑里 创造任何我们想要的世界
we can create any world that we want inside the computer.
我们可以使世界充满了怪兽
We can make a world with monsters,
充满了陷入爱河的机器人
with robots that fall in love,
我们甚至可以使猪飞起来
we can even make pigs fly.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
这是一件不可思议的事
While this is an incredible thing,
同时也是不受束缚的艺术自由
this untethered artistic freedom,
它可以创造混乱
it can create chaos.
它可以创造出难以置信的世界
It can create unbelievable worlds,
难以置信的运动
unbelievable movement,
使观众觉得不舒服的东西
things that are jarring to the audience.
所以为了对抗这些我们用科学约束自己
So to combat this, we tether ourselves with science.
我们以科学和已知的常识
We use science and the world we know
作为支柱
as a backbone,
把我们与可关联和可识别的事物联系起来
to ground ourselves in something relatable and recognizable.
“海底总动员” 就是一个杰出的例子
“Finding Nemo” is an excellent example of this.
电影中很大一部分故事发生在水下
A major portion of the movie takes place underwater.
但是你怎样使它看起来是在水下呢?
But how do you make it look underwater?
在早期的研发中
In early research and development,
我们拿出一段水下的影片在电脑里面重建它
we took a clip of underwater footage and recreated it in the computer.
然后我们把它进行分解
Then we broke it back down
去找出形成水下场景的元素
to see which elements make up that underwater look.
最关键的元素之一
One of the most critical elements
是光线如何在水中穿过
was how the light travels through the water.
所以我们编码了一种光源模拟这种物理现象
So we coded up a light that mimics this physics —
首先是水的能见度
first, the visibility of the water,
然后是颜色的变化
and then what happens with the color.
距离近的物体有完整的、丰富的色彩
Objects close to the eye have their full, rich colors.
随着水深增加
As light travels deeper into the water,
我们失去了红色波段的光
we lose the red wavelengths,
然后是绿色波段
then the green wavelengths,
在很深的地方只剩下蓝色
leaving us with blue at the far depths.
在这个片段里你们可以看到两个其它重要元素
In this clip you can see two other important elements.
第一个是涌动
The first is the surge and swell,
或者说是不可见的暗流
or the invisible underwater current
这推动了周围水中的少量微粒
that pushes the bits of particulate around in the water.
第二个是光的散射
The second is the caustics.
这些是光线照射的条纹
These are the ribbons of light,
就像你可以在池底看到的一样
like you might see on the bottom of a pool,
这些是光线在海面上穿过涟漪和波浪的
that are created when the sun bends through the crests
波峰时发生了弯曲
of the ripples and waves on the ocean’s surface.
这里我们有雾化光束
Here we have the fog beams.
这些给了我们不同色彩的深度暗示
These give us color depth cues,
并且在看不到水面的地方
but also tells which direction is up
告诉我们哪个方向是上方
in shots where we don’t see the water surface.
在此你们能看到的另一件很酷的事是
The other really cool thing you can see here
我们只有光的散射来照亮微粒
is that we lit that particulate only with the caustics,
因此随着它进入和离开光的散射带
so that as it goes in and out of those ribbons of light,
它出会出现然后消失
it appears and disappears,
产生了一个微妙的、魔幻的生气勃勃的水下世界
lending a subtle, magical sparkle to the underwater.
你们可以看到我们是如何使用科学
You can see how we’re using the science —
水、光线和移动的物理特性
the physics of water, light and movement —
来与艺术的自由相联系
to tether that artistic freedom.
但是我们不会被它禁锢
But we are not beholden to it.
我们会仔细考虑每一个元素
We considered each of these elements
然后决定哪些必须要达到科学准确度
and which ones had to be scientifically accurate
哪些为了故事情节和气氛可以妥协
and which ones we could push and pull to suit the story and the mood.
我们在早期就意识到 色彩就是一项有发挥空间的元素
We realized early on that color was one we had some leeway with.
这是一个用传统色彩渲染方式制作的水下场景
So here’s a traditionally colored underwater scene.
但是这儿 我们可以将悉尼港调整得非常绿
But here, we can take Sydney Harbor and push it fairly green
来配合正在发生的悲伤的气氛
to suit the sad mood of what’s happening.
在这个场景里到深水下面去看真的非常重要
In this scene, it’s really important we see deep into the underwater,
这样我们就能理解东澳大利亚的洋流
so we understand what the East Australian Current is,
那些海龟正在潜入洋流搭乘这个“过山车”
that the turtles are diving into and going on this roller coaster ride.
所以我们将水的能见度
So we pushed the visibility of the water
推到一个你们在现实生活中从没见过的程度
well past anything you would ever see in real life.
因为最终
Because in the end,
我们并没有打算重建达到科学精准度的现实世界
we are not trying to recreate the scientifically correct real world,
我们在尝试创造一个逼真的世界
we’re trying to create a believable world,
一个可以让观众融入到这个故事中的世界
one the audience can immerse themselves in to experience the story.
我们用科学去创造一些很棒的东西
We use science to create something wonderful.
通过故事和艺术修饰将我们带到一个神奇的地方
We use story and artistic touch to get us to a place of wonder.
这个瓦力 就是一个很好的例子
This guy, WALL-E, is a great example of that.
他从最简单的事物中就能发现美
He finds beauty in the simplest things.
但到了给他布光的时候 我们发现了一个大问题
But when he came in to lighting, we knew we had a big problem.
我们在制作瓦力这个逼真的机器人时进行了过于精准的处理
We got so geeked-out on making WALL-E this convincing robot,
我们把他的双筒眼睛做得近乎达到了光学上的完美
that we made his binoculars practically optically perfect.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
他的双筒眼睛是它拥有的最关键的行动部件之一
His binoculars are one of the most critical acting devices he has.
他没有脸 甚至没有传统的对话
He doesn’t have a face or even traditional dialogue, for that matter.
因此动画制作者严重地依赖他的双筒眼睛
So the animators were heavily dependent on the binoculars
去展现他的行为和情感
to sell his acting and emotions.
我们开始布光 然后我们意识到
We started lighting and we realized
他的双筒眼睛中的三层镜片导致光的反射十分混乱
the triple lenses inside his binoculars were a mess of reflections.
他开始看起来眼神呆滞
He was starting to look glassy-eyed.
(笑声)
(Laughter)
现在问题来了 当你尝试说服一个观众
Now, glassy-eyed is a fundamentally awful thing
一个机器人是有个性的而且他可以陷入爱河
when you are trying to convince an audience
那么眼神呆滞就是一个致命的问题
that a robot has a personality and he’s capable of falling in love.
所以我们在这些光学上完美的双筒眼睛上进行研究
So we went to work on these optically perfect binoculars,
努力寻找一个可以维持他真实的机器人身份的材质
trying to find a solution that would maintain his true robot materials
同时又能解决反射问题的方案
but solve this reflection problem.
所以我们从镜片上着手
So we started with the lenses.
这是前面的平面镜
Here’s the flat-front lens,
后面有一个凹透镜
we have a concave lens
最后是一个凸透镜
and a convex lens.
这里你们可以同时看到这三个
And here you see all three together,
向我们展示了所有的反射
showing us all these reflections.
我们试着关闭它们
We tried turning them down,
挡住它们
we tried blocking them,
但是没什么效果
nothing was working.
你们可以看到
You can see here,
有时我们需要在他的眼睛里 反射一些具体的东西
sometimes we needed something specific reflected in his eyes —
常常是伊娃
usually Eve.
所以我们不能只是在镜片上用一些虚假抽象的图像
So we couldn’t just use some faked abstract image on the lenses.
那么在这儿我们将伊娃投影在第一个镜片上
So here we have Eve on the first lens,
还试着把它放到第二个镜片上
we put Eve on the second lens,
都不起作用
it’s not working.
我们将它关掉
We turn it down,
还是没用
it’s still not working.
然后我们有了灵光一现的时刻
And then we have our eureka moment.
我们为瓦力添加了一个光源 光线无意中泄漏到了他的眼睛里
We add a light to WALL-E that accidentally leaks into his eyes.
你们可以看到它照亮了这些灰色的光圈叶片
You can see it light up these gray aperture blades.
突然这些光圈叶片透过那个反射突显出来
Suddenly, those aperture blades are poking through that reflection
其他任何方式都达不到这种效果
the way nothing else has.
现在我们可以看出瓦力有眼睛
Now we recognize WALL-E as having an eye.
像我们人类有眼白部分
As humans we have the white of our eye,
有带色彩的虹膜
the colored iris
以及黑色的瞳孔
and the black pupil.
现在瓦力有眼睛的黑色
Now WALL-E has the black of an eye,
灰色的光圈叶片
the gray aperture blades
和黑色的瞳孔
and the black pupil.
突然间 瓦力感觉他是有灵魂的
Suddenly, WALL-E feels like he has a soul,
就像这是一个有内心情感的角色
like there’s a character with emotion inside.
在电影快结束的时候
Later in the movie towards the end,
瓦力失去了他的个性
WALL-E loses his personality,
基本上说是快要死去了
essentially going dead.
这是将他呆滞的眼神带回来的完美时刻
This is the perfect time to bring back that glassy-eyed look.
在下一个场景中 瓦力又活了过来
In the next scene, WALL-E comes back to life.
我们将那个光源弄回来重新照亮光圈叶片
We bring that light back to bring the aperture blades back,
然后他变回了那个我们喜爱的、甜美的、有灵魂的机器人
and he returns to that sweet, soulful robot we’ve come to love.
(视频)瓦力:伊娃?
(Video) WALL-E: Eva?
丹尼尔·范伯格:在这些无法预料的 时刻中蕴含着一种美
Danielle Feinberg: There’s a beauty in these unexpected moments —
当你发现如何解锁一个机器人的灵魂时
when you find the key to unlocking a robot’s soul,
当你知道了你的人生中要做什么时
the moment when you discover what you want to do with your life.
“海底总动员”中的水母对我来说也是这些时刻之一
The jellyfish in “Finding Nemo” was one of those moments for me.
在每部电影里都有一些需要纠结一番才能完成的场景
There are scenes in every movie that struggle to come together.
这就是那些场景之一
This was one of those scenes.
导演对这个场景有一种期待
The director had a vision for this scene
他看过关于南太平洋中的水母的一些很棒的片段
based on some wonderful footage of jellyfish in the South Pacific.
随着工作的深入
As we went along,
我们开始变得焦头烂额
we were floundering.
导演的评审
The reviews with the director
从普通的观后感过渡到了
turned from the normal look-and-feel conversation
越来越多关于数字和百分比的问题
into more and more questions about numbers and percentages.
也许因为和正常情况不同
Maybe because unlike normal,
我们是基于一些真实生活来创作它
we were basing it on something in real life,
或者也许只是因为我们失去了方向
or maybe just because we had lost our way.
但这只是在使用我们的大脑而不是眼睛
But it had become about using our brain without our eyes,
是使用了没有艺术性的科学
the science without the art.
科学的束缚扼杀了场景
That scientific tether was strangling the scene.
但即使经历了所有的挫折
But even through all the frustrations,
我仍然相信它将是美丽的
I still believed it could be beautiful.
因此当到了布光的时候
So when it came in to lighting,
我投入了全部的心血
I dug in.
随着我专注于蓝色和粉色的平衡
As I worked to balance the blues and the pinks,
散射的光线在钟形的水母上舞动
the caustics dancing on the jellyfish bells,
起伏的雾化光束
the undulating fog beams,
我开始看到了一些曙光
something promising began to appear.
一天早上我进来检查头一天晚上的成果
I came in one morning and checked the previous night’s work.
然后我变得兴奋起来
And I got excited.
接着我给灯光导演展示
And then I showed it to the lighting director
她也很兴奋
and she got excited.
很快我在一个坐满50个人的黑房间里给导演展示
Soon, I was showing to the director in a dark room full of 50 people.
在导演的评审中
In director review,
你会希望可以得到一些积极评价
you hope you might get some nice words,
然后通常你会得到一些解决问题的建议
then you get some notes and fixes, generally.
然后可能你还会得到一个最后的
And then, hopefully, you get a final,
进入到下一个阶段的信号
signaling to move on to the next stage.
我做了介绍播放了水母场景
I gave my intro, and I played the jellyfish scene.
然而导演沉默好长一段时间 让我十分忐忑
And the director was silent for an uncomfortably long amount of time.
长得让我不得不想
Just long enough for me to think,
噢不 看来没戏了
“Oh no, this is doomed.”
然而他开始鼓掌了
And then he started clapping.
然后制片设计师开始鼓掌
And then the production designer started clapping.
接着整个房间的人都在鼓掌
And then the whole room was clapping.
这就是我为布光倾注心血所期待的时刻
This is the moment that I live for in lighting.
在所有部分都完成时
The moment where it all comes together
就会得到一个逼真的世界
and we get a world that we can believe in.
我们用数学、科学和编程来创作这些美轮美奂的世界
We use math, science and code to create these amazing worlds.
我们用讲故事和艺术来赋予他们生命
We use storytelling and art to bring them to life.
艺术和科学的交织
It’s this interweaving of art and science
将世界提升到了一个神奇的地点
that elevates the world to a place of wonder,
一个有灵魂的地方
a place with soul,
一个我们可以相信的地方
a place we can believe in,
一个让你美梦成真的地方
a place where the things you imagine can become real —
在这个世界中 一个女孩突然意识到
and a world where a girl suddenly realizes
她不但是一名科学家
not only is she a scientist,
还是一名艺术家
but also an artist.
谢谢
Thank you.
(掌声)
(Applause)

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

这是科学的时代:3D电影为什么火?因为人类的内心,渴望探索。XX代表着想象力和浪漫。这是最吸引人的东西。人类正是有着喜欢探索未知世界的精神,才会有今天的辉煌成就和精彩世界,以及未来的希望。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Ljimnn

审核员

赖皮

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z1R1z9ipFnM

相关推荐