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最长的单词在哪里 – 译学馆
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最长的单词在哪里

The Longest Word in Any Language

一些语言拥有很长的单词
Some languages have freakishly long words.
夏威夷驾照会适当的简写人们的……名字
Hawaiian drivers licenses have literally chopped off people’s… names.
一位年长的喜剧演员曾一语道破天机
One ancient comedian spelled out this mystery meat dish.
德语词汇也很长 甚至当他们在2013舍弃最长的单词时
And German words can get so hefty that even when they lost their longest one in 2013 it
也没见其变短
hardly left a dent.
这些单词都怎么了 一个单词到底可以有多长呢
So what’s going on in these words, and just how long can a word get?
几年前 我过着这样的生活:
A couple years ago, I was living the life.
一天被“绑在”办公桌上十多个小时
Chained to a desk ten hours a day, working
周末加班 利用午饭后的休息时间去暗礁中
weekends, taking lunch breaks to go snorkel
和乌龟一起潜水
with turtles in the reef!
哦 我没提到 “绑”我的办公桌子在夏威夷吗
Oh, did I not mention I was chained to a desk in Hawaii?
所以我游得很开心 正踱着步子往回走
So I had a good swim and I’m walking back.
我一定是被这些风景“陶醉了”
I must have zoned out on the scenery, singing
与鸟共“鸣”或其他的事 因为在某个地点
with the birds or something because somewhere
我搞错了方向
I took a wrong turn.
现在 我面对着一块没有尽头的路标
And now I am face to face with the street sign that never quits.
讲真 那些字母(好像)“没完没了”
Seriously, those letters went on forever!
如果你是个正常人 遇到这种情况
If you’re a normal human in this situation,
就知道自己迷路了 你会调头
you know you’re lost, you turn around and
走另一条路
you walk the other way.
但语言不通的呆子怎么办呢
But language nerds?
我们丢掉冰淇淋 坐在那里 望着这些字符发呆
We drop our ice cream and sit there mesmerized by phonemes.
啊哦 你怎么看一个男人独自在街上闲逛 还正舔着冰淇淋蛋卷(这事儿)呢
Auwe, you think a lone male goes wandering the streets licking an ice-cream cone?
很诡异哦
That is creepy.
现在 我们吃刨冰吧
Nah, we eat shave ice.
虽然是发牢骚 如果你打开一本夏威夷词典
The kicker though is if you pop open a Hawaiian
永远也找不到这些这么长的词汇
dictionary you won’t find these forever words.
事实上 大多数的术语看上去很简短
In fact, most terms will look downright short.
那么 额外的的字母是从哪儿来的呢
So where are the extra letters coming from?
和我呆久点 你就会听到关于太平洋岛屿的禁忌
Hang out with me long enough and you’ll hear about Pacific Island taboos.
在夏威夷 描述禁忌用的单词是“kapu”
In Hawaii, the word is “kapu”.
哦 有些关于禁忌的有趣的故事 但要稍后再说了
Oh, and there are some intriguing kapu stories, but that’s for later.
那么 记住 kapu 不过现在要掌握 ho’o 这个音 我的语法书称它为使役动词
So keep “kapu” but now go and grab the sounds “ho’o”, which my grammar book calls a causative.
把它加到 kapu 上面 就可以得到 ho’okapu 大概是指让某事变得神圣或成为禁忌吧
Smash that onto “kapu” and you’ll get “ho’okapu”, maybe make something holy or cause to be taboo.
但这些词缀只给了我们几个字符 也给我们带来了语法上的难题
But these affixes only buy us a few characters and they give me grammatical headaches, so
所以 并不算完全弄清楚
no big wins here.
同时 多数夏威夷语法是用分开的短单词表示的
Besides, most Hawaiian grammar is done with separate little words called particles.
若你认为分解单词怪兽是种痛苦 那么机会来了
And if you thought dissecting word-beasts was a pain, here’s your chance to tame a bunch
你可以先驯服一些小的疾跑的单词昆虫
of little scurrying word insects!
听上去很美啊
So beautiful though.
有什么比利用基址字 添加附属词缀以增长词汇更好的吗
What’s better than taking your base word and growing it by sticking on some appendages?
加上另一个基址字
Adding another base word!
这个过程被称作整合 会给你带来一些额外的必要单词
This is called compounding, and it’ll earn you some serious extra letters.
我们得到了什么呢
Watcha got?
得到一个大脑吗
Got a brain?
不如说一个反应快速的大脑怎么样
How about a lightning brain!
粪便这个词怎么样呢
Dung?
可以想到喷洒的粪肥
Here’s some Pele dung!
引金鱼呢
Triggerfish?
为什么不说 鼻子像猪一样迟钝的引金鱼啊!
Why not a blunt-pig-snout-triggerfish!
一条烂鼻子的鱼
Humuhumunukunukuāpua’a.
夏威夷语还真有令人印象深刻的构词法啊
Impressive word-building, Hawai’i.
那么 夏威夷是拥有世上最长单词的地方吗
So then, is Hawaii home to the longest word ever?
当然
It is
不是
not.
早期的德语和希腊语怎么样呢
What about German or Greek from earlier?
同样的策略 不断整合 整合 整合下去
Same strategy: compound, compound, compound…
真不幸 这儿同样没有打破记录者
No record-breakers there either, unfortunately.
该奖项最后获得者是…击鼓揭晓
The award goes to… drummrrrolllll….
一个16世纪的作家 一个特别的单词组合的大师
A master-compounder-extraordinaire, a 16th-century writer,
提鲁马尔āMBā
Tirumalāmbā.
她在其梵语杰作中 有一整章都是单词的整合
She used compounding in her Sanskrit masterwork in which there is an entire chapter devoted
基本内容只是“这个人走过了泰米尔纳德邦的一部分”而已
to basically just saying, “So this guy passed through a part of Tamil Nadu.”
不过那个章节的滔滔不绝 也说明她真的是进行了详细的铺陈啊
But she gushed over that region, I mean she really laid it on thick.
她用华丽的梵文辞藻 描绘这个地方 所进行的 冗长的陈述 包含
One (just one!) of the litany of flowery Sanskrit words she used to describe the place contains
数十种单词的组合
dozens and dozens of compounds.
这就是梵文组合因最长的单词创造吉尼斯世界纪录的方法
And that is how a Sanskrit compound made the Guiness World Records for longest word.
我们还有时间吗
Are we having a moment here?
是否也有个想法在你脑中酝酿 比如
Is that thought crossing your mind too, like,
理论上 难道我们就不能
theoretically couldn’t we just keep adding
增加字符并连续不断的增加整合吗
and adding hyphenated compounds infinitely?
当然 你是对的
Welp, you’re right!
有点不公平 嗯哼
Kind of unfair then, huh?
如果我们也这样玩的话 也很好啊
If that’s how we’re playing this, fine.
就像是一个用词组进行的军备竞赛
It’s a hyphenated verbal arms race.
这样的单词并没有真正被利用
The thing about words like these is they don’t really get used.
事实上 即便是组合
Truth is, even with compounding, Hawaiian
夏威夷语 德语甚至梵语也不会赢得
and German and even Sanskrit aren’t winning
任何 平均单词长度的奖项
any average word length awards.
纵观全世界 事实上 人们可以在每一个单独的句子中使用长单词吧
Around the world, languages where people actually use long words in nearly every single sentence?
哦 他们构词的方法也十分不同哦
Oh, they build words very differently.
我应该下次再回过头来多讲一些的
I should come back to that sometime.
坚持下去并订阅我们的语言吧
Stick around and subscribe for language!

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不同语言中最长的单词 单词文化也博大精深

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2DzeDU6QMZM

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