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南极洲的生活环境及后勤故事

The Logistics of Living in Antarctica

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本视频由Brilliant赞助播出
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将可享受八折订阅优惠
Antarctica is earth’s coldest, most desolate,
南极洲冷酷荒芜
most isolated, windiest, driest, and southernmost continent.
与世隔绝 风干物燥 位于地球最南端
All but 2% of the land-mass is covered
但大陆98%的面积
in ice thousands of feet thick.
都由数千英尺厚的冰雪覆盖
Human eyes did not gaze upon the continent until 1820.
人们直到1820年才发现南极洲
Human feet did not touch Antarctica until 1895.
到1895年才踏上南极洲
It is not a place built for humans, but still,
那里不适合人类居住
thousands of people live there for up to years on end.
但仍然有成千上万的人在那里居住了数年
but how do they get there,
但他们是如何到达南极洲的
how do they live there,
又是如何在那里生存的
and how does Antarctica work?
南极洲又是如何正常生活的?
Antarctica has thousands of residents, significant infrastructure,
南极洲有着成千上万的居民 大量的基础设施
and a large transport network,
还有一个庞大的运输网络
and yet it’s one of the very few areas of land
同时也是地球上为数不多的
on earth not part of any country.
不受任何国家管辖的净土
Seven countries have made Antarctic claims
有七个国家发表了南极洲主权声明
— Chile, Argentina, the United Kingdom, Norway, Australia,
智利 阿根廷 英国 挪威 澳大利亚
France and New Zealand.
法国和新西兰
But they are exactly that, claims.
但他们也仅仅只是声明而已
The only real gauge of whether a country’s territorial claim is real
衡量一个领土声明是否有效
is if other countries recognize it,
是看其是否被其它国家认可
and overwhelmingly, these claims are not recognized.
而这些声明并未得到绝大多数国家的认可
Australia’s claim, for example,
例如 澳大利亚的声明
is only recognized by the United Kingdom, Norway,
只被英国 挪威
France and New Zealand,
法国以及新西兰认可
countries which clearly have a vested interest
显然这些国家可以通过
in the recognition of Antarctic claims.
声明南极洲主权的认可而获利
For the most part, these claims are ignored.
但大多数国家都无视这些声明
One doesn’t go through customs upon arrival in the claims
根据声明 人们到达时不需通过海关
and certain of them overlap with other claims.
并且某些声明是有重合的
The more universally recognized interpretation is that Antarctica is an international zone.
南极更大程度上被公认为一个国际性地区
Just like outer space and the ocean.
如同外太空和海洋
Antarctica is considered part of the common heritage of mankind,
人们认为南极洲是人类共同遗产的一部分
meaning that it should be preserved immaculately
意味着这里应该受到
for all future generations forever,
每一代人的精心保护
that’s easier said than done.
但说起来容易做起来难
The seminal piece of legislation regulating the continent is the Antarctic Treaty.
《南极条约》是有重大意义的管理条约
Just as the cold war was heating up in the late 1950’s,
随着20世纪50年代末冷战持续升温
the United States, the Soviet Union and all other countries
美国 苏联以及其他
with an interest in Antarctica gathered together to decide
对南极洲感兴趣的国家聚在一起去决定
how the continent would be used.
南极洲大陆的使用
They emerged with a future-facing treaty
他们签署一项面向未来的条约
that solved most political disputes and issues
用以解决该大陆的大多数
with the continent, except for one.
政治争议和问题 有一点除外
In its text, the treaty specifically says,
在文件中 条约特别指出
“Nothing contained in the present treaty shall be interpreted as a renunciation
当前的任何条款均不能解释为
by any Contracting Party of previously asserted
缔约国放弃之前发表的
rights of or claims to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica.”
关于南极洲领土主权的要求或声明
Essentially, they didn’t solve the sovereignty issue
本质上 他们还未解决主权问题
because it was too difficult to solve,
因为这难以解决
but they did ban military presence, mining,and nuclear explosions
但他们禁止军事驻扎 矿物开采和核试验
which has helped enormously in keeping the last continent pristine.
这大大促进了 大陆保持其原始状态
So that brings us to today.
让这种原始状态一直延续到现在
There are no large scale commercial operations in Antarctica
在南极洲没有大规模的商业行为
thanks to that treaty
这多亏了这个条约
The vast majority of individuals are there for research.
大多数人都是为了做研究
Of course, living and maintaining a base
当然 在世界上最荒无人烟的
on the world’s most desolate continent is hugely expensive,
大陆上维护一个基地是极其昂贵的
but it’s worth it
但也是值得的
for the research that can only be conducted in Antarctica.
因为这些研究也只能在南极洲进行
Some individuals are there to study the continent itself
有些研究者探索大陆本身
its wildlife, its geology,and its climate
包括大陆的野生生物 地质 气候
but others use the area to study the entire world.
但也有人通过这片区域探索世界
Ice cores can be used to track historic atmospheric carbon levels,
冰芯可以追踪之前大气层中的碳含量
underground ponds can be tapped
也可以探测出地下湖
to find ancient microbial life unique to the area,
发现区域里 独特古老的微生物
and ice thickness can be monitored to
并且 通过监测冰层厚度
understand how sea levels will rise.
弄明白海平面将如何上升
Scientists even use Antarctica to look at space.
科学家们甚至用南极洲去探测太空
As such as isolated place,
像这样偏远的地方
Antarctica has a very low background radiation and virtually no light pollution,
南极洲基底辐射很低 几乎不存在光污染
which allows astronomers to use various techniques to peer into deep space.
天文学家就能用各种技术探测外太空了
Scientists are performing groundbreaking research in Antarctica,
科学家们正在南极洲进行突破性的研究
but how do they even get there?
但他们怎样到达南极呢
The difficulty in getting to Antarctica all stems from its weather.
抵达南极很艰难 最难克服的是是南极的天气
The all-time record high at the south pole is 9.9 degrees Fahrenheit.
南极点最高温度记录数值是9.9华氏度
The coasts are significantly warmer
海岸要暖和很多
where the average summer high is about 30 degrees Fahrenheit,
夏季平均最高温度为30华氏度
but still, weather above freezing anywhere in Antarctica is an anomaly.
然而异常的是 南极洲有在很多温度在冰点以上
As mentioned, this means there is virtually no bare ground
如上文所述 这意味着南极几乎没有裸地
Nearly the entire continent is covered in thick ice and snow.
几乎整个大陆全部被厚厚的冰雪覆盖
Therefore, the only real choice when building an Antarctic airstrip
因此 南极洲建立飞机跑道的唯一选择是
is whether to make it on ice or snow.
建在冰面或者雪地上
One thing to remember is that Antarctica is a desert.
牢记一点 南极洲是一个不毛之地
The coastal regions, where most of the research bases are,
大多数研究都在沿岸地区开展
do experience the most snow
这里下雪最多
but still then, that’s a maximum of eight inches per year.
即便如此 每年最多仅8英寸的降雪量
The south pole, meanwhile,
与此相比 在南极点
only sees 2-3 inches of snowfall per year.
每年只有2-3英寸的降雪
It doesn’t snow much, but when it does,
南极洲不常下雪 但一旦下雪
it sticks around for centuries.
它就持续几个世纪不化
Therefore, a runway built on ice or snow is fairly permanent.
因此 在这冰雪上建的跑道 能永恒存在
It doesn’t get buried as one might in Canada or Russia.
它不会像俄罗斯或加拿大的那样被掩埋
McMurdo Station’s Pegasus Field, for example,
以麦克默多站的飞马场跑道为例
was used for more than 40 years
使用了40多年
before it closed in 2016 to be replaced by the new Phoenix Airfield.
直到2016年被新的凤凰机场替代
Phoenix Airfield is a compacted snow runway.
凤凰机场跑道是压紧的积雪的路
Machines are used to pack the snow
机器用于压紧积雪
until it’s dense enough to support
直到雪的密度可承受
a fully loaded, half-million pound C-17 wheeled cargo plane.
50万磅重的满载C-17轮式运货飞机
But compacted-snow runways have a disadvantage — they can melt.
但由积雪压实成的跑道有个缺点 会融化
During the warmest months of the summer,
在夏天最热的那个月
the snow can warm and soften enough that it is
雪由温度上升融化变软的跑道
no longer safe to land wheeled aircraft,
就不再是轮运飞机的安全着陆地了
so that’s why there’s the other type of runway —
因此 另一种跑道就出现了
blue ice runways.
它就是蓝冰跑道
These ice runways are built
这些蓝冰跑道是建在
on areas of glacial ice where there’s no snow accumulation.
没有积雪的冰川冰面上
Ice is much more resilient to warmer temperatures,
冰的耐高温性更强
so these runways can be used year-round.
因此 这些跑道能常年使用
Runways on the sea-ice are also used typically
跑道也通常在海冰上
at the beginning of the summer research season
在夏季研究季节的开始
in early November until December
从11月初持续到12月
when the southern hemisphere summer begins and the ice starts to break up.
这时 南半球的夏季开始 冰雪开始融化
Once the coasts are ice-free,
一旦海岸无冰雪覆盖
cargo ships can also bring supplies into the major coastal stations,
货船就能给主要的沿海站带来供给
and from there, the internal logistics network gets to work.
之后 内部物流网络就开始运行
Large planes are used to get as much cargo and
大型飞机里最大的可能
as many passengers to the continent as
将尽可能多的货物和乘客
inexpensively as possible.
运往这片大陆
There are certain airports on other continents that serve as gateways to the Antarctic.
其它大陆上有与南极通航的特定机场
Christchurch New Zealand Airport, for example,
以新西兰克赖斯特彻奇机场为例
sends about 100 flights per year and
它每年大约运送100驾飞机
5,500 passengers to Antarctica
大约5500位乘客到南极洲
and serves as the staging area for the New Zealand, American,
并被用作新西兰 美国
and Italian Antarctic logistics operations.
和意大利的南极洲物流运营集结地
From there, it’s only a five-hour flight
从那儿坐飞机只有五小时的航程
to McMurdo Station — the largest Antarctic research station.
到达 麦克默多站 最大的南极科考站
While Christchurch
克赖斯特彻
is the major Antarctic gateway,
是主干道
flights do also leave from Cape Town, South Africa and Punta Arenas, Chile.
飞机可从南非开普敦 智利彭塔阿雷纳斯
These larger inter-continental planes typically land
这种大型飞机一般都会在
at the major blue ice and compacted snow runways near the coast.
海边的蓝冰跑道或压缩雪面着陆
but then many of these passengers and much of this cargo needs to get inland.
但之后乘客和货物 大多需要运往内陆
The inland research bases tend to be smaller and there are fewer of them,
内陆研究基地的规模和数量都在逐渐缩减
but they are still significant.
但他们依旧起着重要作用
The American Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, for example,
例如 美国的阿蒙森斯科特南极站
has a population of 150 people
夏季有150人在那里
in the summer and there are also smaller Italian
而规模更小的意大利站
French, Russian, Japanese, and German stations
法国站 俄罗斯站 日本站和德国站
away from the coasts.
一般会沿着海岸线建设
For the American Antarctic operations, McMurdo station operates as the logistics hub.
麦克默多站是美国南极洲运营的物流枢纽
Nearly all cargo and passengers arrive there
几乎所有的货物和乘客会通过更大的
on larger cargo planes or cargo ships.
飞机或轮船来运到那里
From there, passengers and some cargo
从那儿 乘客和一些货物
are transferred most often onto Lockheed LC-130 planes.
常被转运到洛克希德公司的LC-130飞机上
These prop planes are specifically designed for Arctic and Antarctic operations.
这些螺旋桨飞机专门设计用于北极洲和南极洲的运营
They have retractable skis that allow them to land on soft,
它们有可收缩的滑雪板 能够着陆在
non-compacted snow and there
柔软和未被压实的雪上
are only ten in existence.
全球仅有十架这样的飞机
Polar operations often mean taking off at high altitudes where the air is thin.
极地运营通常意味着飞机在空气稀薄的高海拔地区起飞
The Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station,
例如阿蒙森-斯科特南极站
where the plane often flies to, for example,
就是飞机经常飞往的地方
is surprisingly at 9,300 feet above sea-level.
它的海拔超过9300英尺 令人难以置信
That’s even higher than the highest elevation commercial airport in the US.
这比美国最高的商业机场的海拔还要高
When the air is thin wings generate less lift,
当空气稀薄时 机翼产生的升力较小
so the speed needed to takeoff is higher and so,
所以起飞就需要更快的速度
in order to be able to takeoff
为了能够起飞
at higher elevations, this LC-130 plane has rockets
在海拔较高的地方 这架LC-130飞机安装了火箭
to help speed it up at take-off.
来帮助飞机加速起飞
Thanks to its skis,
多亏了它的滑雪板
this plane can operate to those places like the South Pole station
这架飞机才能够飞到像南极站这样
that don’t have compacted snow or blue ice runways.
没有积雪压实而成的跑道或蓝冰跑道的地方
While passengers and some cargo
而乘客和一些货物
like fresh food take the quick two hour flight from
如新鲜的食物 坐两个小时的快机抵达
McMurdo Station to the South Pole, there is another way.
从麦克默多站到南极 还有另一条路
Flights are hugely expensive and
航班非常昂贵
the United States Antarctic Program works on a limited budget,
而且美国南极项目的预算有限
so there’s an effort being made to reduce shipping costs.
所以人们正在努力降低运输成本
Therefore, they built a road.
因此 他们修建了一条路
Just like the runways this road is made
和修建跑道的方法类似
from compacted snow and stretches 995 miles
这条路是由积雪压实的 共长995英里
from McMurdo Station to the South Pole.
从麦克默多站到南极
Using this South Pole traverse,
通过这条南极路线
the United States Antarctic Program runs convoys of tractors
美国南极项目组织车队
pulling sleds of cargo across the ice and snow.
拉着货物雪橇穿越冰雪
This trip takes about 40 days one-way,
单程大约需要40天
but it still is significantly cheaper than flights
但它仍然比机票便宜得多
and can handle cargo too large to fit in an LC-130 cargo plane.
并能运输大到LC-130货机容不下的货物
Of course, Antarctica is still Antarctica — one of the harshest climates in the world.
当然 南极洲仍然是南极洲 世界上气候最严酷的地方之一
Whenever a plane leaves from New Zealand or South Africa or Chile to Antarctica,
每当一架飞机从新西兰 南非或智利起飞飞往南极洲时
it’s required to take enough fuel to fly all the way to its destination,
都需要携带足够飞到目的地燃料
attempt landing, and fly back to its origin if landing is not possible.
尝试着陆 如果无法着陆 则飞回原点
Planes fail, equipment breaks, and weather changes,
飞机失事时有发生 设备容易损坏 天气常常变化
so Antarctica just isn’t a place conducive to reliability.
所以南极洲并不是一个可靠的地方
For this reason, planes are prohibited
由于这个原因
from landing or taking off in the dark and of course,
飞机从黑暗中降落或起飞是被禁止的
in the winter in Antarctica,
当然 南极洲的冬天
it’s dark for 24 hours a day.
一天24小时都是黑的
Therefore, for seven months out of the year, there are no planes,
因此 一年中有七个月 这里没有飞机
no boats, no link at all
没有船
between Antarctica and the rest of the world.
南极洲和世界其他地方也没有任何联系
The lack of transport links
在冬天 没有交通运输的原因
during the winter have as much to do with the cold as the dark.
寒冷和黑暗所占的比重一样大
At McMurdo station where most ships dock on the coast,
在麦克默多站 大多数船只停靠在岸边
the winter temperature rarely rises
冬天的温度很少上升到
above zero degrees Fahrenheit,
零华氏度以上
meaning that the coast is blocked with sea-ice.
这意味着海岸被海冰封锁了
And meanwhile at the South Pole station,
在这期间的南极站
the average July high temperature is -67 degrees Fahrenheit
七月的平均高温是零下67华氏度
meaning that if any plane landed there, its fuel would freeze within minutes.
这意味着如果有飞机在那里着陆 它的燃料在几分钟内就会结冰
Of course, the large bases,
当然 像麦克默多克这样的大型基地
like McMurdo Station which balloons to well over 1,000 residents in the summer,
夏季时 居民迅速增加 超过1000
need maintenance over the winter,
在冬天需要维护
and some science experiments need to be conducted year round,
且全年需要进行科学实验
so people have to stay in Antarctica, alone,
所以人们不得不独自呆在南极洲
in the dark, for the entire winter,
度过每天都是黑暗的冬季
with no link to the outside world.
与外界也没有联系
In recent years there have been a small number
近年来 有少数的
of exceptions to this lack of flights in winter,
例外 打破了缺少冬季航班的情况
mostly due to medical evacuation flights,
主要是来源于医疗航班
but for the most part, once the last plane leaves in February,
但在大多数情况下 一旦最后一架飞机离开
everyone still in Antarctica is stuck there until the following November.
所有留在南极洲的人都被困在那里 直到第二年的11月才有机会离开
All food, fuel, and supplies
所有的食物 燃料和补给
are stocked there well before and a small number of people,
已经储存在那里了 还有南极站的45个人
45 in the case of the south pole station, stick around to keep the bases running.
会留下来保持基地的运转
In a sense, the people who stay the winter
从某种意义上说
in Antarctica are even more isolated than
与国际空间站的宇航员相比
the astronauts on the International Space Station.
在南极洲过冬的人 比他们更加孤独
There are few places humans can go
人类能去的地方很少
where they are seven months away from medical care,
他们还要七个月才能得到医疗护理
from food, from civilization.
获取食物 感受文明的存在
Those living and working
在最后一块净土上生活和工作的人
on the last continent endure some of the harshest conditions on this earth,
忍受着世界上最严酷的生活条件
but for the pursuit of science,
但为了追求科学
all this hardship, all this work,
所有这些艰难 所有这些努力
and all this cost is worth it.
所有这些成本都是值得的
If you want to live and work in Antarctica,
如果你想在南极洲生活和工作
your best shot to get there is if you’re a scientist.
如果你是一名科学家 这就是你最好的机会
In particular, a lot of those working there are astronomers,
特别是在那里工作的很多人都是天文学家
and the best place to get a basic understanding of astronomy is brilliant.org.
要对天文学有一个基本的了解 最好的地方是brilliant.org
Brilliant’s interactive quizzes teach you
Brilliant的互动测验教你
by developing your intuition, not by memorization.
培养直觉 而不是死记硬背
With their straightforward explanations and simple graphics,
通过他们简单明了的解释
you really learn a lot quickly.
你很快就会有收获
I usually have a blast while taking Brilliant courses,
学习这种课程时 我常常感觉到开心
they’re designed to be interesting,
他们把课程设计得很有趣
and in this astronomy course you can learn things
在这门天文学课程中 你可以学到一些东西
like how to measure the size of the universe,
比如如何测量宇宙的大小
if life on other planets is possible,
是否其他星球上可能存在生命
and how everything on earth is actually made of old stars.
以及地球上的一切是如何由古老的恒星构成的
By going to Brilliant.org/Wendover,
登录brilliant.org/wendover.com
you can get started for free and then,
你可以获取免费学习的机会
by being one of the first 97 people to upgrade to the premium subscription,
成为首批97名升级到高级订阅的用户之一
you will get 20 % off.
你可以享受八折优惠

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物资、乘客的运输方式飞机降落起飞的跑道又是如何制成什么样的跑道才适合起飞降落呢?快来看看吧

听录译者

AkumaSensei

翻译译者

游过一群鸭

审核员

审核员1024

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-s3j-ptJD10

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