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死亡小苹果

The Little Apple of Death

If you’re ever vacationing in the Flamingo section of Everglades National Park in Florida,
若你在佛罗里达州大沼泽国家公园的火烈鸟区度过假
beware of the apples.
小心那的苹果
In fact, if you’re pretty much anywhere from northern South America to Florida,
事实上 如果你在南美北部到佛罗里达之间的任何地方
including the Caribbean and Galapagos Islands,
包括加勒比海和加拉帕戈斯群岛
and you see a tall tree growing near water
你在水边看到一棵高大的树
with yellowish-greenish crabapple-looking fruit,
树上结着黄绿色的野苹果
it’s probably best to keep your distance.
你最好离它远点
The fruit might be delicious, but it could also be deadly.
这种水果可能很美味 但也很致命
Because that tree might be a Manchineel
因为那可能是毒番石榴树
which, according to the folks at Guinness World Records,
据吉尼斯世界纪录记载
is the world’s most dangerous tree.
那是世界上最危险的树
Every part of the Manchineel is toxic.
毒番石榴的每个部分都有毒
The sap in its wood and leaves can cause blindness and blistering,
树液和树叶会导致失明和起水泡
its fruit can cause boils in the mouth and throat
它的果实还会使口腔和喉咙里长疖子
as well as severe intestinal damage that can kill you.
以及造成严重 致命的肠道损伤
It’s no wonder Spaniards gave it the nickname “la manzanilla de la muerte”,
难怪西班牙人给它起了个绰号“死亡甘菊”
or “little apple of death.”
或者“死亡小苹果”
The tree contains a number of toxins,
这种树含有许多毒素
but the worst is probably phorbol.
但最可怕的大概就是佛波醇
Or, I should say, phorbols.
或者 我应该说 佛波醇类
“Phorbol”refers to a family of related organic molecules
“佛波醇”指的是一系列相关的
that have two terpene chemical groups.
有两个萜烯化学基的有机分子
And they’re similar to compounds you have in your body ,which is a bit of a problem.
它们与你体内的化合物相似 这就有麻烦所在
See, phorbols mimic the action of diacylglycerol
因为佛波醇类模拟了二酰基甘油的活动
a fatty molecule your body uses in a number of ways,
二酰基甘油这种脂肪分子 在你的身体里有很多作用
including to activate an enzyme called protein kinase C, or PKC for short.
它能激活一种蛋白激酶C 简称PKC
PKC is a pretty big deal because it regulates things like cell growth and metabolic activity.
PKC非常重要 因为它调节细胞生长和代谢活动
So when phorbols over activate PKC,
所以当佛波醇过度激活PKC时
cells will increase their expression of genes involved in inflammation and cell death.
细胞中炎症和细胞死亡基因的表达增加
This leads to a range of nasty effects like blistering and ulcering.
这导致了一系列的不良影响 如水疱和溃疡
Manchineels have phorbols everywhere,
毒番石榴树里全是佛波醇
which is why you shouldn’t touch any part of them.
所以你哪都不能碰
Oh, and here’s a not-so-fun fact:
哦 还有个不那么有趣的事实
Phorbols are very soluble in water,
佛波醇极易溶于水
so it’s not a good idea to stand under a Manchineel when it’s raining, either.
所以在下雨的时候 可别在毒番石榴树下避雨
Which, you know, it does in places like the Everglades. A lot.
你知道 像在弗罗里达的大沼泽地这些地方就经常下雨
What’s not entirely clear is why this tree went so overkill on the toxicity.
我们对它剧毒性的成因尚不完全了解
It may be that, since the Manchineel typically grows in areas where there are lots of other toxic plants,
可能是因为毒番石榴通常长在有许多其他有毒植物的地区
it has such overdeveloped defense mechanisms to stay competitive.
所以有如此发达的防御机制来保持竞争力
And it can get away with having toxic fruit because it doesn’t need animals to spread its seeds.
它不需要动物传播它的种子 所以它的果实也有毒
It lives by the ocean, so its fruit can bob along on the waves to move to new lands.
它长在海边 所以它的果实可以随着海浪漂到新的陆地上
Though, it may get more love from critters than you’d think.
尽管如此 动物可能比你想象的更喜欢它
Some reptiles seem to eat the fruit with no ill effects,
似乎有一些爬行动物 吃了它的果实后没有任何不良影响
and black spiny-tailed iguanas will even live in the trees!
黑刺尾鬣蜥甚至能在毒番石榴树上生活
How remains a mystery.
它们如何做到这一点仍然是个谜
And even our species doesn’t always keep away.
我们人类也不能总是远离它
Because the trees live in places like Florida
因为这些树生长在像佛罗里达这样的地方
where there are a lot of strong winds
那里多强风
and you know, hurricanes every so often — their wood is really hard.
你知道 飓风经常发生——所以它们非常坚硬
So cabinet makers love it.
这可是橱柜制造商们的心头好
Though, they have to carefully cut and dry the planks for several days
不过 他们还是得小心翼翼的切割木板 再烘干好几天
to let the phorbol-laced sap evaporate out.
让毒番石榴树液蒸发掉
And the trees aren’t just hard,
这些树不仅坚硬
their deep roots and thick branches help protect coastlines
它们的深根和粗枝还有助于保护海岸线
from damaging winds and waves.
使其免受风和海浪的破坏
That means, while they might be toxic to touch,
也就是说 虽然触摸它们会中毒
they help protect us and coastal ecosystems during storms.
但在暴风雨期间 它们却会保护人类以及沿海生态系统
So if you do see a Manchineel while you’re strolling along the beach,
所以 如果你在海滩散步时看到一棵毒番石榴树
you can smile and appreciate all that it’s doing for the plants, animals, and people who live nearby
你可以笑着欣赏 它为动植物和附近居民所做的一切
and then give it a wide berth.
然后远离它
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow!
感谢收看本期《科学秀》
Fun, educational science videos like this one are what we do,
我们制作像这样有趣的教育科学视频
but we can’t do it without the help of our patrons on Patreon.
但是需要在众筹网上获得赞助
If you want to learn more about joining our awesome community of patrons
若想了解如何加入我们超棒的赞助人社区
and how you can help support the work we do,
及支持我们的工作
you can head on over to Patreon.com/SciShow.
请登录Patreon.com/SciShow
And if you want to learn more about poisonous plants,
如果你想了解更多关于毒植物的知识
you might enjoy our list of nine that might be around your house right now!
可以看看我们为你列出的 九种可能在你家附近出没的有毒植物
Some of them are quite surprising.
其中一些相当令人惊讶

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世界上最危险的树

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视频来源

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