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T恤的生命周期

The life cycle of a t-shirt - Angel Chang

Consider the classic white t-shirt.
经典款白衬衫
Annually, we sell and buy two billion t-shirts globally,
每年全球都会销售二十亿件T桖衫
making it one of the most common garments in the world.
它已经成为了最普遍的衣服之一
But how and where is the average t-shirt made,
但普通T恤衫是如何制作 产自哪里
and what’s its environmental impact?
而且对环境有什么影响呢?
Clothing items can vary a lot,
衣服种类数不胜数
but a typical t-shirt begins its life on a farm in America, China, or India
通常一件T恤诞生于美国 中国或者印度的农场
where cotton seeds are sown, irrigated and grown for the fluffy bolls they produce.
在那里播种、种植 、灌溉长成毛茸茸的棉铃
Self-driving machines carefully harvest these puffs,
自动化机械悉心收割着这些棉花
an industrial cotton gin mechanically separates the fluffy bolls from the seeds,
工业轧棉机分离棉铃和棉籽
and the cotton lint is pressed into 225-kilogram bales.
把棉花压紧成重225kg的棉花包
The cotton plants require a huge quantity of water and pesticides.
棉花种植需要大量的水和喷洒农药
2,700 liters of water are needed to produce the average t-shirt,
制作一件普通T恤需要消耗2700升水
enough to fill more than 30 bathtubs.
能灌满30多个浴缸
Meanwhile, cotton uses more insecticides and pesticides
与此同时 棉花比世界上任意一种农作物
than any other crop in the world.
都需要更多的杀虫剂和农药
These pollutants can be carcinogenic,
这些污染物会致癌
harm the health of field workers,
损害农民身体健康
and damage surrounding ecosystems.
并且破坏周围的生态系统
Some t-shirts are made of organic cotton grown without pesticides and insecticides,
一些T恤是由不含农药和杀虫剂的有机棉制成
but organic cotton makes up less than 1%
世界棉花产量为2270万公吨
of the 22.7 million metric tons of cotton produced worldwide.
但有机棉占比不足1%
Once the cotton bales leave the farm,
一旦棉包送出农场
textile mills ship them to a spinning facility,
纺织货船运输棉包到纺纱厂
usually in China or India,
通常是在中国或印度
where high-tech machines,
这些有高纺织技术的地方
blend
进行梳棉
card,
普梳
comb,
精梳
pull,
罗拉
stretch,
拉长
and, finally, twist the cotton into snowy ropes of yarn called slivers.
最后将棉花捻成雪白的棉条
Then, yarns are sent to the mill,
然后 把纱线送到制造厂
where huge circular knitting machines
通过大型圆形织针机
weave them into sheets of rough grayish fabric
将纱线织成一张张略带灰色的粗布
treated with heat and chemicals until they turn soft and white.
经过加热和化学处理后让粗布变得又软又白
Here, the fabric is dipped into commercial bleaches and azo dyes,
这里用工业漂白剂和偶氮染料给布染色
which make up the vivid coloring in about 70% of textiles.
大约70%色彩鲜明的纺织品都是这么染色的
Unfortunately, some of these contain cancer-causing cadmium,
不幸的是 有些染料含有致癌物质镉
lead,

chromium,

and mercury.
和汞
Other harmful compounds and chemicals can cause widespread contamination
其它含有害化合物和化学药品的有毒废水
when released as toxic waste water in rivers and oceans.
排放到河流和海洋里 会造成大范围的污染
Technologies are now so advanced in some countries
在一些技术发达的国家
that the entire process of growing and producing fabric
整个种植棉花和产布的过程
barely touches a human hand,
几乎不需要人工
but only up until this point.
但仅仅在这之前
After the finished cloth travels to factories,
把成品布送到工厂后
often in Bangladesh, China, India, or Turkey,
通常是在孟加拉国 中国 印度或土耳其
human labor is still required to stitch them up into t-shirts,
因机械无法完成复杂工艺
intricate work that machines just can’t do.
仍需要手工缝制成T恤
This process has its own problems.
这个过程本身也有困难
Bangladesh, for example,
比如 孟加拉国
which has surpassed China as the world’s biggest exporter of cotton t-shirts,
已经超过了中国 成为最大的棉T恤出口国
employs 4.5 million people in the t-shirt industry,
T恤行业拥有450万员工
but they typically face poor conditions and low wages.
但纺织工人们工作环境恶劣 收入微薄
After manufacture, all those t-shirts travel by ship, train, and truck
T恤批量生产后,通过船、火车和货车
to be sold in high-income countries,
卖到高收入水平国家
a process that gives cotton an enormous carbon footprint.
该过程形成了大量的碳足迹
Some countries produce their own clothing domestically,
也有一些国家自产自销T恤
which cuts out this polluting stage,
虽然这切断了污染过程
but generally, apparel production accounts for 10% of global carbon emissions.
但总之,服装业产生的碳排放量占全球的10%
And it’s escalating.
且该数据还在不断增长
Cheaper garments and the public’s willingness to buy
衣服越便宜 大家就越愿意买
boosted global production from 1994 to 2014 by 400%
这也导致全球产量 从1994到2004增加了4倍
to around 80 billion garments each year.
达到约每年生产800亿件服装
Finally, in a consumer’s home,
最后 T恤在顾客家里
the t-shirt goes through one of the most resource-intensive phases of its lifetime.
进入了物尽其用的阶段
In America, for instance,
比如在美国
the average household does nearly 400 loads of laundry per year
每个家庭几乎每年要洗400篮衣服
each using about 40 gallons of water.
平均要用掉大约40加仑的水
Washing machines and dryers both use energy,
洗衣机和烘干机都耗能
with dryers requiring five to six times more than washers.
并且烘干机耗能是洗衣机的5至6倍
This dramatic shift in clothing consumption over the last 20 years,
在大企业和快时尚潮流推动下
driven by large corporations and the trend of fast fashion
服装消费在过去20年发生翻天覆地的变化
has cost the environment,
以环境和农民健康
the health of farmers,
为代价
and driven questionable human labor practices.
且引起了人类劳动实践的争议
It’s also turned fashion into the second largest polluter in the world after oil.
仅次于石油产业,服装产业成为世界第二大污染源
But there are things we can do.
但我们有办法解决
Consider shopping secondhand.
考虑一下二手交易市场
Try to look for textiles made from recycled or organic fabrics.
试着淘可回收或有机纤维制的纺织品
Wash clothes less and line dry to save resources.
减少洗衣次数 晾干衣物来节能
Instead of throwing them away at the end of their life,
达到使用寿命后不要丢弃
donate, recycle, or reuse them as cleaning rags.
捐赠 回收或者用它们当抹布
And, finally, you might ask yourself,
最后你可能就会问自己
how many t-shirts and articles of clothing will you consume over your lifetime,
我这一生会买多少件T恤和衣服
and what will be their combined impact on the world?
它们对世界产生的综合影响是什么?
When we produce TED videos about the environment
当我们制作TED关于环境的视频时
We often think about the young people who subscribed to this channel
经常会想到订阅我们频道的年轻人
and how unfair it is that you are inheriting environment problems
继承环境问题对你们是多么不公平
that were probably set into a motion long before you born.
这些问题可能在你们还没出生时就有了
The good news is that we see students everywhere
值得高兴的是各地学生
making moves to meet the world’s biggest challenges head on.
为迎接世界最大的挑战行动起来
For example, in TED’s students vioce program
比如在TED学生之声节目中
sustainability has emerged as the topic of choice in thousands of presentations
全球各地学生们的演讲中
given by students throughout the world.
可持续发展话题已成为首选
You can watch their talks on the Ted Club’s YouTube channel
你可以在油管的Ted Club频道观看他们的演讲
and you can learn more about this program by visiting Ed.ted.comslashclubs,
并且浏览Ed.Ted.comslashclub了解更多节目
As always, thanks for watching
谢谢观看

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视频概述

每个人都有至少一件T恤。你知道它是如何生产制造的吗?T恤制作过程繁琐复杂,还会对环境造成巨大影响。那作为消费者应该怎么处理旧T恤来保护环境呢?

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BiSYoeqb_VY

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