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颜料博物馆 – 译学馆
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颜料博物馆

The Library of Rare Colors

我经常和电脑以及数字视频打交道
I work with computers and digital video a lot,
换言之我从光的角度来思考颜色
which means that I think of colorin terms of light,
从红绿蓝三种光配比的角度去思考
in terms of amountsof red, green and blue.
从事印刷行业的人可能在乎
Someone who works with printmight think of color
油墨的结合 如青色 品红色 黄色和黑色
in terms of combining inks,cyan, magenta, yellow and black.
物理学家可能会考虑光的频率
A physicist might think interms of the frequencies
以及光的波长
and wavelengths of the light,
这里有一种与众不同的角度
but there is a very different way to look at it,
就是通过化学和化合物组成的颜色来看
through the chemistry and compoundsthat make up colors.
哈佛大学艺术博物馆的这些建筑里
Inside those buildings,the Harvard Art Museums,
保存着福布斯颜料集
is the Forbes Pigment Collection.
爱德华·福布斯把颜料收集在一起
– The pigment collection was put together
他是博物馆的第二任馆长
by Edward Forbes, who wasthe second director of the museum.
一直从事艺术作品收购工作
He had been buying works of art and
期间他发现意大利的经销商
in doing so he discovered that the dealers in Italy
视美国的收藏家为某种标志
were seeing American collectorsas something of a mark.
是因为如果你理解艺术品由什么制成
What he decided is that if you understand what a work of art is made of,
以及艺术家用什么原料物制作
what the original materials werethat an artist used,
这样就可以追根溯源 去伪存真
then you can tell original from restoration,original from fake.
因此他开始购买颜料
And so what he did wasstart buying pigments
以此来作为分析艺术作品的标准
to use as standards for theanalysis of works of art.
这对于公众来说是直观的方式
Knowing that it was visible to the public meant
意味着需要对收藏品
that I needed to make some sense
有一定的了解
of what we have as a collection.
所以我找了一个颜料盘
So what I did was take a color wheel,
打开它 最中间是黄色颜料
open it out, have yellow in the centre
我们把蓝色颜料放在一边
and we go along one way to blue,
红色颜料放在另一边
along the other way to red,
紫色颜料放在两端
and purple at each end.
顶层放着的就是最独特的颜色
So we have unique colorsalong the top,
我们有这些颜色的复本
we have duplicates of those colors,
是化学 而非色彩的复本
which are chemical duplicates,but not actual color duplicates
在最下面的货架
and then underneath on thebottom shelf we have
是制成上面颜色的原材料
the raw material thatmakes up the colors above.
实际上 我们将颜色相近的材料放在一起
In effect, what we have are the materials that make up paint next to each other
如果公众看到下面的美术作品
and then if people lookat the galleries below,
就可以清晰看到艺术家可以用原料做出什么
they can actually see what artists can do with these raw materials.
如果你想一下 比如说 氧化铁 赤铁矿
If you think about iron oxide for example, hematite,
在形成于土壤之时
but as it forms in the earth,
赤铁矿沉积物中会加入一些微量元素
those slight additions that the earth addsinto the hematite deposits
这使它看起来略有不同
allow it to look slightly different,
我们有60种不同赤铁矿的样品
so we have 60 differentsamples of hematite.
每一种都有细微渐变的不同
Each of those is a slightly differentshade from the other.
这些颜料不用于修复艺术品
These pigments are notused for restoration.
我们只是将其作为分析艺术品样本的参照标准
We use them only as standards for analyzing samples from works of art.
通过分析原料 可以了解
By analyzing the materials,we can understand
艺术品诞生的过程 如果艺术家已不在人世
the thinking process and if the artistis no longer alive,
这的确是个最有效的与艺术家交流的方式
it’s really the closest way to having an interview with the artist.
这也有助于教学
It’s also great for teaching.
可以向学生展示颜料如何变化
We can show the studentshow pigments change.
颜料不仅会褪色 一些也会变暗
They not just fade, butsome pigments darken.
它就像凡士林 但已存放了80年
It’s like Vaseline, but 80 years old.
也无法永久保存
It doesn’t last forever.
朱红铅在光照下会变黑
Vermilion red lead will turn blackon exposure to light.
可以看到它是如何变化的
You can see how it started.
再比如梵高使用较多的曙红色颜料
And then other pigments like eosin, which Van Gogh used a lot,
它会褪色成完全不同的样子
will fade and give anentirely different impression
以至从前的画作与现在看起来不同
of what the painting was to whatit looks like now.
安全起见 这里不对外开放
And so for security, we don’thave the public in here.
有些颜料是有毒的 所以我们不想让人们接触或使用它们
Some of the pigments are toxic, so we don’t want people touching them, playing with them.
一些颜料由汞或者镉
So pigments are made of mercury, they’re made of cadmium,
还有砷等组成
arsenic and so on.
最古老的白颜料是铅白
The oldest white pigment is lead white.
它是由铅矿放在盛醋的容器中提取而来
It’s made by taking lead metal, putting it into a container with vinegar.
那个容器埋藏在牛粪里
That container is buried in cow dung,
所以得到的最纯净的白颜料来自牛粪
so out of manure you get the most pure beautiful white pigment.
这已经存在数百年了
That’s been around forhundreds and hundreds of years.
人们曾将其作为化妆品
People used it as makeup.
铅的毒性在某种程度上导致了铅白有毒
Lead white is toxic in theway that lead is toxic.
还有木乃伊棕色
We have mummy brown.
它可能从17世纪就开始使用了
It has been used probablysince the 17th century
它由埃及的木乃伊组成 这些木乃伊已被磨成颜料
and it’s made up of Egyptian mummies that have been ground up into pigment.
印度黄是种有趣的颜料
Indian yellow is an interesting pigment.
它是由喂养奶牛所需的芒果叶
It’s made by feeding cows mango leaves only
来收集并烘干它们的尿液而制成
and collecting the urineand drying the urine.
你在屏幕上看到的取决于
What you see on the screendepends on the limitations
计算机屏幕显示的内容
of what the computer screen can depict.
所以把它录制下来并转换成数字格式
So videoing them,putting them into the digital format,
并不能复制颜色
doesn’t replicate the color.
这是一种革新 人们可以用新的方式来描述色彩
There is innovation and people are developing new ways to depict colors.
例如 马斯·苏布兰玛尼安研制出一种叫“YlnMn蓝”的蓝颜料
So for example, Mas Subramanian developed a blue pigment called YInMn Blue.
他偶然发现了它
He discovered it by accident.
这种颜料非常稳定并且
It’s very stable and it’s the
这是数百年来发明的第一个无机蓝颜料
first inorganic blue pigment that’s been invented for a couple of hundred years.
现在有一种新的黑色颜料进入市场
There’s been a new black that’s come onto the market,
即梵塔黑 它代表着垂直排列的纳米管阵列
which is Vantablack, which stands for Vertically Arranged Nano-Tube Arrays.
你看到的是数不清的极细管子 光能从中穿过
What you have is a forest of very tiny tubes and light will go into that.
在试管中发生化学反应 随后发热
It will bounce around inside the tubes and then get issued as heat.
它拥有好看且柔滑的表面 不会反射任何光线
It’s a beautiful velvety looking surface that doesn’t bounce any light back.
化学家每年都会研制出越来越多的颜料
Chemists produce more andmore pigments every year
我认为用过去想不到的颜料来描绘颜色
and I think that we’re going to seepigments depicting colors
也将成为可能
that we never thought were possible.
每天都会有人来到这里
Every day somebody is coming in here,
带走一种颜料并将它用作参考色
taking a pigment out and using itas a reference.
我把它放上去的时候就会布置得很漂亮
This was beautifullyarranged when I installed it.
这花了我近四个月的时间来排列整齐
It took me like four monthsof lining everything up
但是现在依旧有点杂乱无章
and it’s all a littlehiggledy-piggledy now,
所以可以看出我们平时一直在使用
so you can tell thatwe use it all the time.
它不是一个历史性的手工艺品
It’s not an historic artifact,
它只是我们的工作保障
it’s something that we relyon to do our work properly.
感谢哈佛大学艺术博物馆的所有员工
– My thanks to everyone atthe Harvard Art Museums.
下拉以获取更多视频介绍以及有关颜料收集的信息
Pull down the description for more about them and more about the pigment collection.

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视频概述

这里专门研究颜料的来源以及在实际工作中的应用

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rApTzWboLrA

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