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抑郁症鲜为人知的症状

The Lesser-Known Symptoms of Depression

有希望的是
[♪ INTRO ] Hopefully,
如今我们都知道抑郁不只是悲伤那么简单
by now we all know that depression is about more than sadness.
但即使你认为抑郁症也包括
But even if your idea of depression also includes things
绝望或者冷漠这样的表现
like hopelessness or apathy, what about
那么敏感或愤怒如何呢
irritability or anger?
抑郁会让你想起铺天盖地的愧疚么
Does depression make you think of overwhelmingguilt?
记忆丧失怎么样呢
What about memory loss?
因为那些也都是抑郁症状
Because those are all symptoms, too.
对于抑郁症我们仍有许多不了解的
There’s a lot we still don’t understand
特别是当谈到
about depression, especially when it comes
在细胞水平发生了什么
to what’s happening on the cellular level.
但是我们知道当谈到抑郁的体验时
But we know that when it comes to the experience
失调通常表现为
of depression, the disorder often shows itself
不健康的心理过程
in the form of unhealthy psychological processes.
结果就是一些思考过程
It turns out that some of those thought processes — specifically,
特别是自责和反思
self-blame and rumination
可以导致人们可能没有认识到的抑郁表现的症状
— can lead to symptoms people might not realize are signs of depression.
那就太糟糕了
And that’s too bad,
因为结果是我们误解了那些正受抑郁之苦的人
because the result is that we misunderstand those who are suffering
有时也包括我们自己
from it, sometimes including ourselves. Freud,
弗洛伊德 虽然他在许多事上是错误的
wrong as he was about a lot of things,
指出抑郁和简单的悲伤是不一样的
pointed out that depression was different
因为抑郁和内疚有关
from simple sadness because it was associated
而且现在的心理学家认为
with guilt, and today psychologists consider
自责是抑郁的关键症状
self-blame a key symptom of depression.
当不好的事情发生时 抑郁的人会倾向于责备他们自己
When something bad happens, depressed people tend to blame themselves,
并且把这件事情看作是
and see it as a
他们的全部自我价值的反映
reflection of their self-worth as a whole.
研究人员有时会用到的一个例子就是
An example researchers sometimes use is thinking that
想象如果你在一场体育比赛中失败
if you fail at a sports match, it means
那意味着你是个彻头彻尾的失败者
you’re a total failure.
不可思议的地方在于
What’s weird is
这只应用于你自己 抑郁的人通常不会
that this only applies to yourself — depressed people don’t usually
以同样的方式责备其他人
assign blame to others the same way.
结果是 那不同寻常的数量的内疚
Turns out the unusual amount
和只责备自己(这种行为)可能来自于
of guilt — and only applying it to yourself — might come
大脑的两个区域
from two regions of the brain
没有以他们应有的方式一起活动
that don’t activate together the way they should.
在2012年的一项研究中
In a 2012 study,
研究人员扫描了25个曾有过抑郁的人的大脑
researchers scanned the brains of 25 people who’d previously had depression
以及22个没有过抑郁的人的大脑
and 22 people who didn’t.
当从没有过抑郁的人
When the people who’d
读到他们自己做错某些事情的描述时
never been depressed read descriptions of themselves doing something wrong,
他们大脑的两个区域都活跃了起来
it activated both the part of their brain associated
和内疚相关的区域以及
with guilt and the part that
有关道德和什么是合适的社交的区域
deals with morality and what’s sociallyappropriate.
在经历过抑郁的人的大脑中
In people who’d been depressed,
第二个区域没有那么强烈的活动
that second part wasn’t activated as strongly.
那是一个小型研究
This was a small study,
所以我们不能从中得出太多的结论
so we can’t draw too many conclusions from it.
但是基于这些结果
But based on the results,
作者暗示 那些有更多抑郁倾向的人
the authors suggested that people who are more prone to depression
没有明确的知道他们哪里做错了
don’t get an accurate picture of what they did wrong,
所以他们就为所有事情
so they just feel guilty about
感到内疚
everything.
所以那就是一个不健康的思维模式
So that’s one unhealthy thought pattern
可以导致超越简单陈旧的悲伤或者冷漠的症状
that can cause symptoms beyond plain old sadness or apathy.
另一种是反思
Another is rumination.
这是个大问题
And it’s a big one.
反思基本上就是沉思 通常是无意的
Rumination is, basically, brooding — usuallyunintentionally.
解决问题部分包括分析问题相关因素
Part of problem-solving involves analyzing the factors surrounding the problem,
而且那也
and that
适用于消极的情绪体验
applies to negative emotional experiences,too.
但是反思就走得太远了
But rumination takes that way too far.
它被困在思考
It’s getting stuck thinking
导致消极体验和由消极体验导致的所有事情中
about everything that led to and resulted from a negative experience,
同时它和抑郁和焦虑都有强烈的关联
and it’s strongly linked to both depressionand anxiety.
反思也可以解释一些不那么明显的抑郁表现
It can also explain some of the less straightforward signs
比如说记忆问题
of depression, like memory problems.
在抑郁的所有症状中
Of all the symptoms of depression,
记忆问题可能看起来是最令人吃惊的
memory problems might seem the most surprising, because
因为我们倾向于将抑郁归类为情绪
we tend to classify depression as emotional,
而记忆更多的是智力的一个组成部分
and memory as more a mechanical part of the mind.
但是这是错误的二分法
But this is just a false dichotomy,
这不是大脑工作的方式
that’s not how the brain works.
抑郁通常包涵认知功能的问题 也就是清楚的
Depressive disorders often include problemswith cognitive function: the ability to clearly understand,
理解 处理和回应信息的能力
process, and respond to information.
研究人员认为那和
And researchers think that has a lot to do
反思占据所有的大脑能量有很大关系
with rumination eating up all your brainpower.
你需要认知资源来集中注意力和记住事情
You need cognitive resources to pay attention and remember things,
而患有抑郁症的人
and when people with
使用这些资源来反思了
depression are using those resources to brood,
他们就在重新把注意力集中到手头上的任务上
they have trouble redirecting them toward
出现问题了
the task at hand.
结果是他们在事件记忆和工作记忆间挣扎
They end up struggling with episodic memory,
事件记忆是对于发生在你身上的特定事件的回忆
which is the recollection of specific events
而工作记忆则是
that happened to you, and working memory,
你怎样抓住正在使用的信息
which is how you hold onto information that
来处理其他的信息
you’re currently using to process otherinformation.
它们都很重要
Those are both pretty important!
这就成了一个恶性循环
It becomes a vicious cycle,
打破反思模式的唯一方法
where the only way to break out of this pattern of rumination
就是把你的脑力资源重新集中到可能会使你感觉好些的事情上
is to redirect your mental resources toward something that might make you feel better.
但是那就正是反思使得这样做更难
But that’s exactly what rumination makes it so much harder to do!
所以人们就被困住了
So people get stuck.
反思也可以导致另一个常见的抑郁症状 愤怒和敏感
Rumination can also lead to another commonsymptom of depression: anger and irritability,
(这种症状)在超过一半的病人中出现
which appears in more than half of patients,
虽然它只是用来诊断
although it’s only used to diagnose the
孩子和青少年的失调
disorder in kids and teens.
但是它可以是特别严重的抑郁的提示
But it can be a sign of particularly severedepression.
它的核心要点是
At its core,
反思是人们用来帮助调节情绪的策略
rumination is a coping strategy people use to help regulate their emotions
它只是不是一个很好的策略
— it’s just not a very good one.
当人们反思使得他们发怒的事情时
Instead of feeling better, when people brood on something that made them angry,
他们更容易花更多时间生气而不会感觉好些
they tend to spend more time … angry.
我们依然还有更多要学习的
We still have more to learn
关于不健康的思维模式比如自责和反思是怎样
about how unhealthy thought patterns like self-blame and rumination
促成抑郁以及其症状的
contribute to depression and its symptoms.
但是随着我们研究它们
But as we study them,
我们发现它们可以解释很多
we’re discovering that they can explain a lot.
同时这里也有些好消息
And there’s some good news here, too.
自责可能和
Self-blame may have to do
大脑区域没有以应有方式活跃有关
with brain regions not activating the way they should, and rumination
反思可能感觉像是被困住
may feel like getting stuck.
但是研究人员指出 像这些不健康的思维模式
But researchers point out that unhealthy thought patterns
正好就是心理疗法
like these are exactly what psychotherapy
所要帮助的
is meant to help with.
认知行为疗法就是特别为鉴别
Cognitive behavioral therapy, especially,is designed to identify the connections between
思维模式和行为之间的联系以及用更健康的方式改造那些思维模式而设计
thought patterns and behaviors, and reshape those thought patterns in a healthier way.
所以 是的 抑郁症是一种复杂困难的疾病
So yes, depression is a complicated, difficultillness.
但是治疗方法和临床治疗可以帮助
But there are therapies and treatments thatcan help.
所以认识抑郁症的不同表现形式
And recognizing the different ways depression
是很重要的一步
manifests itself is an important step toward
对于得到那些帮助和做这些研究
getting that help and doing this research.
感谢观看心理科学秀的视频
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShowPsych.
如果你对学习更多有关
If you’re interested in learning more
抑郁科学感兴趣 你可以查看
about the science of depression, you can check out
我们关于抗抑郁药的错误看法的视频
our video on common misconceptions about antidepressants.
记得订阅我们哦
And don’t forget to subscribe!
【音乐】
[♪ OUTRO ]

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视频概述

你认为抑郁症只是悲伤么?你觉得自责和反思是抑郁症的表现么? 什么可以帮助抑郁症? 一起从视频中学习更多关于抑郁症的科学发现吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

木瓜瓜

审核员

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lLLGwXFh5uw

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