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为什么国际标准音标表上有些音是涂黑的?

The Language Sounds That Could Exist, But Don't

English spelling is a mess.
英文拼写是混乱的
O-u-g-h becomes different sounds in enough,
O-u-g-h在不同单词有不同的发音 enough
cough, plough, hiccough, although,
cough plough hiccough although
thought, and thoroughly.
thought以及thoroughly
Part of the reason for that is that English has so many loan words
一部分原因是英文中有许多外来词
whose pronunciations got either maintained or approximated.
它们的发音要么是保持原音 要么就是接近原音
Some were written down in the way monks would spell that sound
当某一个单词融入一种语言时
whenever that word happened to enter the language. Plus,
是将修士拼写的这个词的发音 记录下来的
French scribes from the Norman Invasion
另外来自诺曼入侵时期的法国抄写员
respelled English words to match French spelling rules. Plus,
对应法语的拼写规则重新拼写了英文单词
English spelling became standardized with the implementation
在16世纪印刷机的启用下
of the printing press in the 16th century,
英文拼写形成了一套标准
which was the start of Early Modern English,
这是近代早期英文的开端
but before the Great Vowel Shift.
然而这是在元音大变位之前
Which was… well, a lot of our vowels shifted.
嗯…那之后许多元音都转变了
Between the confusing spelling of English
由于英文拼写的困惑和
and the fact other European languages
其他欧洲的语言
use different letters for different sounds,
不同发音使用不同的字母
we needed something
我们需要一些东西
for linguists to be able to explain the pronunciation of words
能够让语言学家来解释单词的发音
without having to talk face-to-face.
而不必面对面地交谈
So in the late 19th century,
所以在19世纪末
the International Phonetics Association worked together
国际语音协会成员齐心协力
to create the beginnings of the International Phonetic Alphabet, or IPA.
创造第一版国际音标(IPA)
A century later, and after a few revisions,
(IPA)在一个世纪的时间里经过了多次修改
it’s now used around the world by linguists,
如今世界各地的语言学家
but also phonologists, speech pathologists,
还有音韵学家 语言病理学家
singers,and loads more people.
歌手以及更多的人都在使用IPA
The goal of the IPA is to have a symbol
IPA的目标是为世界上
for every sound in every spoken language in the world.
每种口语中的每个读音建立一种符号
Now, it does have very Eurocentric roots.
请注意 已经出现了欧洲中心论的根源
The alphabet itself is based off the Roman alphabet,
字母表是以罗马字母表为基础
with some Greek letters thrown in.
加上一些希腊字母组成的
So the closer your language is to European ones,
所以你的语言越接近欧洲语言
the more the transcriptions look like regular Latin text.
音标就越像普通的拉丁文
It was designed to be easy to type
字母表的设计易于打字
without needing many custom letter plates
对于打印员和打印机来说
for printing presses or typewriters,
不需要很多定制的字母盘
so it also has some rotated letters and partial symbols.
所以字母表上也有一些旋转的字母和符号
And the designers didn’t want to have to use a lot of diacritics;
字母表设计者不想使用大量的变音符号
they wanted one symbol per sound,
他们是想一个读音一个符号
and one sound per symbol.
一个符号一个读音
And… yeah. They did it.
然后 他们做到了
They put every sound
他们把人类在讲话时
that humans use in speech on a chart.
用到的每种读音都放在一个图表中
When you make a sound,
当你发出声音时
you push air out of your lungs
你把空气从肺中挤出来
and then you cause some sort of constriction in your mouth or throat
然后在嘴巴或喉咙里收缩
to create that particular sound.
来发出那种特定的声音
Two things that are really important are where
有两件事是非常重要的
in your mouth and throat that constriction is:
嘴巴和喉咙在哪里收缩:
that’s called the place of articulation,
这是发音的位置
and how much constriction you’re making:
以及收缩的程度:
that’s the manner of articulation.
这是发音的方式
The chart is organised based on those two factors.
这个图表是根据这两个因素制作起来的
There’s also a chart for vowels,
还有一个元音表
a chart of diacritics, and a chart of extensions,
一个变音符表和一个扩展图表
but we’re going to focus on the main consonant chart for this video.
但我们在这段视频中主要关注辅音字母表
Because there’s variation from dialect to dialect,
因为在不同方言之间 不同语言之间
and language to language, and person to person,
和不同人之间都有差异
the little nuances of each of those sounds
这些读音的细微差别
can be even further”narrowly transcribed” using diacritics.
可以进一步使用变音符号进行“狭义转录”
But these are, with a few exceptions,
除了少数例外
all the consonants that humans use.
这些都是人们使用的辅音
Looking at the chart, you can see some familiar symbols.
看这张图表 你可以看到一些熟悉的符号
These are a great guide to help you find your way around.
这些都是帮助你找到自己的方式的指南
We can start at the top with the plosives:
我们从最上面这一行爆破音开始说起
those are the sounds that you make
这些声音是你
by stopping air flow somewhere,
通过阻止空气流动
and then releasing it suddenly, like a mini explosion.
然后突然释放它发出的 就像一个小爆炸
of the letters you recognise off the top row,
看最上面一行字母
as you move left to right,
当你从左向右
you can feel those letters moving backwards
读这些字母p t k时
in your mouth: p, t, k.
有一种在嘴巴里向后移动的感觉
At the end of that row is the glottal stop,
这一行的最后这部分要闭合声门
which is closing off the airflow in your throat.
阻止气流进入喉咙
It happens in English when we say”uh-oh”.
英语中当我们说“uh-oh”时会发生
Depending on your accent, it also occurs in
也跟口音有关 他也会发生在
“mountain”,”Hawai’i”, or”butter”.
“山”“夏威夷”“黄油”的发音中
The nasal line, next down,
下面鼻音这一行
is all the sounds that you make through your nose,
所有的声音都是通过鼻子发出的
m, n, ng.
m n ng
Then you have trills,
然后是颤音
which we don’t have natively in most dialects of English,
在大多地道的英语方言中都没有
and which I’m therefore not great at pronouncing,
所以我不太擅长发这个音
other than a really over-the-top [rolled r].
除了一个夸张的单词[rolledr]
Then we have taps and flaps,
然后是破擦音和卷舌音这一行
which are like those long trills,
跟这些长的颤音很像
but a tap is the one-time equivalent.
但是一个破擦音是一次性发出的
Next are the fricatives, where two parts touch.
接下来是摩擦音 有两部分要接触
So,s and z,
比如 s和z
where the two parts are the tip
这两部分分别是
of your tongue and the alveolar ridge,
你的舌尖和牙槽嵴
which is the hard bit of the roof of your mouth,
就是嘴巴里面坚硬的上颚
just behind your top teeth. Informally,
在上排牙齿后面
that is the “pizza ridge”,
通常称为“披萨脊”
because it’s the bit you burn when you bite
因为当你咬披萨的时候
into pizza that’s too hot.
他会烧的很热
And then finally, there are the approximants,
最后是延续音
where two parts don’t quite meet.
这时两部分不完全吻合
Lateral means that air is going round the sides,
边音的意思是空气在四周流动
like in l or the Welsh ll. But:
比如在l或威尔士人中的ll
not every space in the table has a symbol.
但并不是表中的每一个空格都有一个符号
Some of those empty spaces have white backgrounds,
有些空白处是白色的背景
and some of them are completely grayed out.
有些完全变灰了
The ones with white backgrounds are possible for humans to make,
白色的背景处的符号有可能 是为人们以后的创造留下空间
but they’ve not been given a symbol,
但这些框里没有填符号
because linguists have never found them
因为语言学家还没有发现他们
actually being used as sounds in any of the world’s languages.
在世界任何一种语言中有这种读音
Sometimes they are found to exist by some researcher somewhere,
一些研究人员在某些地方发现了他们的存在
and if that happens
如果这种情况发生
then the International Phonetics Association will add a symbol.
国际语音协会就会增加这个符号
The last time that happened was in 2005.
最近一次是发生在2005年
But then there are shaded areas, the shadow lands,
但后来出现了阴影区域 阴影部分
the sounds that are theorized to be impossible to produce.
这些读音理论上来说是不可能产生的
Imagine trying to produce a sound that’s in the place of your mouth
想象一下 试着在你的嘴里发k或g
where you make a k or a g,
的地方发出一个声音
but using the same method that you use to go [rolled r].
用相同方法来读[rolled r]发音
You need some loose fold
你需要一些松散组织
of tissue to make that rapid trilling,
来发出这种快速的颤音
and there’s just no flesh loose enough to bounce around
而且在你嘴的上颚后部分
right at the back of the roof of your mouth,
没有足够松弛的肌肉来回弹
at what’s called the velum.
这个叫做缘膜的地方
You could, I guess, in theory, curve your tongue back there,
理论上 我猜你可以卷起你的舌头缩在那里
but only by holding it too tense to actually make a trill.
但只有用力保持住才能发出颤音
So a velar trill is judged impossible.
因为用膜发出颤音是被认为不可能的
By all means, try it.
无论如何你可以试一下
In the same way,
同样的
if you try and cross the place of your mouth and throat
如果你试着用你的嘴巴和喉咙
that you use to say”ha” or”uh-oh”
用发l音的方式
with the method you use to make the l sound,
发“ha”或“uh-oh”的音
you’re going to run into problems.
你就会发现有问题
For”la” or”el” you let air escape from your mouth
边音:比如发“la”或者“el”音
around the sides of your tongue: lateral.
你要让空气从嘴里逸出 环绕在舌头周围
But for”ha” you’re constricting the air down
但是对于“ha”音
in your throat at the vocal folds or glottis,
你要在声带或声门处压缩空气
and you can’t get your tongue down your throat to create that centre blockage.
不能让舌头向下压到喉咙造成中心堵塞
I mean, your tongue has that flexibility
我的意思是 你的舌头在嘴巴里
in your mouth,’l’,
灵活发音 比如“l”
but you can’t close your airway
但是你不能闭上你的气道
like you’re making a figure 8 out of a straw,
就像用一根吸管做出的数字8
and keep the air going round the sides.
并且保持空气在四周流动
Unless you’re choking on food in exactly the wrong way,
除非你以完全错误的方式被食物呛到了
and if you are, that’s not really speaking.
如果被呛到了 那就不是真正的说话
A glottal lateral is judged impossible.
因为声门侧方发音被认为是不可能的
All those shaded boxes have the same sorts of limitations,
所有的阴影框都有相同类型的限制
where it’s not just that they would be difficult to pronounce,
不仅仅是它们很难发音
they are impossible.
而是根本不可能发音
Those gray boxes are forbidden from human speech,
那些灰色框是人类语言中没形成的部分
not by choice of some High Council or the International Phonetic Association,
不是高级委员会或IPA的选择
but just because of the limitations of being human.
而是因为人类的局限性
Sometimes we do write things that we can’t pronounce,
有时我们确实会写我们不会发音的东西
like these:you can’t hold the letter p for that long,
像这些:你不能把字母p发那么久
or this where all those letter Es are silent!
或者这些字母es都是不发音的
For more on how writing is different to speaking,
想知道更多写作和口语的不同
my co-author Gretchen McCulloch
可以关注我的合著者
has a new book called Because Internet,
格雷琴·麦库伦的新书《因为互联网》
it’s available now, and there are links in the description.
在这个描述中有链接哦

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译制信息
视频概述

国际标准音标表形成的历史和发展现状

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

YXG-e8497

审核员

审核员XY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9uZam0ubq-Y

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