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怎样分辨谎言? – 译学馆
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怎样分辨谎言?

The language of lying — Noah Zandan

“不好意思 我手机坏了”
“Sorry, my phone died.”
“没事儿 我挺好的”
“It’s nothing. I’m fine.”
“这种指责完全没有根据”
“These allegationsare completely unfounded.”
公司没觉得有任何过错“”
“The company was not awareof any wrongdoing.”
“我爱你”
“I love you.”
我们每天从各处听到10-200个谎言
We hear anywherefrom 10 to 200 lies a day,
在历史进程中
and we spent much
我们花费了大量精力使用各种手段去测谎
of our history coming up with ways to detect them,
从中世纪的酷刑到多种测谎仪
from medieval torturedevices to polygraphs,
测血压和心率的仪器 声应力分析器
blood-pressure and breathing monitors,voice-stress analyzers,
眼球追踪 红外脑扫描仪
eye trackers, infrared brain scanners,
甚至400磅重的脑电图仪器
and even the 400-poundelectroencephalogram.
尽管这些仪器在某些环境下能起到作用
But although such tools have workedunder certain circumstances,
但是大部分的仪器不能检测到有备而来的谎言
most can be fooledwith enough preparation,
仪器还不能在法院上使用 因为它们还不够可靠
and none are considered reliable enough to even be admissible in court.
但是 如果问题没出在技术上
But, what if the problemis not with the techniques,
而是出在撒谎能导致生理变化这一假定上呢?
but the underlying assumptionthat lying spurs physiological changes?
如果我们的研究方式更直接
What if we took a more direct approach,
直接用通讯科学去分析谎言本身 会怎样呢?
using communication science to analyze the lies themselves?
在精神层面上
On a psychological level,
我们撒谎 一部分是为了粉饰自己的形象
we lie partly to paint a better picture of ourselves,
给别人留下虚假的印象
connecting our fantasiesto the person we wish we were
而不是自己真实的样子
rather than the person we are.
但当我们的大脑忙着做这种美梦时
But while our brain is busy dreaming,
它还是让很多信息溜走了
it’s letting plenty of signals slip by.
我们有意识的头脑只占认知功能的5%
Our conscious mind only controlsabout 5% of our cognitive function,
包括交流 另外的95%是潜意识的
including communication, while the other 95% occursbeyond our awareness,
根据真实监测的文献
and according to the literatureon reality monitoring,
基于想象的故事与那些基于真实体验的故事
stories based on imagined experiences
在质上 有很大的不同
are qualitatively differentfrom those based on real experiences.
这表明 虚构一个有关某人的事情
This suggests that creating a false story
要花费很多心力
about a personal topic takes work
这会导致撒谎者在描述时用到不同的表达形式
and results in a differentpattern of language use.
一种被称为语言文本分析的技术
A technology knownas linguistic text analysis
能够帮助我们识别4种常见的
has helped to identifyfour such common patterns
下意识的撒谎类型
in the subconscious language of deception.
第一种 当人在做虚假陈述时 很少会提到自己
First, liars reference themselves less,when making deceptive statements.
他们会更多地书写或是讲述他人
They write or talk more about others,
经常用第三人称
often using the third person
以使自己与他们的谎言撇清关系
to distance and disassociatethemselves from their lie,
这样做 会让他们听起来更假
which sounds more false:
“这个房子没有举办过任何一个派对”
“ Absolutely no party took place at this house,”
或是“我没在这儿开过派对”
or”I didn’t host a party here.”
第二种 说谎人更消极
Second, liars tend to be more negative,
因为潜意识里 他们觉得说谎不好
because on a subconscious level,they feel guilty about lying.
比如 撒谎者可能会说这样的话:
For example, a liarmight say something like,
“不好意思 我的破手机电池没电了 烦死了”
“Sorry, my stupid phone battery died.I hate that thing.”
第三种 说谎人通常会简单地解释事情
Third, liars typically explainevents in simple terms
因为我们的大脑要很努力地去架构一个复杂的谎言
since our brains struggleto build a complex lie.
对于大脑来说 判断和评估是很难去推测的
Judgment and evaluation are complex thingsfor our brains to compute.
正如 众所周知地 一位美国总统曾坚称
As a U.S. President oncefamously insisted:
“我没跟那个女人发生性关系”
“I did not have sexual relationswith that woman.”
最后一点 即使说谎人的描述很简单
And finally, even though liarskeep descriptions simple,
他们倾向于使用更长更复杂的句子结构
they tend to use longerand more convoluted sentence structure,
里面插入不必要和无关的词
inserting unnecessary words
以及无关的但听上去真实的细节来支撑谎言
and irrelevant but factual sounding details in order to pad the lie.
另一个总统在面对谣言时 声明
Another President confrontedwith a scandal proclaimed:
“我可以这样明确地告诉大家 这个调查表明
“I can say, categorically,that this investigation indicates
在白宫工作的所有员工
that no one on the White House staff,
以及现在这个部门受雇的所有人
no one in this administration presently employed
他们都没有涉嫌这个非常离奇的事件”
was involvedin this very bizarre incident.”
让我们用语言分析的方法 再举几个有名的例子
Let’s apply linguistic analysisto some famous examples.
拿7次获得环法自行车赛冠军的兰斯·阿姆斯特朗来说
Take seven-time Tour de Francewinner Lance Armstrong.
他在2005年的采访中
When comparing a 2005 interview,
否认服用增强体能的药物
in which he had denied takingperformance-enhancing drugs
但在2013年的采访中 他承认自己确实服用了
to a 2013 interview,in which he admitted it,
对比两次采访我们发现 他的人称代词的使用增加了将近四分之三
his use of personal pronounsincreased by nearly 3/4.
注意以下两组话的不同
Note the contrastbetween the following two quotes.
第一个 “好吧
First:” Okay,
你知道的 一个法国人 在巴黎一个实验室里
you know, a guy in a French, in a Parisian laboratory
拆开了你的化验样品 你知道的 是让弗朗西斯还有其他人
opens up your sample, you know, Jean-Francis so-and-so,
然后他检查了一番
and he tests it.
之后你就接到
And then you get a phone call
报社来的电话
from a newspaper that says:
“我们发现你的促红细胞生成素比常人高出六倍”
‘We found you to be positivesix times for EPO.”
第二个例子 “我迷失了自我
Second:”I lost myself in all of that.
我相信 有人能控制它
I’m sure there would be other peoplethat could handle it,
但我肯定不行
but I certainly couldn’t handle it,
我总是把控我人生中的每个事情
and I was used to controlling everything in my life.
连人生中的每个结果我都可以把控”
I controlled every outcome in my life.”
阿姆斯特朗在他的否认中 描述了一个假定的情景
In his denial, Armstrong describeda hypothetical situation
这个情景的主角是别人 而他自己则完全远离
focused on someone else, removing himselffrom the situation entirely.
在他的坦白中 他承认
In his admission, he owns his statements,
他的话中加入了自己的感情和动机
delving into his personal emotions and motivations.
但是使用人称代词只是说谎的一个表现
But the use of personal pronouns is just one indicator of deception.
我们再看一个例子 前参议员
Let’s look at another examplefrom former Senator
及美国总统候选人 约翰爱德华
and U.S. Presidential candidateJohn Edwards:
“我只知道父亲要公开表明
“I only know that the apparentfather has said publicly
他是孩子的父亲
that he is the father of the baby.
我从来没对那个女人或孩子的父亲做过
I also have not been engaged in any activity of any description
任何要求 同意或任何形式的赡养费
that requested, agreed to,or supported payments of any kind
的举动”
to the woman or to the apparentfather of the baby.”
不仅用了一句相当啰嗦的话来说“孩子不是我的”
Not only is that a pretty long-winded wayto say,”The baby isn’t mine,”
而且爱德华从没提过其它人的名字
but Edwards never callsthe other parties by name,
只是用“那个孩子”“那个女人”和“那个生父”
instead saying”that baby,””the woman,”and”the apparent father.”
我们来看看 他承认自己是父亲后是怎么说的
Now let’s see what he had to say when later admitting paternity:
“我是奎恩的爸爸
“I am Quinn’s father.
我将尽我所能地爱她
I will do everythingin my power to provide her
支持她”
with the love and support she deserves.”
这句话简短直接
The statement is short and direct,
叫了孩子的名字 而且说明了自己在孩子人生中的角色
calling the child by name and addressing his role in her life.
所以 怎样在你的人生中运用这些分辨谎言的技巧呢?
So how can you apply theselie-spotting techniques to your life?
第一 记住
First, remember
我们在日常中遇到的谎言
that many of the lies we encounter on a daily basis
远没我们刚举的例子那么严肃 可能也没什么危害
are far less serious that these examples, and may even be harmless.
但是也值得去留意谎言的痕迹
But it’s still worthwhileto be aware of telltale clues,
比如极少提到自己 消极的言语
like minimal self-references,negative language,
简单的解释和复杂的措辞
simple explanationsand convoluted phrasing.
它可能会帮你规避掉不实的信息
It just might help you avoidan overvalued stock,
没用的线索 甚至令人头疼的关系
an ineffective product,or even a terrible relationship.

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视频概述

展示了四个说谎人在说谎时会出现的潜意识说话方式

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

lala

审核员

审核团V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=H0-WkpmTPrM

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