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电力过剩的小岛

The Islands With Too Much Power

Yes, I am standing somewhere windswept and talking about infrastructure.
是的 站在大风肆虐的地方 谈论基础建设
I have a style!
是我的作风
Also, that whooshing sound you can hear?
听到呼呼的声音了吗?
That’s the other turbine that you can’t see in this camera shot.
那是另外一个风力机 没办法在镜头中看见
Anyway, power grids! They have to balance supply and demand.
无论如何 电网 必需平衡供给和需求
I’ve talked about that a few times in the past here. But as a quick catch up,
过去我已经讲过几次了 不过还是快速解释一下
if there’s not enough power being generated, things break,
如果发电不足 就会发生故障
but if there’s too much power being generated, things also break,
但如果发电过多 也会产生故障
and arguably in a worse way.
可以说是很糟糕的故障
There isn’t a battery in the world
世界上没有哪种电池
big enough to deal with the daily peaks and troughs of national demand.
电容量大到足以应对一国日常的高峰与低峰需求
So power grid engineers have to make sure that the power being generated
因此电网工程师须保证产电量
is always close to the power that’s being used.
总是接近用电量
There are a lot of possible technologies to help with that balance.
很多潜在的技术手段 能助力于两者的平衡
And I’ve talked about some of those before here, too,
在此之前我也讲过一些
pumped storage that uses a lake as a giant battery,
比如抽水蓄能 使湖泊成为巨型电池
or even the big lithium-ion setup in Australia that’s only caught on fire once so far.
或者是目前为止 着过一次火的澳大利亚大型锂电池装置
But all of those technologies assume that supply and demand
但这些技术都假设
will balance each other out over time, usually over a few hours.
供给和需求量通常在几小时内能达到平衡
What happens if you always have too much power?
那么经常产电过量 会发生什么呢?
Welcome to the Orkney Islands, in the far north east of Scotland.
欢迎来到苏格兰遥远的东北部 奥克尼群岛
About 22,000 people live here, on around 1,000 windswept square kilometers.
在一千平方公里被风肆掠的土地上 生活着两万多人口
And they have so much renewable energy from wind and waves and tides
他们这里有太多风 海浪与潮汐的可再生能源
that it’s genuinely a problem.
以至于这带来了问题
Solution number one is: turn off the turbines.
方案一:关掉风力机
2013, we were producing up to 130% of our electrical needs.
2013年 生产电量超过需求量的30%
So there can be quite a lot of curtailment on several turbines.
因此 风力机被大幅关停
There’s active network management.
这里有自动电网管理系统
The wind turbine will be shut down because the network can’t handle the load.
当系统负载过大时 风力机会被关闭
There’s been a moratorium on any new grid connections.
暂停向电网输电
There is potential for some microgeneration, but nothing of any scale.
风力机还会产生微弱的发电 但不会形成规模
So when you’re in a place like Orkney,
在奥克尼这样的地方
where you have some of the best generation potential,
虽然有很好的发电潜能
it’s a complete waste.
但完全浪费了
Turning off the turbines isn’t a good solution. It’s wasteful.
关掉风力机不是一个好的选择 这很浪费资源
Depending on the time of day and year,
一天或一年内的不同时间
these islands need between 7 and 46 megawatts.
奥克尼需要7到46兆瓦的电量
It’s almost always windy here, so a couple of big commercial wind farms
这里几乎一直刮风 所以像这样的几个大型商业风力发电场
like this can produce all the power that folks here need.
就能满足这里居民的用电需求
But they’ve also got 500 domestic turbines, privately owned.
但是这里也有500台私人家用风力机
1 in 12 households generate their own power.
每12户家庭中就有1户自己发电
Because why wouldn’t you?
为什么不呢?
Once you pay the installation costs,
只要你支付了安装费用
you’ll probably turn a profit, year after year after year.
你就能年复一年地获利
One of the things I struggled with, writing this script is
我写这个脚本遇到的困难之一
that there is so much going on up here.
就是这里正在发生许多事
There’s an electric hybrid plane being tested at the airport.
机场正在测试一架电动混合动力飞机
There are tidal power experiments, wave power experiments.
还有有潮汐动力实验 波浪动力实验
Every type of renewable energy, almost, is being tested here.
几乎每一种可再生能源都在这里进行测试
There’s not much solar.
除了没有多少太阳能
And there’s a backup:
还一种备用能源:
for the very rare days when the wind is calm,
在少有的风平浪静的日子里
there are interconnector cables that can pull up to 40 megawatts from the Scottish mainland.
互连电缆能从苏格兰本土输送高达40兆瓦的电力
But OK: they’re generating a massive surplus of power,
但还好 它们与英国国家电网相连
and they’re connected to the British National Grid.
能产生大量盈余电力
So surely solution number two is: use those interconnectors.
所以第二个解决方案当然是:利用那些连接电缆
They can just sell the extra power back to the mainland.
将多余的电力卖回本土
Well, those 40 megawatts that the interconnectors can handle?
那么 互联电缆能应对40兆瓦的电量吗?
That’s not actually all that much.
其实电量并没有那么多
The interconnector cables we’ve got are small.
这里的互联电缆电量很小
We reckon there’s 2,000 megawatts of tidal and wave generation around here.
我们估计这里能产生2000兆瓦的潮汐能和波浪能
We reckon there’s 17,000 megawatts of offshore wind
在几百公里范围内内
within a couple of hundred kilometers of here.
能产生17000兆瓦的海上风能
The interconnector was built for an old day
建设电缆是因为从前
when you used to burn coal and send us electricity.
需要烧煤来为我们输送电力
That’s gone. We don’t do that anymore.
这样的情况已经没了 我们不再这样做了
We now need to be in a position where we’ve got a better way
现在我们需要找到一个更好的办法
to get the power from these islands away.
来从岛上获取电力
If the new interconnector is built, it carry enough power
对于奥克尼未来几年内可能建造的风力机来说
for all the turbines that Orkney could reasonably put up in the next few years.
如果新的互联电缆建成 产生的电力就能够输送出去
They could power most of the highlands of Scotland.
供苏格兰大部分高地使用
But building that new interconnector will cost a quarter of a billion pounds.
但是建造新的互联电缆将花费2.5亿英镑
National government requires that the islands approve plans for enough
国家政府要求奥克尼在获得批准之前
new turbines to make sure it’s going to be used, before it’s approved.
确保有足够的风力机 让这些电缆能发挥作用
That’s all still in the balance politically.
这在政治上仍然悬而未决
So solution number three is that the islands could start using more electricity.
方案三:奥克尼可以尽力消耗更多电力
There’s already a larger share of electric cars here than anywhere else in Scotland.
这里的电动汽车已经多于苏格兰的任何地方
But most vehicles still use petrol or diesel.
但是大多数车辆仍然使用汽油或柴油
That could change. There’s still a lot of oil heating.
可以改变这个情况 这里还大量用油供暖
The ferries, vital for getting around, still burn fossil fuels.
重要的出行工具 渡轮 仍然依靠化石燃料
The transition is a slow process.
转变是一个缓慢的过程
No one’s going to scrap a perfectly good car or heater or ferry unless they have to.
除非万不得已 否则没人愿意报废一辆完好的汽车 取暖器或渡船
But there are plans.
但是我们有规划
And Orkney’s also had a hydrogen fuel system for years,
多年来 奥克尼一直有一个氢燃料系统
to help soak up a bit of the excess power.
用来吸收多余的能量
We’re producing hydrogen from, effectively, spare electricity.
实际上 我们正在利用多余的电力生产氢气
That’s why we started.
为此我们开始行动
We’re taking electricity, putting it into fresh water,
我们给淡水通电
and it splits the water into hydrogen and oxygen.
将水分解成氢和氧
We’re getting rid of the oxygen and we’re just capturing the hydrogen.
排除氧气 捕获氢气
We’re compressing it, and then we’re using it in this fuel cell.
再压缩氢气 把它做成燃料电池
We have ferries that operate within the islands. One of those ferries
岛内有渡轮运营 其中一艘渡轮
is able to be powered by this fuel cell when it ties up alongside at night.
夜间停靠时能用这种燃料电池补充动力
And it saves it running its own engines,
这样就不用发动引擎
or it saves it drawing power from the grid.
也不用从电网获取电力
This is just the start of something.
这只是个开始
This equipment is experimental
这个设备是实验性的
and believe me, it’s not efficient.
老实说 效率也不高
This is not the best way of doing it.
这不是最好的方法
But we’re finding our way into new territory.
但我们正在探索新的领域
We try and unearth some of the challenges so that when we scale this equipment up,
我们试着挖掘一些不足 这样当我们扩大设备规模时
then those faults have been polished out.
这些缺陷已经被消除
These islands are years ahead of the rest of the world.
奥克尼领先世界其他地方好几年
This is the test bed.
这里是试验台
This is a small version of the changes that the whole planet is going to make.
是整个地球发展方向的小小缩影
The transition to renewables is happening faster here in Orkney than, I think,
我认为 奥克尼向可再生能源的转变
anywhere else in the world.
快于世界上任何其他地方
But as you travel around these islands, it just seems normal.
但当你在这里旅行时 一切似乎都很平常
Nothing’s visibly changed, but the lessons
没有什么明显的变化
that they’re learning here will hopefully pave the way for the rest of the world.
但在这里学到的经验将有望为世界提供借鉴

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视频概述

一个各项发电潜力巨大的小岛,该岛电力资源的利用。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

绿绿

审核员

审核员AF

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8UmsfXWzvEA

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