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这些看不见的生物让你存活

The Invisible Creatures That Keep You Alive!

开场音乐
[SHOW OPENING MUSIC]
本集由Audible赞助
This episode was sponsored by Audible.
开场音乐
[OPENING SHOW MUSIC]
把你的每一个细胞传送到隔壁房间 在你身后就会留下一个
Teleport every one of your cells into the next room, and you’d leave a strange shadow
陌生的阴影
behind.
在你的体表和体内 生活着大批幽灵般的单细胞生物
A ghostly cloud of single-celled creatures that live on and inside your body.
你体内的微生物
Your microbiome.
把镜头放大 我们可以看到这片阴影 其中包括细菌、真菌和其他生物
Zoom in and we can see this cloud is made of bacteria, fungi, and others…
就像内脏里这些 它们消化和吸收纤维为提供我们自身无法合成的营养物质
Like these in the gut, that digest fiber and give us nutrients we can’t make ourselves.
还有这些以我们皮肤表面的油脂为食的微生物 让我们散发出独特的体味
Or these, that munch our skin oils and give off our characteristic body odors.
就连脱落的牙菌斑都来源于微生物
Even the film of plaque we brush off your teeth was put there by microbes.
你的体内满是微生物
You’re teeming with microscopic life.
或曾经如此
Or rather, you were.
没有人体的供给和接纳 你体内的微生物会迅速死去
Without you to sustain and contain it, your microbiome is rapidly dying, and without it,
而离开了微生物的你 下场也如此
over in the next room, so are you.
从你诞生的第一天开始 这些细菌就组成了你 保护你并且供养你
From your first day on Earth, these microbes helped build, protect, and feed you, and on
直到你生命的尽头 它们会最先……分解你
your last day, they’ll be the first to… take you apart.
多细胞生物出现在地球上时 微生物已经存在了
When multi-cellular life arrived on Earth, microbes had been here for more than one and
150多万年
a half billion years.
微生物最先出现 很自然地紧随其后出现的复杂生物从水母
They were first, so naturally every complex creature to come after, from jellyfish to
到恐龙 从白蚁到树木 从考拉到人类都学会了与微生物合作
dinosaurs, termites to trees, koalas to us, has learned to work with them.
但是我们试图摆脱微生物生活时会发生什么呢
But what happens when we try to live without them?
你可能会想 昆虫越少意味着疾病越少 但是事情没有这么简单
You might think that fewer bugs means fewer diseases, but it’s not that simple.
更清洁并不表示更健康
Cleaner isn’t always healthier.
我们遇到的是哪种昆虫 以及遇到它的时间都会对我们成为怎样的人造成很大的影响
Which bug we meet, and when we encounter it, makes a huge difference in who we become.
在20世纪70年代 一名加拿大医生注意到当地儿童
In the 1970s, a Canadian doctor noticed that local indigenous children were less likely
患哮喘和过敏的可能性比白人更小但是会患上更多传染病
to get asthma and allergies than the white population, despite getting more infections.
后来 一名英国医生发现 有姐姐的孩子更少患发烧、过敏
Later, a British doctor saw less hay fever allergy in children who had older siblings.
似乎在良好的卫生环境长大的孩子 最终他们的免疫系统
It seemed like kids who grew up in more hygienic environments ended up with immune systems
都极易攻击类似花粉、家庭化学品的东西就好像这些是危险细菌一样
wired to attack stuff like pollen and household chemicals as if they were dangerous germs.
这是一个卫生假说 它讲的是成长的环境中微生物种类少
This is the hygiene hypothesis, it says growing up around a less diverse bunch of microbes
会让我们的免疫系统在以后的生活中有一点神经质 有一点紧张
can make our immune systems kinda jumpy and nervous later in life.
今天 我们的食物更安全 我们的水经过了处理我们在更小的家族内交换细菌
Today, our food is safer, our water is treated, we have smaller families trading fewer germs,
我们的生活中 甚至连动物也变少了
we even live around fewer animals.
一个科学家分析家庭灰尘后发现 养了猫或者狗的家庭
One scientist analyzed household dust and found that homes with cats or dogs have more
微生物种类更多
varied microbes.
作为成年人 我们的免疫系统 通过检测资料室中出现过的传染病 来保护我们
As adults, our immune systems protect us by calling on a library of past infections, but
但是我们还是婴儿的时候 资料室还是空的
when we’re babies, that library is empty.
这不是因为婴儿还没有自己的免疫系统像许多人
This isn’t because a baby doesn’t have their own immune system yet, like many people
被告知的一样 那是因为在他们出生后的前几个月里 婴儿积极地
are taught, it’s because for the first few months after they’re born, a baby actively
关闭自己的免疫系统 为身体的第一批微生物打开空缺
keeps its immune system turned off, to create an opening for the body’s first microbes
让它们进入体内
to move in.
母亲给了我们第一批微生物
Our mothers give us our first dose.
经过产道 新生儿获得了许多第一批微生物
The trip down the birth canal seeds a newborn with many of their first microbes.
但是在一些国家中 四分之一到一半的婴儿都是剖腹产出生
But in some countries, a quarter to half of babies are born by C-section instead of vaginal
而不是顺产 这些婴儿体内的第一批微生物也就和皮肤上的类似
birth, and these babies’ first microbes naturally resemble what’s on the skin instead.
这并不是一件坏事但是它的确有所不同
This isn’t necessarily a bad thing, but it’s definitely different than how it’s
与大部分历史不同
been for most of history.
但是对婴儿体内微生物影响最大的是 我们大多数哺乳动物
But the biggest influence on an infant’s inner inhabitants is our most mammalian trait
共有的特点:母乳
of all: Breast milk.
奶 是自然界中最令人惊叹的产物
Milk is one of nature’s most amazing liquid innovations.
它提供了大脑和身体生长所需的能量 但是不仅仅婴儿
It’s full of energy for growing brains and bodies, but the baby’s not the only one
得到了喂养
getting fed.
人类乳液中第三丰富的元素是 被称为低糖的复杂糖类
The third most-abundant ingredient in human milk are complex sugars called oligosaccharides.
但是新生儿不能消化这些糖类
But newborns can’t digest these.
那么为什么妈妈要浪费能量 在母乳中加入婴儿消化不了的东西呢
Why do mothers waste good energy filling breast milk with undigestible stuff?
这是微生物的食物
It’s food for microbes!
那些糖类到达大肠后 在大肠里与一种特殊细菌相遇
Those sugars pass all the way to the large intestine, where they meet a special bacterium,
顺便一提 这些细菌都是妈妈捐赠的
which, by the way, was also donated by mom.
一个这样的微生物相当于婴儿的胃里90%的细菌
This single microbe can make up 90% of the bacterial population in an infant’s gut,
并且它喜欢吃母乳低聚糖
and it loves to eat HMOs.
它们消化复杂了分子 又为婴儿提供特殊的脂肪酸
They digest those complex molecules and in return feed the baby special fatty acids,
甚至提供大脑生长所需的营养物
even donate a nutrient needed in growing brains.
随后 我们用固体食物喂婴儿时 这些细菌就变成了微型运动员
Later, when we switch to solid food, these bacteria become minor players, but they play
但是它们在早期扮演主要角色
a starring role early on.
黏黏的复杂糖分子也有物理抗病性因素
Those sticky, tangled sugar molecules also act as a physical defense, tangling up dangerous
用一种防御性胶合物与进攻者作战
invaders in a kind of defensive glue.
母乳里甚至含有能够杀死细菌的病毒 它们准备瞄准坏家伙
Breast milk is even loaded with bacteria-killing viruses, ready to target the bad guys and
不伤害好的微生物
leave good microbes unharmed.
喝配方奶粉的婴儿可以良好生长
Infants that drink formula clearly grow up fine.
就像剖腹产和顺产相比一样 婴幼儿配方奶粉也不错只是有所不同
Just like C-section vs traditional birth, formula isn’t bad, it’s just different,
科学家想知道早期的微小差异 是否会在后期造成
and scientists want to know if these subtle differences early on can lead to big effects
巨大影响
later.
我们发现在动物王国里遍布父母传递微生物给后代的例子
We find examples of parents passing down microbes throughout the animal kingdom.
在蜂狼妈妈离开它的卵之前 它将巢用白色黏性糊状物排成一排
Before a Beewolf wasp mom leaves her egg, she lines the nest with a sticky white paste
这种糊状物来自它的头部
secreted from her head.
幼虫成熟的过程中 这种糊状物中特殊的微生物有抗生素
As the larva matures, special microbes in the paste secrete antibiotics to keep the
让巢免受感染
nest free of infections.
新的黄蜂在产下自己的卵时也会带有一些微生物
The new wasp even takes some with her for when she lays her own eggs.
考拉幼兽断奶 开始吃桉树叶时
When it’s time for baby koalas to give up milk and start eating eucalyptus leaves, its
它的妈妈从源泉中释放出一种叫做半流质食物的液体这种液体不是从嘴中流出 幼兽
mother releases a fluid called pap from well, let’s just say it’s not from her mouth… the youngster eats
在前面吃
right up.
这种液体中有考拉消化树叶所需的微生物
It’s full of microbes that the koala needs to digest leaves.
很明显 这种微生物的第一次出现是最重要的
It’s clear that these first doses of microbial life are some of the most important.
其中一些定居体内 滋养保护我们 其中一些只是从体内经过
Some of them take up residence to nourish and protect us, some of them just pass on
让我们的身体学会分辨敌我
through, to help our bodies learn friend from foe.
大部分微生物生活在我们体内 并以我们体内物质为生但是我们仍然不知道它们
For most of the microbes that live in and on us, we still don’t know how they interact
与我们自己的细胞 或者微生物之间是如何交流的
with our own cells, or each other.
明确的是 没有了微生物 我们将不再是我们
What IS clear is that without them, we wouldn’t be us.
保持你的好奇
Stay curious

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视频概述

我们的存在离不开什么呢?这些让我们存活的生物从何而来?

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请叫我三朵花君

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEo3N9EOpgw

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