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搜索引擎是怎么工作的? – 译学馆
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搜索引擎是怎么工作的?

The Internet: How Search Works

嗨 我叫约翰
Hi, my name is John.
我在谷歌公司掌管搜索和机器学习团队
I lead the search andmachine learning teams at Google.
我认为这是一件非常鼓舞人心的事情:
I think it’s amazingly inspiring
全世界的人都在求助于搜索引擎
that people allover the world turn to search engines
咨询一些大大小小的问题
to asktrivial questions and incredibly important questions,
因此 尽我们所能地向他们提供最佳的答案 是我们的一项重大职责
so it’s a huge responsibility to give them the best answers that we can.
嗨 我叫阿克沙雅
Hi, my name is Akshaya
我在必应搜索团队工作
and I work on the Bing search team.
有很多次我们即将开始研究人工智能和机器学习的领域
There are many times where we’llstart looking into artificial intelligence and machine learning,
不过 我们必须得设法处理
but we have to address
用户要如何使用搜索引擎的问题
how are the users going to use this
这是因为 最终我们想要对社会群体产生影响
because end of the day we want to make an impact to society.
让我们询问一个简单的问题
Let’s ask a simple question.
“火星旅行要花多长的时间?”
“How long does it take to travel to Mars?”
这些搜索结果来自哪里?
Where did these results come from and
这一条结果为什么排列在另一条结果前面?
why was this listed before the other one?
好的 让我们开始吧
Okay,let’s dive in and
了解搜索引擎 是如何将你的搜索请求 变成搜索结果的
see how the search engine turned your request into a result.
你首先需要知道的是
The first thing you need to know is
在你进行搜索的时候
when you do a search,
搜索引擎 实际上并没有通过万维网
the search engine isn’t actually going out to the World Wide Web
实时地在执行你的搜索请求
to run your search in real time.
这是因为 互联网上存在超过十亿的网站
That’s because there’s over a billion websites on the internet
而且 每一分钟还有超过数百个网站正在被新建出来
and hundreds more being created every single minute,
因此 如果搜索引擎 为了找到你想要的那个网站
so if the search engine had to look through every single
而必须浏览每一个网站的话
site to find the one you wanted,
它将会花费相当长的时间
it would just take forever.
为了让搜索变得更快
So to make your search faster,
搜索引擎将会预先对万维网不断地进行浏览
search engines are constantly scanning the web in advance
记录下对你随后搜索可能有帮助的信息
to record the information that might help with your search later.
那样 当你搜索“火星旅行”的时候
That way when you searchabout”travel to Mars”
搜索引擎就已经获得了它需要的信息
the search engine already has what it needs
能够实时地向你提供搜索答案了
to give you an answer in real time.
这就是它的工作方式:
Here’s how it works:
互联网是由万维网上的网页构成的
The internet is a web of pages
这些网页 通过超链接彼此相互连接
connected to each other by hyperlinks.
搜索引擎会不断运行一个称为“蜘蛛”的程序
Search engines are constantly running a program called”spider”
它会爬过这些网页 搜集这些网页的信息
that crawls through these web pages to collect informationabout them.
“蜘蛛”每次找到一个超链接
Each time it finds a hyperlink,
都会沿着这个超链接进行访问
it follows it until
直到访问了整个互联网上它能找到的每一个网页为止
it has visited every page it can find on the entire internet.
对于“蜘蛛”访问过的每一个网页
For each page of thespider visits,
“蜘蛛”都会对任何它可能需要的信息进行记录
it records any information it might need for a search
记录到一个专用的数据库里
by adding it to a special database
这个数据库叫做“搜索索引”
called a search index.
现在 让我们回到更早前提到的那个搜索
Now,let’s go back to that search from earlier
看看我们是否能够弄清楚
and see if we can figure out how
搜索引擎是如何搜索出那些结果的
the search engine came up with the results.
当你询问“火星旅行要花多长时间”的时候
When you ask”how long does it take to travel to Mars”,
对于其中的每一个单词 搜索引擎都会在搜索索引里进行搜寻
the search engine looks each of those words in the search index
以便 能够马上列出含有这些单词的所有网页
to immediately get a list of all the pages on the internet containing those words,
不过 仅仅对这些单词进行搜寻 可能会搜寻出数以百万计的网页
but just looking for these search terms could return millions of pages
因此 搜索引擎需要能够确定出最佳的匹配结果
so the search engine needs to be able to determine the best matches
并首先给你展示出来
to show you first.
这会有些难办
This is where it gets tricky
因为 搜索引擎可能需要猜测 你正在搜索的是什么
because the search engine may need to guess what you’re looking for.
通过每个搜索引擎自身的算法
Each search engine uses its own algorithm to
搜索引擎 会根据它认为你所想要的 将这些网页进行排名
rank the pages based on what it thinks you want.
搜索引擎的排名算法会核查
The search engine’s ranking algorithm might check
你查找的单词是否出现在页面的标题中
if your search term shows up in the page title,
会核查 所有的单词是否是彼此紧挨着出现的
it might check if all of the words show up next to each other,
或者 进行许多其他的算法推断
or any number of other calculations
这些算法 能帮助搜索引擎更好地确定出
that helped it better determine
哪些网页是你会想要看的 而哪些则是你不会想看的
which pages you’ll want to see and which you won’t.
谷歌公司发明了最为出名的排名算法
Google inventedthe most famous algorithm for choosing
它通过考虑有多少其他网页与特定的网页有关联
the most relevant results for a search,
从而能够挑选出相关程度最高的搜索结果
how many other web pages link to a given page.
它基于这样的想法:如果大量的网站都认为一个网页令人感兴趣
The idea is that if lots of websites think that a web page is interesting,
那么 它很有可能就是你正在寻找的那个网页
then it’s probably the one you’re looking for.
这个算法被称为“网页排名”
This algorithm was called”Page Rank”,
这不是因为 它将网页进行了排名
not because it ranks web pages,
而是因为 这个算法是根据其发明者名字命名的
but because it was named after its inventor,
这个发明者叫佩奇·拉里 他是谷歌公司创始人之一
Larry Page, who is one of the founders of Google.
因为 网站在你访问的时候往往能够盈利
Because the website often makes money when you visit it,
所以 垃圾站点制造者们 不断在试图找到 能够钻搜索算法空子的手段
spammers are constantly trying to find ways to game the search algorithm
以便 他们的网页在搜索结果中排位能够更高
so that their pages are listed higher in the results.
搜索引擎常常更新自身的算法
Search enginesregularly update their algorithms to
以防止虚假和不可靠的网站排到最前面
prevent fake or untrustworthy sites fromreaching the top.
最终则轮到你们
Ultimately,it’s up to you to keep an eye out
通过观察网址和核实来源可靠性
for these pages that are untrustworthy by looking
来对这些靠不住的网页加以提防
at the web address and making sure it’sa reliable source.
搜索程序正在不断发展提升相关的算法
Search programs are always evolving to improve the algorithms
以便 让它们的搜索结果 比起竞争对手的 能够更加优质和快速
so they return better results,faster results than their competitors.
如今的索引擎 甚至能利用你没有明确提供的信息
Today’s search engines even use information that you haven’t explicitly provided
来帮助你将搜索的范围缩小
to help you narrow down your search. So,
例如
for example,
如果 你搜索遛狗公园
if you did a search for dog parks,
那么 很多搜索引擎给你提供的搜索结果 会是所有在附近的遛狗公园
many search engines would give you results for all the dogs parks nearby
尽管 你并没有输入你所在的位置
even though you didn’t type in your location.
而且 现代的搜索引擎能够理解的 不仅仅是书面上的单词
Modern search engines also understand more than just the words on a page,
还有这些单词的真正含义
but what they actually mean
以便可以找到 最能和你搜索匹配的答案
in order to find the best one that matches what you’re looking for.
例如 如果你搜索“fast pitcher”
For example, if you search for a”fast pitcher”
搜索引擎会知道 你正在搜索的是运动员
it will know you’re looking for an athlete,
而 如果搜索“large pitcher”
but if you search for”large pitcher”
搜索引擎则会认为 你正在搜索的是厨房用品
it will find you options for you kitchen.
为了更好地对词汇进行理解
To understand the words better,
我们采用了一种名为“机器学习”的人工智能技术
we use something called machine learning, a type of artificial intelligence.
通过这项技术 搜索算法不仅能够对单个字母
It enables search algorithmsto search not just individual letters
或者书面的单词 进行搜索
or words in the page
而且 能够明白这些单词隐含的意思
but understand the underlying meaning of the words.
互联网的发展越来越快
The internet is growing exponentially,
不过 如果搜索引擎的设计团队恰好也做我们的工作
but if the teams that design search engines do our jobs right,
那么 你们想要的信息
the information you want
应该每次也就是按按几个键的事儿
should always be just a few keystrokes away.

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