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【互联网科普系列】我的电脑被黑了? – 译学馆
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【互联网科普系列】我的电脑被黑了?

The Internet: Cybersecurity & Crime

互联网科普系列 网络安全与犯罪
The Internet: Cybersecurity and Crime
hi 我是詹妮•马丁 是赛门铁克(美国软件公司)的一名网络安全调查主管
Hi, my name’s Jenny Martin and I’m the director of cyber security
现在网络犯罪已经从私人上 经济上
investigations at Symantec. Today cybercrime causes huge problems for
乃至国家安全上 给社会带来了巨大的问题
society personally, financially, and even in matters of national security. Just in
仅是最近几年 就有亿万信用卡被泄露
the last few years hundreds of millions of credit card numbers have been stolen,
数千万的社会安全数字和医疗保健记录被盗取
tens of millions of Social Security numbers and healthcare records were
甚至核离心机被黑
compromised, even nuclear centrifuges that have been hacked, and unmanned
无人遥控飞机被劫持
aerial drones have been hijacked. This is all done by exploiting vulnerabilities
这些都是通过软硬件已暴露的漏洞
in hardware and software or more often by taking advantage of unintentional
或利用了人们使用软件过程中的无意识操作
decisions made by the people using the software. People committing these cyber
网络犯罪的原因比较复杂
crimes don’t a single profile or motivation it could be anyone from an
从年轻人之间吹牛打赌到国际恐怖组织都有可能
international terrorist to a teenager competing for bragging rights. Today the largest
因此当今世界的大国不仅拥有常规军队,往往还会装备强大的网络军队。
countries not only have a regular army but also have a well armed cyber army. In
事实上 下一次世界大战不是使用传统武器战斗
fact the next World War may not be fought with traditional weapons, but with
而是使用电脑来停止水供应 能源线路和运输系统
computers used to shut down national water supplies, energy grids, and
大家好 我是帕丽斯 是谷歌安全主管
transportation systems. Hi my name is Parisa and I’m Google Security Princess. I’ve worked
我使用一些不同的产品和方法来
on a lot of different products and a lot of different ways to try and
尽可能保障我们的软件安全
make our software as secure as possible.
现在让我们来看看网络犯罪是如何暗自进行的
Now let’s take a look at how cybercrime works under the hood
并且了解一些软件病毒 拒绝服务攻击 网络欺诈
will learn about software viruses, denial-of-service attacks, and phishing
在生物学和生活中 病毒是一种微生物
scams. In biology and life, a virus is an organism that is spread by coughing,
通过咳嗽 喷嚏 肢体接触来传播
sneezing, or physical contact.
病毒通过感染细胞 注射入它们的基因材料
Viruses work by infecting cells, injecting their genetic material, and
来自我复制 它们能使人患病 并且相互传染
using those cells to replicate. They can make people really sick and then spread to other people.
电脑病毒也是如此 这种病毒是一段可执行程序
A computer virus works bit similarly. A virus is an executable program that gets
通常在无意识情况下被安装 损害使用者的电脑
installed, usually unintentionally, and harms the user and their computer. It’s also
病毒也有可能将它们自身传播到其他电脑上
possible for a virus to spread itself to other computers. Now how does a virus get on your
那么 病毒是如何感染第一台电脑的呢 这里有一些方法
computer in the first place? There are a couple ways an attacker can infect someone’s
攻击者可能会在程序目的上作假 引诱受害者安装程序
computer. They might lure a victim into installing a program with deception about the
例如一些病毒会伪装成安全更新
program’s purpose, so for example a lot of viruses are disguised as security updates.
也有可能是你的电脑极易感染
It’s also possible that the software on your computer has a vulnerability, so an attacker can install itself
攻击者不需要明确许可即可安装病毒
without even needing explicit permission.
一旦病毒在你的电脑里 它们就可以偷取或删除你的文件
Once a virus is on your computer it can steal or delete any of your files,
控制其他程序 甚至允许其他人遥控你的
control other programs, or even allow someone else to remotely control your
电脑
computer.
使用电脑病毒 黑客可以接管全世界无数电脑
Using computer viruses, hackers can take over millions of computers world wide
并且使用它们作为数字军队 称作僵尸网络 来攻下网站
and then use them as a digital army, otherwise known as a botnet, to attack and take down websites.
这种攻击叫做分散式拒绝服务
This kind of attack is called a distributed denial of service.
当黑客用过多请求覆盖网站时 便触发拒绝服务
A denial of service is when hackers overwhelm a website with too many
突然有多台电脑的攻击时
requests. We call it a distributed denial-of-service when the attack comes from many
称为分散式拒绝服务
computers all at once.
大多数网站一天可以回应成千上万的请求
Most websites are ready to respond to millions of requests a day, but if you
但如果你用数十亿万亿来自不同区域的请求来攻击
hit them with billions or trillions of requests, coming from different places,
计算机就会超负荷 继而停止响应
the computers are overloaded and stop responding. Another trick used by
另一个网络罪犯的手段是发送大量刷屏邮件来欺诈人们
cybercriminals is to send large amounts of spam email in an attempt to trick people
使得他们分享敏感私人信息
into sharing sensitive personal information.
这就是网络欺诈 当你收到一份看似可靠的邮件
This is called a phishing scam. A phishing scam is when you get what seems like a
要求你登录你的账户 但是点击邮件
trustworthy email asking you to log into your account, but clicking the email
你会进入虚假网站
takes you to a fake website.
如果你被欺骗 登录输入你的密码
if you log in anyway you’ve been tricked into giving your password away.
黑客能够使用你的登录凭证访问你真正的账户
Hackers can then use your login credentials to access your real accounts
偷取信息甚至偷钱 幸运的是
to steal information or maybe even to steal your money. Fortunately there are
有许多公司 法律 政府组织 保障网络安全
many companies, laws, and government organizations working to make the
但这些努力并不够
internet safer, but these efforts are not enough.
你可能认为 电脑会被黑客攻击
You may think when a computer system gets hacked the problem was the security
是因为安全设计或软件问题 然而系统被黑百分之九十
design or the software. Ninety percent of the time the system gets hacked
不是因为安全漏洞 而是因为人类所犯的简单错误
however, it’s not because of the security bug, but because of a simple mistake made by
原来有一些方法可以保护我们自己的电脑
a human. It turns out there are steps we can all take to protect ourselves. Often
通常 你的行为不仅影响你自己数据和电脑的安全
your actions not only impact the security of your own data and computer, but the
还影响着你们学校 工作地点 家里的每一个人
security of everyone at your school,
数十亿或万亿美元诱使着网络罪犯越来越聪明
workplace, and home. With billions or trillions of dollars at stake
我们也不能落后
cybercriminals get smarter each year and we all need to keep up.

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互联网科普系列 网络安全与犯罪 电脑常常中病毒 多半是因为……嘿嘿嘿

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