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“墙”的无形影响

The intangible effects of walls | Alexandra Auer

Transcriber: Joseph Geni Reviewer: Camille Martínez
转录人:Joseph Geni 审核人:Camiile Martínez
Humankind loves to build walls.
人类爱建墙
Have you ever noticed that?
你们注意到了吗?
We build walls for everything:
我们几乎为一切建墙:
for shelter, for protection, for privacy.
比如住所 安全 隐私
Over the past 70 years,
在过去70年中
the number of barriers between countries has doubled.
国家间边界壁垒的数量翻了一番
Right now, there are more walls than at the end of the Second World War,
目前墙的数量比二战结束时多
more than during the Cold War.
也比冷战时期要多
Growing up in Germany,
我在德国长大
the fall of the Berlin Wall always felt to me like the introduction of a new world,
柏林墙的倒塌为我开启了新世界
a world without barriers.
一个没有隔阂的世界
But since the attacks of 9/11,
但自911恐怖袭击以来
the construction has experienced an extreme rise.
建墙的数量急剧增长
Since then, the amount has doubled,
那之后 规划和建成的新墙有30堵
with about 30 new structures that were planned or built.
数量翻了一番
Walls and fences are often built with the intention of security,
建墙和栅栏通常出于安全需要
security from another group of people,from crime, from illegal trades.
将我们与另一群人 犯罪 非法贸易隔开
But walls and fences only provide us with a feeling of security,
但墙和栅栏提供给我们的只是安全的感觉
which is different from real security.
而非真正的安全
Even though they might make us feel safe,
即使它们能让我们感到安全
the structures themselves can’t protect us.
这些障碍物本身并不能保护我们
Instead, they do something else:
它们反而起到了另一种作用:
they separate.
将我们分离
They create an us and a them.
墙和栅栏建构了我们 和 他们
They establish an enemy.
建构了敌人
Walls make us build a second wall in our head, a mental wall.
墙让我们在头脑中又建构出另一堵墙 精神墙
And those mental walls slowly make us lose sight
这些精神墙让我们逐渐忽略了
of all the things we have in common with the people on the other side.
我们与墙那边的人们的一切共同点
The other way around,
反过来说
mental walls can grow so strong that they encourage us to build,
精神墙的力量会变得如此强大
keep or strengthen physical walls.
以至于促使我们建造 维持 加固实体墙
Physical and mental walls are closely interlinked,
实体墙和精神墙密切相关
and one almost always comes with the other.
两者相生相伴
It’s a constant cycle:
这是个恒定的循环
physical walls empower mental walls, and mental walls empower physical walls
实体墙和精神墙互相增强彼此的力量
until at one point one part falls away,
直到某一刻其中一堵墙消失
and the cycle is disrupted.
这个循环就中断了
When the Berlin Wall was being built,
建柏林墙的时候
it was hard to tell who the wall was facing,
很难说墙针对哪一方
because the people living around it identified as one.
因为墙两边的人被视为一个整体
There was no us and them.
并没有我们和他们的区分
There was no others.
没有他者的概念
During the time of separation,
柏林墙存在之时
both sides developed differently and formed individual identities.
两边的发展不同 形成了各自的身份认同
All of a sudden, there was an us and a them.
突然间 就有了我们和他们的区分
A mental wall was built,
精神墙就这样形成了
and when the Berlin Wall fell again in 1989,
1989年柏林墙倒塌时
this mental wall in the head of the people stayed.
人们头脑中的精神墙并未倒塌
Eastern Germans had to be reintegrated into their own country,
东德人需要重新融入自己的国家
and even though they didn’t have to move places,
即使他们不需要进行位置上的移动
many still today feel like they have never fully arrived.
很多人至今都觉得没有完全融入
Those remaining effects of the mental wall are also measurable.
精神墙的存留影响也是可度量的
A study from the Freie University of Berlin in 2005
2005年柏林自由大学的一项研究表明
shows that even 15 years after the reunification,
即使德国统一已经过去了15年
Germans still believed that cities on the other side of the former wall
德国人仍然认为曾经在柏林墙另一边的城市
are further away than they really are.
与他们的距离比实际距离更远
The interesting thing is that they found a link between political attitude
耐人寻味的是 研究者们发现
and estimation of the distance.
政治态度和距离估算相关
The more a participant was against the German reunification,
被访者越反对德国统一
the further away they estimated cities to be.
他们对城市间距离的估算就越远
It’s the mental wall which keeps cities on the other side far away,
正是精神墙将另一边的城市变得遥远
and the higher and stronger this mental wall,
这堵墙越高越坚固
the more difficult they seem to be reached.
城市看起来就越遥远
I tried to repeat this study
我曾试图重复这个研究
with a group of young Germans who grew up without the wall
找来一群成长在柏林墙倒塌后的德国青年
to see if these effects are still measurable nowadays.
探究这些影响在当下是否仍可度量
And the results show that this generation, my generation,
结果显示我们这一代人
is just kind of bad at geography in general —
总体上来说不太擅长地理
[Laughter]
(笑声)
East and West.
不太会区分东和西
But in our defense, this could be seen as an improvement, right?
从我们的角度来看 这也是一种进步 对吧?
We never experienced the actual wall.
我们从未体验过实体墙的存在
This physical barrier was never able to make us build a mental wall in the first place.
这种实体障碍从未让我们从一开始就形成精神墙
I would love to take this as a serious indication
我很乐意把这当做一个重要的迹象
that there could be a future without a mental wall dividing Germany,
表明区隔德国的精神墙可能会在未来消失
but I think we have to face reality:
但我认为我们必须面对现实
this one wall could be disappearing,
这堵精神墙可能会消失
but in the meanwhile, a billion others are constructed.
但同时 会有另外数不清的墙被建造
One global trend we are currently experiencing
我们当下经历的全球趋势之一
is the rise of gated communities.
是封闭群体的兴起
And in a way, gated communities can be seen the same exact way as countries,
某种程度上说 封闭群体和国家几乎一样
just on the small scale —
只不过规模稍小
neighborhoods surrounded by walls and fences
墙和栅栏环绕着街区
to protect citizens from other citizens —
以保护一些公民不受其他公民的侵害
and the only difference is, it’s by choice.
封闭群体和国家的唯一区别是 群体是选择的结果
But the physical and mental effects on the people living inside
但对群体内外的人来说
and the people kept outside, are the same,
墙带来的实体与精神的影响是相同的
separating cities, neighborhoods, and even playgrounds.
城市 街区 甚至运动场都被分隔
In the spring of last year, I worked on a design project in Brussels
去年春天 我在布鲁塞尔的两所小学进行一个设计项目
at two elementary schools where this was the case.
在那里 情况就是如此
Both the schools share an entrance and the schoolyard.
两所学校共用一个入口和操场
Both schools teach in Dutch.
都用荷兰语教学
But one school is mainly visited by Belgian children,
但其中一所学校主要是比利时儿童
and the other school, by immigrant children.
另一所是移民儿童
The schools are separated by walls and fences,
两所学校被墙和栅栏隔开
leaving the children no point of interaction
孩子们没有互动的地方
other than this fence on the schoolyard that separates them.
除了这个操场上隔开他们的栅栏
When I started to work there,
当我开始在那儿工作
it made me sad to see children having to stand at a fence
看到孩子们必须站在栅栏前
to talk to their friend on the other side.
才能和另一边的同伴讲话 我很难过
But what’s even worse is that most of the children
更糟糕的是 对大多数孩子来说
will never get the opportunity to even make a friend on the other side.
他们根本没有机会与另一边的孩子交朋友
School should be the place where children, all children, come together and learn —
学校应该是所有孩子一起学习的地方
learn from the teacher, but more importantly, learn from each other.
跟老师学习 但更重要的是 互相学习
And the more diversity, the more there is to learn.
孩子们越多样 可学习的就越多
In fact, school might be the only time in our lives
实际上 学校生活可能是我们一生中
where establishing a contact despite social differences is even possible.
仅有的交友不分贵贱的时期
Separating children during this time of their development
在孩子们发展的这个时期
will make integration extremely difficult,
分隔的做法会让民族融合变得尤其困难
if not impossible.
如果融合有可能的话
And yet, somehow,
但不知道为什么
I seem to be the only one having a problem with this fence in Brussels.
在布鲁塞尔似乎只有我认为这个栅栏不合理
Most of the parents, teachers and children
大多数家长 老师和学生
stopped seeing or at least questioning the structure.
都看不到或至少不再质疑栅栏的存在
It’s just how it is.
好像它本来就是如此
Nobody has ever seen it differently.
没有人以别样的眼光审视它
And people are in favor of it.
人们支持它的存在
I once asked a boy if he would like to play with the other side,
我问过一个男孩想不想和另一边的孩子一起玩
and he said, “No.”
他回答说 不
Then I asked if he would play with them if the fence wasn’t there,
我接着问他如果没有栅栏 他会不会和他们一起玩
and he said, “Probably.”
他说 可能吧
But then he quickly added that the fence should stay,
但他又立马补充道 栅栏应该存在
because the other side is mean and they never give back his ball.
因为另一边的孩子很坏 从不还他球
It’s funny, because I talked to children from both sides,
有意思的是 我和两边的孩子聊天
and everyone told me that the other side is mean
所有人都告诉我另一边的孩子很坏
because they never give back the ball.
因为他们从来不归还球
The children on both sides dislike each other,
两边的孩子都讨厌对方
and there are regularly arguments breaking out at this fence,
栅栏边也会经常发生争吵
which is also the main reason why people feel the need for it to be there:
这也是人们认为栅栏应该存在的主要原因
it protects the children from each other,
它分开孩子们 以保护他们
or at least their toys,
至少 保护了各自的玩具
and it prevents chaos.
并避免了混乱
At some point, the children started to crawl beneath the fence
从某个时候开始 孩子们会从栅栏下钻过去
to get their ball back,
把球拿回来
and the reaction of the schools was to put these metal plates there.
学校发现后 加装了这些金属板
Now they climb over.
之后他们就从上面翻过去
I don’t know what came first in Brussels:
我不知道在布鲁塞尔最先出现的
a mental wall that grew too strong that it made them build a physical fence,
是坚固到让人建实体栅栏的精神墙
or this fence that now emphasizes the social differences,
还是这道即使在学校操场
even on the schoolyard.
也要强调社会差异的栅栏
But what I did know when I started to work there
但开始在那工作后 我能确定
was that I wanted to change something about the situation.
我想改变现状
I wanted to show both sides again how much they have in common.
我想让两边的孩子知道他们有很多共同点
For children, this isn’t very hard,
对孩子们来说 这不难
because even though one schoolyard speaks Dutch
在操场上 即使一边的孩子讲荷兰语
and the other schoolyard, a mix of French, Turkish and Arabic,
另一边讲法语 土耳其语 阿拉伯语
they all speak the universal language of playing.
玩耍是他们共同的天性
And it turned out the desire to play
结果是 玩耍的愿望
is a lot stronger than all the supposed differences between them.
比他们已有的差异要强烈得多
I installed different games at the fence,
我在栅栏边设计了不同的游戏
which turned it into an interface, a common ground, instead of a barrier.
结果这里成了孩子们玩耍交流的共同天地而非障碍
And all of a sudden, children were drawing together,
突然间 孩子们开始一起画画
exchanging pencils
交换铅笔
and talking on the phone.
拿起电话聊天
Especially the phones were a great success,
电话尤其受欢迎
because they were so amazed
因为他们非常惊讶
by the fact that they can hear the other side through this device
能通过这个装置听到对方的声音
that they couldn’t stop speaking.
以至于他们聊个不停
In the case of an elementary school, parents play a very big role
在这两所小学的情况中 家长很重要
in shaping the everyday life and the environment of their children.
他们塑造了孩子们日常的生活和环境
So I knew that if I wanted to make a difference,
所以我知道 如果我要做出改变
I had to somehow show them, too, how much they have in common
我也必须用某种方法让家长们看到
with the other side.
他们有很多共同点
But for parents, this was a lot more difficult,
但对家长们来说 这要难得多
because most of them speak different languages,
因为他们大多数讲着不同的语言
work different jobs with different incomes,
工作不同 收入不同
live in different social circles,
处在不同的社会圈子
believe in different religions,
信仰不同的宗教
experience different cultures
体验不同的文化
and share different values.
也持有不同的价值观
And then there was me, a student,
而且 我也只是一个学生
different in all of these aspects again.
在这些方面跟他们都不一样
So how could I show them
所以我要如何让他们看到
how much they have in common?
他们之间的共同点?
I chose not to convince them myself
我决定不去亲自说服他们
but by letting their own children do the talking.
而是让他们的孩子做这项沟通工作
I designed a picture exhibition on the schoolyard
我在操场上策划了一场照片展览
showing them their children playing together through the fence.
向他们展示孩子们隔着栅栏一起玩的场景
At the end of this exhibition,
在展览最后
I asked people to write down their thoughts, ideas and wishes
我让大家在这些大木盒上
on these big wooden boxes,
写下自己的想法和愿望
and I labeled the boxes with, “What do you think?”
我给盒子贴上 你觉得如何 的标签
A lot of people wrote “Yes” on it.
很多人在上面写道 是的
Yes, what?
是的 是什么意思呢?
I never mentioned my opinion or an action that should follow,
我没有提到我的观点 或者应该采取的行动
so which question were they answering with yes?
所以他们回答的是哪个问题呢
When I asked, they said yes, the fence should go.
当我问起 他们说 是的 栅栏应该被拆掉
Yes, we want to play with the other side.
是的 我们想和另一边的孩子们一起玩
The pictures implied enough to answer a question
这些照片暗示了要回答一个
that was never proposed.
从未被提及的问题
People were seeing the absurdity of the situation again
大家再次注意到了现状的不合理
and felt how unnecessary this fence is
在没有受到我的意见的强迫之下
without me forcing an opinion on them.
认识到栅栏是多余的
The exhibition showed the two sides their similarities for once.
这次展览让他们看到彼此的共同点
That day, there was no us and them,
那一天 没有我们和他们的区分
there was no others.
没有他者的概念
The mental wall started to crumble.
精神墙开始瓦解
I chose the word “crumbling,”
我选择“正在瓦解”这个词
because breaking a mental wall is a long journey,
是因为推倒精神墙是一个长期的过程
and breaking a mental wall can be a lot more difficult
也因为推倒精神墙
than simply tearing down the physical one.
比仅仅摧毁实体墙要难得多
We have to challenge our opinion and beliefs
我们需要质疑我们的观点和信仰
and maybe even admit our own wrongs.
甚至承认错误
So what happened in Brussels was a big step,
因而 在布鲁塞尔的改变是一大进步
a step that has been taking generations in Germany.
这一进步在德国已经进行几代人的时间了
There are many examples from all over the world
世界各地都有这样的例子
telling the same story I experienced in Brussels and Germany,
和我在布鲁塞尔和德国经历的一样
enough examples from which we could have learned.
这些事例足以让我们明白一些道理
But still, we seek walls as solutions for problems that they cannot solve,
但即使建墙无法解决问题 我们仍在这么做
because walls don’t fight the root of our problem.
因为建墙无法治本
If anything, they reduce the symptoms.
最多只能治标
So the next time you are planning to build a wall
所以下次在你准备建墙
or you are planning to support someone who wants to build a wall,
或者想支持建墙者的时候
I want you to remember the impact you are really having.
我希望你能明白你的行为的真正影响
Because, this simple structure will hardly create more security.
因为墙 这个简单结构 无法带来更多安全
Instead, it will affect the people living with it every day,
反而影响到每天与它相伴的人
people who, despite the geographic border,
尽管地理空间有界限
often share a lot of culture and values.
很多人其实共享文化与价值观
For them, you are not building one wall but two,
对他们来说 你不止建了一堵墙 而是两堵
two walls which will take decades and generations to overcome again.
要克服这两堵墙的障碍 需要数代人的时间
Thank you.
谢谢大家
(Applause)
[掌声]

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视频概述

实体墙无法带来更多安全,反而会在人们头脑中筑起一堵精神墙,造成隔阂,削弱人们对共性的认识。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

KJQWXYZC

审核员

审核员HJ

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kmbui1xF8DE

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