未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

奇异的章鱼

The Insane Biology of: The Octopus

In many ways, the octopus is as close to
许多方面来看 章鱼也许是我们见过
alien life as we may ever see.
最像外星生命的生物
Few creatures in the world are as remarkable and bizarre.
世界上很少有生物能像它们那样非凡而奇异
A part of a class of animals called cephalopods,
它们是头足纲动物的一种
they are among the most intelligent and most mobile of all the invertebrates.
是所有无脊椎动物中最聪明 最灵活的
They live in every ocean in the world,
它们存在于世界上的每片海洋中
in the deep sea, in kelp forests, in coral reefs,
生活在深海 海藻森林 珊瑚礁
along rocky shorelines.
和多岩石的海岸线上
And they are as diverse as the habitats they live in.
它们的种类和它们的栖息地一样多样化
They can be massive, or absolutely tiny.
它们有的个头巨大 有的极小
Some species are venomous, and some are just downright strange.
有些种有毒 有些则非常奇异
In any given moment, they can appear spiky, or they can appear smooth.
在任何特定的时刻 它们可以浑身是刺 也可以通身光滑
They are so different from us,
它们与我们如此不同
that most of their 500 million neurons are not in their brain,
甚至它们的5亿个神经元中的大多数都不在大脑中
but in their arms,
而是在触手上
which can smell and taste, and even think.
触手能闻和尝 甚至会思考
And so intelligent that their cognitive ability matches that of many large-brained vertebrates.
它们如此聪明 认知能力与许多大脑较大的脊椎动物相当
They have left scientists stunned about
让科学家们惊讶的是
how a creature so far from us on the evolutionary tree
一个在进化树上离我们如此遥远的生物
could evolve such complex behaviors,
如何能进化出如此复杂的行为
their intelligence emerges in an entirely novel and independent way from our own.
它们的智慧是以一种全新和独立于人类的方式呈现的
So how did the octopus become so biologically complicated –
那么 章鱼是如何在生物学意义上变得如此复杂
an island of complexity in the sea of invertebrate animals?
在数量众多的无脊椎动物中独树一帜的?
Just how intelligent are they,
它们到底有多聪明
and how can studying them reveal information about our own minds?
研究它们又如何能揭示出关于我们人类大脑的信息?
疯狂生物学之 章鱼
Cephalopods have been around for a long time.
头足纲动物已经存在了很长时间
Fossil records show that they evolved over 500 million years ago –
化石记录显示 它们在五亿多年前就已进化出来了
long before any fish, reptiles, or mammals appeared on earth.
比地球上出现的任何鱼类 爬行动物或哺乳动物都要早
The early ancestor of the octopus was quite small and had a shell,
章鱼的早期祖先个头相当小并且有壳
which it used to protect itself as it crawled along the ocean bottom
壳是用来在海底爬行时保护自己的
Cephalopods are, after all, members of the mollusk phylum,
头足纲动物毕竟是软体动物门的成员
a group of creatures that are usually slow and simple,
它们常常行动缓慢 头脑简单
with soft bodies and a hard protective shell – like snails, clams, and oysters.
有柔软的身体和坚硬的保护壳–如蜗牛 蛤蜊和牡蛎
But around 140 million years ago,
但在大约1.4亿年前
the lineage that produced the octopus lost their shells,
章鱼的祖先失去了壳
making them nimble, agile creatures
成为灵活机敏的生物
but in the process also made them rather vulnerable.
但在这个过程中 它们也变得非常脆弱
Survival of these soft bodied creatures for so many millions of years
这些软体生物存活了数百万年
therefore seems unlikely in a sea full of dangerous, hungry predators.
这在充满危险和饥饿的掠食者的海洋中似乎不太可能
But this vulnerability and selective pressure may be precisely
但这种脆弱性和物竞天择的压力可能正是
what has allowed the octopus to become the remarkable creature we know today.
章鱼成为我们今天所知的非凡生物的原因
Because an octopus has almost no hard parts at all, except its beak,
因为章鱼除了嘴以外 几乎没有任何坚硬的部分
it can squeeze through any hole as long as it’s larger than its eyeball.
任何只要比它的眼球大的洞 它都能挤过去
This allows the octopus to hide in very small crevices –
这使得章鱼可以躲在非常小的缝隙里——
a certain evolutionary advantage
这是躲避像鲨鱼或海豚
when escaping large predators like sharks or dolphins.
这样的大型捕食者时的一种进化优势
But, the soft-bodied octopus evolved an even more clever way of evading detection:
但是 软体的章鱼进化出一种更聪明的逃避侦查的方法:
they are masters of disguise.
它们是伪装大师
Watching this clip of an octopus,
观看这段章鱼的视频
you can see just how quickly and drastically it can change colors.
可以看到它的颜色变化是多么迅速和显著
In slow motion reverse, you see the color change spread across its body.
在慢动作倒放中 你能看到颜色的变化在它身体上蔓延
The 3D texture of the skin also changes,
皮肤的3D纹理也发生了变化
to match the surrounding seaweed and coral.
以匹配周围的海藻和珊瑚
in the blink of an eye, it has almost completely blended in with its surroundings.
眨眼之间 它几乎完全融入了周围的环境
Cephalopod camouflage is among the most dynamic in the animal kingdom,
头足纲动物的伪装是动物王国中最有特色的
and relies on a system of extremely sophisticated tissues.
它依赖于一个极其复杂的组织体系
Chromatophores are organs that are speckled across the skin of the octopus, like freckles.
色素体是一种像雀斑一样散布在章鱼皮肤上的器官
They contain tiny pigment filled sacs,
它们含有微小的充满色素的囊
like little balloons full of different color dye
就像装满不同颜色染料的小气球
which can be black, red or yellow.
可能是黑色 红色或黄色的
The pigment sacs are surrounded by radial muscles,
色素囊被放射状的肌肉所包围
which can stretch the sac to reveal the pigment’s color.
肌肉可以拉伸囊体来显示色素的颜色
Just like balloons full of dye,
就像装满染料的气球一样
when stretched, their pigment color appears bright and vibrant.
当囊体被拉伸时 色素颜色显得明亮而鲜艳
Depending on which sets of sacs an octopus opens or closes,
章鱼通过打开或关闭不同的囊
it can produce patterns such as bands, stripes, or spots–
就可以产生诸如带状 条纹或斑点的图案——
helping to turn itself into a rock, a coral, or kelp in an instant.
使自己瞬间变成岩石 珊瑚或海带
But if the octopus needs to produce colors outside of black, red, and yellow,
但是 如果章鱼需要产生黑 红和黄以外的颜色
it uses another layer of reflective structures in their skin called iridophores.
就会使用皮肤上的另一层反射结构 称为虹细胞
They are stacks of very thin cells that lay beneath the chromatophores.
它们是一叠非常薄的细胞 位于色素体的下面
They contain a protein called reflectin
虹细胞含有一种叫做反射素的蛋白质
that bounces certain wavelengths of light back out.
可以将某些波长的光“反弹”出去
They are responsible for the metallic blues and greens
这是章鱼皮肤上
that appear to shimmer on the skin of the octopus.
出现蓝色和绿色金属光泽的原因
Beneath that layer is yet another layer of reflective tissue, called leucophores.
在虹细胞下面是另一层反射组织 称为白色体
These reflect ambient light, usually producing white hues.
白色体反射周围的光线 通常产生白色的色调
By combining reflection from the iridophores and leucophores
通过将虹细胞和白色体反射的色调
with the correct patterning of chromatophores,
与色素体产生的准确图案相结合
the octopus can create a very convincing copy of its surroundings.
章鱼可以轻松地模仿周围环境
But the octopus has one more trick up its sleeve,
但是章鱼还有一招
allowing it to disappear in plain sight almost completely.
让自己可以几乎完全消失在人们的视线中
Using a structure called papillae,
利用一种叫做“乳突”的结构
it can change the texture of its skin,
它可以改变皮肤的质地
creating ridges and bumps that rise and fall.
形成起伏的凸纹和隆起
This helps the octopus match its surroundings even better.
这有助于章鱼更好地匹配周围环境
With all these tools, the shell-free, soft bodied octopus
有了所有这些工具 无壳软体的章鱼
has been able to deceive an ocean full of predators for millions of years
能蒙骗充满海洋的捕食者达数百万年之久
But, their survival has not hinged on these camouflage properties alone.
但是 它们的生存并不只取决于这些伪装特性
It is the way they are controlled that is perhaps an even more compelling survival tool.
伪装的控制方式或许才是更有力的生存工具
身体—大脑关系
When an octopus travels along the seafloor,
当章鱼沿着海底行进时
they have to assess the background and modify their camouflage constantly.
它们必须评估背景并不断地修正它们的伪装
They are making decisions at a rapid pace –
章鱼做决定的速度很快
one researcher observed
一位研究人员观察到
an octopus changing its camouflage 177 times in 1 hour.
一只章鱼在1小时内变换了177次伪装
Octopus’s camouflage reaction times are faster than any other animals’,
章鱼的伪装反应时间比其它任何动物都要快
– up to 200 milliseconds, as fast as the fastest blink you can do.
达到200毫秒 和你能做到的最快眨眼速度一样快
But despite doing so much with color,
尽管章鱼在色彩方面做了很多
the octopus, and almost all cephalopods,
但令人惊讶的是 它和几乎所有头足纲动物
are surprisingly thought to be colorblind.
都被认为是色盲
How can they match colors they can’t even see?
它们如何匹配甚至看不到的颜色呢?
In 2015, the answer to this question started to be uncovered.
2015年 这个问题的答案开始浮出水面
Researchers found that the skin of an octopus is sensitive to light
研究人员发现 由于皮肤中存在活跃的光感受器基因
due to photoreceptor genes active in the skin.
章鱼的皮肤对光很敏感
Even when the skin was detached from the body,
即使当皮肤与身体分离
it could respond to light and change the shape of its chromatophores.
它也能对光线做出反应 并改变其色素体的形状
Scientists realized that an octopus can see with not just its eyes,
科学家们意识到章鱼不仅能用眼睛看东西
but also its skin.
还能用皮肤“看”东西
But as the octopus body was evolving its color changing defense mechanisms
但当1.4亿年前章鱼失去外壳时
when it lost its shell 140 million years ago,
它的身体进化出变色防御机制的同时
another transformation occurred: the development of its large brain and nervous system.
另一个转化也发生了:庞大的大脑和神经系统开始发展
The photoreceptor genes in the skin
皮肤中的光感受器基因
work in connection with the octopus’s large and complex brain.
与章鱼庞大而复杂的大脑有关
The octopus can change color so fast,
章鱼能如此迅速地改变颜色
because the octopus controls its chromatophores neurally.
是因为它通过神经控制其色素体
Other animals that can change color, like chameleons, for example
其它能变色的动物 比如变色龙
take much longer because their color change is hormonally controlled.
变色时间要长得多 因为它们的变色是由荷尔蒙控制的
Hormones take time to get into the blood and distribute around the body.
荷尔蒙进入血液并分布到全身需要时间
A color change can take over 20 seconds when controlled this way.
通过荷尔蒙控制颜色的改变需要超过20秒的时间
Some researchers believe that color change in the octopus
一些研究人员认为 章鱼的颜色变化
may be like breathing or blinking for us-
可能就像人类的呼吸或眨眼——
something it can choose to do, but also something that can happen involuntarily.
可以是有意的变化 但也可以无意识地发生
It can have awareness from its eyes and brain, but also throughout its body.
它不仅可以从眼睛和大脑也可以从全身获得意识
The octopus nervous system is large like ours,
章鱼的神经系统和人类的一样庞大
but built with a different relationship between body and brain all together.
但身体和大脑之间的关系却与人类完全不同
The common octopus has around half a billion neurons in its body.
普通的章鱼体内有大约5亿个神经元
For comparison, humans have about 100 billion.
相比之下 人类大约有1000亿
Most invertebrates usually have much less.
大多无脊椎动物的神经元数量 则通常少得多
Snails have only 20,000.
蜗牛只有2万个
But cephalopods like the octopus
但像章鱼这样的头足纲动物
score in the same range as many vertebrates,
却拥有与许多脊椎动物 如猫 狗和鹦鹉
like cats and dogs and parrots– more than any other invertebrate
相当的神经元数量——比其它任何无脊椎动物都多
And of their 500 million neurons,
而且在它们的5亿个神经元中
only a third are found in their brain.
只有三分之一是大脑中发现的
The majority are found in their eight arms.
大多数是在它们的八条触手中发现的
And as strange as it sounds,
这听起来很奇怪
this allows the octopus to in a way, think with its arms.
但在某种程度上 这让章鱼可以用触手思考
For a long time, scientists have known that a severed octopus arm
长期以来 科学家们已经知道 一只被切断的章鱼触手
can respond to stimuli an hour after being separated from the central brain.
在与中心大脑分离一小时后可以对刺激作出反应
But a paper last year began to reveal the extent of this autonomy.
去年的一篇论文开始揭示这种自主性的程度
Using video modelling they observed the octopus
通过视频建模 他们观察了章鱼
as it explored objects in its tank and looked for food.
在水箱中探索物体和寻找食物的过程
The program quantified movements of the arms,
该程序对触手的运动进行量化
tracking how the arms work together in synchrony, suggesting direction from the brain,
跟踪各条触手如何协同工作 同步表示信息来自大脑
or asynchronously, suggesting independent decision-making in each appendage.
或者不同步 表示每条触手独立决策
And they found that in the flow of information from the environment to the octopus,
他们发现 外界流入章鱼的信息中
some information bypasses the central brain entirely.
有些完全绕过了中枢大脑
The suckers and arms can, in a way, think for themselves,
在某种程度上 吸盘和触手可以独立思考
allowing the octopus to analyze its environment extremely quickly,
使章鱼能够非常迅速地分析环境
and react with matching speed.
并以相应的速度做出反应
Along with skin that can perceive and change color on its own,
除了能感知和改变自身颜色的皮肤
the relationship between brain and body in the octopus is full of blurred lines.
章鱼的大脑和身体之间的关系界限模糊
And on top of this unusual neural layout and strange body autonomy,
除了这种不寻常的神经布局和奇异的身体自主性
cephalopods are smart – extremely smart –
头足纲动物很聪明——极其聪明——
and this is really what gives the octopus its alien-like status.
这才是让章鱼像外星生物的真正原因
they are so far from any other intelligent life on a tree of evolution
它们在进化树上的位置与其它任何有智力的生物距离甚远
but still compete with vertebrates in their raw cognitive ability.
但它们的原始认知能力仍然可以与脊椎动物媲美
Evolution invented intelligent life not once,
进化不止一次 而是两次
but twice, in two completely different ways.
以两种完全不同的方式创造了智慧生命
智力的进化
In the evolutionary tree of life, we sit upon the branch of mammals.
在生命的进化树上 我们处在哺乳动物的分支
Nearby are the fish, reptiles, birds, amphibians –
旁边是鱼类 爬行动物 鸟类 两栖动物——
the other members of the larger classification of vertebrates.
这些动物共同组成了一个更大的分类:脊椎动物
This group is where we see all of the ‘intelligent’ life
在这个群体中 我们看到了所有
we normally think of –
通常所说的“智慧”生命——
humans, primates, dogs, cats, dolphins, and some birds.
人类 灵长类动物 狗 猫 海豚和一些鸟类
When we collect these animals and trace back to our common ancestor,
当我们归拢这些动物的信息并追溯到我们共同的祖先时
it was likely a lizard-like animal that lived around 320 million years ago.
它很可能是一种生活在3.2亿年前的类似蜥蜴的动物
Like us, this animal would have had a backbone, four limbs, a head, and a skeleton.
像我们一样 这种动物也有脊柱 四肢 头部和骨骼
It would have walked around, well adapted to land
它可以走动 很好地适应陆地生活
and had a well developed central nervous system.
并有一个发达的中枢神经系统
But to find where we split from the octopus,
但要找到人类与章鱼分离的地方
we have to travel much further down the branches
我们必须沿着进化树枝走得更远
– to around 600 million years ago.
—直到大约6亿年前
The creature we find there is a simple, flat worm.
我们在那里发现的生物是一种简单的 扁平的蠕虫
it had an extremely basic nervous system,
它有一个极其基本的神经系统
and no inklings of what we would consider ‘intelligence.’
与我们所认为的“智慧”毫无关系
As the evolutionary tree branched and diverged,
随着进化树的分支和分化
intelligence blossomed on our branch of vertebrates,
智慧在我们这一脊椎动物分支中萌发
and totally separately, in the cephalopods.
而头足纲动则完全不同
And, with the cephalopods evolving before any of the intelligent vertebrates,
由于头足纲动物的进化比任何有智力的脊椎动物都早
it’s likely that they were the first intelligent animals that appeared on earth.
它们很可能是地球上出现的第一个有智力的动物
But what actually is ‘intelligence’?
但“智力”到底是什么呢?
How can we identify – or even measure –
我们如何识别甚至测量
such a thing in an animal so different to us?
与我们如此不同的动物身上的这种东西呢?
In humans, intelligence is commonly defined as the ability to think abstractly
在人类中 智力通常被定义为抽象思考
understand, communicate, problem solve, learn, for memeries and plan actions.
理解 沟通 解决问题 学习 记忆和计划行动的能力
This is usually measured by intelligence tests
这通常是通过智力测试来衡量的
which can be given a numerical value.
智力测试可以给出一个数值
But, we can not give a standardized test to an octopus.
但是 我们不能对章鱼做一个标准化的测试
We can only observe their behaviors.
只能观察他们的行为
– “they’re the most interesting mollusks in terms of behavior. No question.”
“就行为而言 它们毫无疑问是最有趣的软体动物”
To learn more about the depth of octopus intelligence
为进一步了解 目前研究人员
as researchers currently understand it,
对章鱼智力的理解达到了什么深度
I spoke with Jennifer Mather,
我采访了莱斯布里奇大学
professor in the Department of Psychology at University of Lethbridge –
心理学系教授Jennifer Mather
and scientific advisor for the film My Octopus Teacher.
她也是电影《我的章鱼老师》的科学顾问
“every learning task you give them they can do.
“你给它们的每一项学习任务它们都能完成
Short term, long term spatial memory, object perception.
无论短期 长期的空间记忆 还是物体感知
But it’s more than learning. They also go in for planning.
但不仅仅是学习 它们也会去做计划
And planning is not so obvious.
而计划并不那么明显
One of the famous examples is what’s been called a coconut carrying octopus.
其中一个著名的例子被称为“携带椰子的章鱼”
So the octopus is going off to a place where there’s no shelter.
章鱼要去一个没有庇护的地方
And it takes these coconut halves with them
它带着这两片椰子壳
And when it wants to stop and rest,
当它想停下来休息时
it picks them up and brings them up like this around it.
它立起椰子壳 像这样把自己围起来
It’s amazing.”
这很神奇”
Some scientists argue that
一些科学家认为
this behavior is a rare example of composite tool use –
这种行为是复合工具使用的一个罕见例子
a behavior previously thought to only exist
以前认为这种行为只存在于
in humans, some primates, and some birds.
人类 部分灵长类动物和一些鸟类中
And it may be evidence of complex intelligence for two reasons.
而且它可能是复杂智力的证据 原因有二
First, this tool use might represent a behavioural innovation
首先 这种工具的使用可能代表了一种行为上的创新
allowing octopuses to protect themselves in areas where they cannot otherwise hide.
使章鱼能够在它们无法藏身的地方保护自己
Second, because the coconut shells are transported, with great effort,
其次 由于椰子壳的运输需要付出很大的努力
to meet future needs
以满足未来的需要
this behaviour might indicate an octopus’s planning ability.
这种行为可能表明章鱼的计划能力
The octopus has to imagine the future
它必须设想未来
and connect the dots between past events, current actions, and future events,
并将过去的事件 当前的行为和未来的事件联系起来
which is not a simple task.
这不是一项简单的任务
Octopuses also do well in memory tests,
章鱼在记忆测试中也表现很好
and can differentiate between different people,
它可以区分不同的人
even when they are wearing the same outfit.
即使人们穿着相同的衣服
And, in a study done by Professor Mather,
在Mather教授完成的一项研究中显示
the common octopus has also been shown to be extremely playful.
普通的章鱼也非常爱玩
I would describe them as extremely exploratory,
“我认为它们极具探索性
sort of like a five year old kid,
有点像一个五岁的孩子
taking stuff apart, going off and feeling around with the landscape,
把东西拆开 离开 感受周围的风景
just grabbing more information.
只是想要抓住更多信息”
Play is often defined as a behavior that is not necessary for survival,
玩耍通常被定义为一种不是生存所必需的
done on purpose, but seemingly for pleasure.
有目的但似乎是为了消遣的行为
The action is often repeated, exaggerated
这种行为往往是重复的 夸张的
and carried out when the animal is adequately fed,
并且是在动物有足够的食物
healthy, and not under stress.
健康和没有压力的情况下进行的
“We figured that the animals are more likely to play
我们认为 如果动物们安全且无聊
if they’re safe and bored.
它们更有可能去玩耍
So we set up octopuses in an aquarium with a place to hide,
所以我们把章鱼放在水族箱里 那里只有个藏身之处
and nothing else.
没有其它物品
And then we got a pill bottle, put enough water in it,
然后我们找来一个药瓶 在瓶里放了足够的水
but it floated at the surface.
但药瓶漂浮在水面上
Also in the mix was a water intake pump for the aquarium
此外 还有一个水族箱的进水泵
that the researchers hadn’t necessarily intended to be part of the experiment.
研究人员并没有打算把它作为实验的一部分
It created a current that pushed the pill bottle across the top of the tank,
水泵产生了一股水流 推着药瓶穿过水箱顶部
which sparked the curiosity of some of the octopuses.
这引发了一些章鱼的好奇心
So we did this with six animals, okay, in two cases,
我们用六只动物做了这个实验 其中两只
the pill bottle came across like this.
药瓶是这样横着穿过水面的
The octopus shot a jet of water at it,
章鱼向它喷射了一股水
which meant that it went back towards the water intake and it came back again.
使得药瓶回到进水处 然后药瓶再回来
If an octopus did this once, or even twice,
如果一只章鱼这样做了一次 甚至两次
it would not be experimentally significant.
这都不会有实验意义
But a few carried out this behavior so many times that it couldn’t be ignored.
但是少数章鱼做了很多次 让我们无法忽视
one of them did this, I think it was 14 times.
其中的一只我想做了14次
And one of them did it 21 times.
另一只做了21次
it was the marine equivalent of bouncing the ball!
这相当于海洋版的拍皮球!
In addition to helping establish motor coordination,
除了帮助建立运动协调能力外
play in most species is largely needed for social purposes –
大多数物种玩耍主要是为了社会目的——
for establishing social rank, for learning social rules, or for social bonding.
为树立社会地位 学习社会规则或为了社会关系
And due to its complexity, play is considered to be almost exclusive to mammals,
由于其复杂性 除了其它少数脊椎动物如一些鸟类外
with a few exceptions in other vertebrates like some birds.
玩耍几乎被认为是哺乳动物所独有的
But the octopus is a solitary creature.
但章鱼是一种独居的生物
It has no social bonds, no social hierarchy.
它没有社会纽带 没有社会等级制度
It makes us rethink the evolutionary reasons for play.
这让我们重新思考进化出玩耍的原因
In fact, much of our idea of intelligence is
事实上 我们对智力的大部分想法
based on the idea that it evolved out of a social need.
都是基于智力是从社会需求中演变出来的想法
For decades, scientists have wondered about the origins of intelligence,
几十年来 科学家们一直想知道智力的起源
and have tried to understand why certain animals evolved intelligence,
并设法理解某些动物进化出智力的原因
and others did not.
而其它动物却没有
The Social Intelligence Hypothesis
社会智力假说
is the often favored hypothesis for the evolution of complex cognition.
是复杂认知进化领域受到广泛认同的假说
It’s the idea that intelligence evolved due to the demands of group living,
其观点是 智力的进化是由于群体生活的需要
such as maintaining complex and enduring social bonds
比如维持复杂而持久的社会联系
deception, cooperation, or social learning
欺骗 合作或社会学习
When most of the animals we think of as smart –
当大多数我们认为聪明的动物——
humans, primates, dogs, dolphins – began living in groups,
人类 灵长类动物 狗 海豚——开始群居生活时
there became a need for more complex behaviors,
就需要更复杂的行为
and therefore, a bigger, more complex brain.
因此 需要更大 更复杂的大脑
but these theory can’t explain why intelligent involve in Cephalopods
但这些理论不能解释为什么头足纲动物具有智力
A different theory must exist for these non-social creatures.
对于这些非社会性生物 肯定存在不同的理论
You see, our big problem with knowing the development of intelligence is that
你看 我们了解智力发展的最大问题是
we know it from the mammals,
我们是从人类的近亲哺乳动物
from the primates, our relatives.
灵长类动物那里了解到的
So we know that this particular set of conditions sets us up for being intelligent
所以我们知道这套特定的条件造就了人类的智力
But then if we have another model, the octopus,
但如果我们有另一个模型 即章鱼
then we have to say, okay, these conditions, being part of a social group,
那么我们不得不说 好吧 这些条件作为社会群体的一部分
they’re not necessary for intelligent
它们不是智力的必要条件
Perhaps, the pressures of finding food and evading predation is enough for intelligence to blossom
也许 寻找食物和躲避捕食者的压力足以让智力发展
This is the basis for the Ecological Intelligence Hypothesis,
这是生态智力假说的基础
which suggests that complex cognition evolved to meet the challenges
该假说认为复杂的认知进化是为了
associated with predation, foraging, and competitive pressures.
应对与捕食 觅食和竞争压力有关的挑战
And when the octopus lost its shell 140 million years ago,
而当章鱼在1.4亿年前失去外壳时
perhaps the pressure of predation was so high
也许捕食的压力是如此之大
that outsmarting their attackers became the only way for it to survive.
以至于智胜攻击者成为它生存的唯一途径
These two theories are not competing ones,
这两种理论并不是相互矛盾的
but rather, two explanations for two instances of intelligence on the tree of life.
而是对生命之树上两种智力例子的两种解释
The octopus gives us a rare chance to investigate an alternate intelligence,
章鱼给了我们难得的机会去研究另一种有智力的生物
an alien-like life form here on Earth,
一种生活在地球上的类似外星人的生命形式
where we once thought there was only one model intelligence
我们曾经以为只有一种智力模型
we now know that there are at least two.
现在我们知道至少有两种
And who is to say how many more there could be, on this earth, or elsewhere?
谁又能说在地球上或其它地方还会有多少呢?
But, despite the distance from us on the evolutionary tree,
但是 尽管章鱼在进化树上与我们有一定的距离
the octopus still lives inside the same grand experiment as we do.
它仍然和我们一样生活在同一个大试验场中
The Earth, the oceans, and the spinning wheels of evolution have crafted us both.
地球 海洋和不断旋转的进化之轮造就了人类和章鱼
They are not so much alien then, as much as a distant, distant relative
所以与其说它们是外星人 不如说是一个远亲
And by stepping aside from our human-centric view of intelligence,
如果我们抛开以人类为中心的智力观
can we start to clearly see the infinite possibilities of cognition.
就能开始清楚地看到认知的无限可能性
The story of the modern octopus began so long ago –
现代章鱼的故事始于很久以前——
back when there was no life yet on land.
那时陆地上还没有生命
But around this time, 500 million years ago
但在这个时候 即5亿年前
the oceans had begun to explode with life.
海洋生物圈已是一派蓬勃之境
This period, called Ordovician,
这一时期称为奥陶纪
was known for its amazing diversity of invertebrates.
以其惊人的无脊椎动物多样性而闻名
And of these invertebrates, the massive, armored cephalopods were king.
在这些无脊椎动物中 巨大的 有甲的头足纲动物是王者
They dominated the seas for roughly 360 million years
它们在海洋中统治了大约3.6亿年
The fossil records show an amazing array of creatures during this time –
化石记录显示 这段时间里出现了大量的生物
some we recognize, and some we definitely don’t.
有些我们认识 有些我们绝对不认识
Life was thriving,
生命本该欣欣向荣
until something stopped nearly all of it in its tracks.
可有些东西的出现 却让生存之路变得困难重重
To learn more about this period on the early earth
要想了解更多关于早期地球这一时期的信息
and understand what nearly wiped out
并理解在地球第一次大灭绝中
all of the animals in the planet’s first mass extinction,
导致所有动物的灭亡的原因
you should watch “Ancient Oceans” on CuriosityStream.
你应该去CuriosityStream上观看《远古海洋》
It’s a two part series that covers
这是一个由两部分组成的系列节目
the Ordovician and Devonian periods,
涵盖了奥陶纪和泥盆纪时期
and explores the boom of animals then, and the subsequent mass extinctions.
并探讨了当时动物的繁荣以及随后的大规模灭绝现象
CuriosityStream is a streaming platform
CuriosityStream是一个流媒体平台
with thousands of high quality documentaries like this one.
有成千上万像这样的高质量纪录片
And now, CuriosityStream has partnered with us
而现在 CuriosityStream与我们合作
to offer an incredible deal.
提供了一个极好的协议
By signing up to CuriosityStream you now also get a subscription to Nebula.
通过注册CuriosityStream 你也可以订阅Nebula
Nebula is a streaming platform made by me
Nebula是我和其他几位YouTube教育内容创作者
and several other educational YouTube content creators.
制作的一个流媒体平台
It’s a place where we can upload our videos ad free,
这是一个我们可以免费上传视频的地方
and a place where we can experiment with new, original content.
也是一个我们可以体验新的原创内容的地方
By signing up to the bundle deal,
通过签署绑定协议
you will get access to both CuriosityStream and Nebula
你可以同时访问CuriosityStream和Nebula
– and you will be just in time to catch
你会正好赶上
Real Engineering’s final episode of the Nebula Original series
Nebula原创系列《真实工程》的最后一集——
the Logistics of D-day, about The Redball Express.
《诺曼底登陆后勤》它是关于红球速递计划的
The Logistics of DDay is a 9 part mini-series
《诺曼底登陆后勤》 是一个由9个部分组成的迷你系列
that covers the engineering and tactical advantages
涵盖了盟军在进入德军占领的法国时
the Allies used to achieve victory when invading German-occupied France –
所用的取得胜利的工程和战术优势
and it is exclusive to Nebula.
它由Nebula独家提供
So by signing up at curiositystream.com/realscience,
因此 只要在curiositystream.com/realscience上注册
you will get a subscription to CuriostyStream and a subscription to Nebula,
你就可以订阅CuriostyStream和Nebula
for just $14.79 for the entire year.
全年只需14.79美元
Signing up is also the best way to support this channel
注册也是支持这个频道
and all of your favorite educational content creators.
以及所有你喜欢的教育内容创作者的最好方式
Thanks for watching, and if you would like to see more from
谢谢观看 如果你想了解更多
me the links to my instagram, twitter, and patreon are below.
请点击下面我的instagram twitter和patreon链接

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

章鱼是无脊椎动物中最聪明的,其智力可以与大多数脊椎动物相媲美。 章鱼在进化树上的位置与脊椎动物相去甚远,为什么却如此有智慧?让我们一起探索物种的进化历程,了解章鱼的前世今生。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Winnie

审核员

审核员IBRT

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mFP_AjJeP-M

相关推荐