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食肉植物

The Inner Workings of the Venus Flytrap explained

In the food chain, plants are termed producers,
在食物链中 植物被称为生产者
as they convert energy
因为它们将太阳的能量
from the sun into food.
转化为食物
Food for the primary consumers, the herbivores,
成为初级消费者 即食草动物的食物
that only feed on plants as their source of energy.
它们将植物作为唯一的能量来源
And then, on the top of the food chain,
接下来 站在食物链最顶端的
there are the carnivores, the secondary consumers,
是食肉动物 它们作为次级消费者
that eat other animals to obtain their energy.
通过捕食其他动物来获取能量
This feeding relationship seems
这种捕食关系
to be the basic principle of life on earth.
似乎是地球生命基本的原则
The more surprising is it,
更让人惊讶的是
that one group of plants managed to evolve tools
有一类植物设法进化出了
that allowed them to break away,
让它们得以从食物链底端
from the bottom of food chain
摆脱出来的工具
and become carnivores themselves.
摇身一变成为捕食者
they are no longer the food of animals, instead animals became their food.
它们不再是动物们的食物 恰恰相反 动物成了它们的食物
The most iconic of these carnivorous plants is probably the venus flytrap.
而其中最具代表性的 莫过于捕蝇草了
But why did they evolve like this? And how exactly
但它们为什么会进化成这样?
does its unique mechanism of catching prey work?
它独特的捕猎机制是怎样运作的?
That’s what we’re going to find out in this episode of facts in motion.
这就是我们本集《动画事实》将探寻的
The inner workings of the Venus Flytrap.
捕蝇草内部的运行原理
Hope you enjoy.
希望你喜欢
Most carnivorous plants live in swamps and marshes,
大多数食肉植物生活在沼泽与湿地
with soil so waterlogged they are very poor in essential nutrients
由于土壤浸在水中 它们极度缺乏必需的营养成分
like nitrogen and phosphorus.
比如氮和磷
So in order to survive in these harsh enviroments,
所以 为了能在这些恶劣的环境下生存
they evolved mechanisms that allowed them to
它们进化出能诱捕和消化昆虫
trap and digest insects and other small animals
以及小型动物的机制
that then provide these plants with the nutrients they
并给自己提供在土壤中
can’t find in the ground.
无法获得的营养成分
There are many different kinds of carnivorous plants,
自然界中有许多不同类型的食肉植物
each with its own method of killing.
每一种都有其独特的捕食方法
Pitfall traps use the simplest method.
比如 猪笼草用的是最简单的方法
A vertical tube that fills with water, and
它用装了水液的圆筒形的“捕虫笼”
drowns anything that falls into it,
将掉入其中的生物淹死
which are sometimes even relatively large animals,
甚至有时较大的动物也难逃一死
like rats and frogs.
比如老鼠和青蛙
Flypaper traps utilize sticky mucus,
而捕虫堇利用黏液
to catch insects that come into contact with it.
去捕获那些与它接触的昆虫
And then there are snap traps,
还有一类用夹状捕虫器
the most advanced of all carnivorous plants.
是所有食肉植物中最高级的种类
Today,there are only two species of snap traps,
如今 世界上仅存两种夹状捕虫器
the venus flytrap and the waterwheel plant.
它们分别是捕蝇草和茅膏菜
Basically a venus flytrap that grows underwater
捕蝇草基本上都长在水下
where it captures small aquatic vertabrates and tiny fish.
捕食小型水生脊椎动物和一些小鱼
In the wild, the venus flytrap only lives
在野外 捕蝇草只存在于
in a few small patches of wet pine forest in
美国北卡罗莱纳州和南卡罗莱纳州
north and south Carolina, in the United States.
几片潮湿的松树林里
The plant itself is relatively small,
这种植物本身较小
with only four to seven leaves growing outwards
从地里长出来的独立的根茎
from a single point on its underground stern.
向外生长着四到七片叶子
Each leaf blade consists of two reigons
每片叶子有两个部分
A flat harsh-head photosynthesis capable petiole,
扁平 锐利 可进行光合作用的叶柄
and the leaf, which is shaped into a pair of lobes
和左右对称的叶片
that form the trap.
形成捕虫的陷阱
Each with a set of spines along its brain.
叶片的边缘都长有刺毛
Within the trap, six fine hairs,
捕虫器内侧有六根感觉毛
three on each side that echos triggers.
每边三根 充当触发捕虫器的机关
A closer study of these plants showed that they evolved
一项关于食肉植物的深入研究表明
from an ancestral lineage that utilized flypaper traps.
捕蝇草是从用黏液捕虫的祖先进化而来的
The evolution of a mechanism that
这种机制的进化
can completely lock in the prey.
完全能够在捕虫器中锁住猎物
There are three important benefits
这有三个重要的好处
it allows the plant to catch much bigger animals
一是能让捕蝇草捕捉到更大的动物
that provide great and nutritional value
提供更多营养
It prevents theft of the prey by other animals like frogs.
其次 避免了如青蛙这类捕虫动物的偷袭
and it allows for a more complete digestion
还促进了对猎物更完整的消化吸收
This mechanism alone what already been .
单单这个机制就已经是
an amazing feet of evolutionary engieering
进化史上的神奇之作了
But there is more.
还不止这些
On top of that,
最重要的是
a series of adaptations
一连串的适应机制
help the Venus flytraps make this process as energy effeicent as possible,
帮助捕蝇草在捕食过程中尽可能高效
and even distinguish between living prey and other stimuli.
甚至能区分开活物和其它杂物
The frist adaptation is that the trap were only tense up together
第一个适应机制就是在约半分钟内
when two of the hairs are triggered within about a half minute of each other
有两根感觉毛被触碰时 闭合捕虫器
this keeps the plant from reacting to false alarms like rain drops
这避免了捕蝇草在捕食大多数猎物时
while still catching most of the animals
对下雨这样的假警报做出反应
which are likely to brush more than one hair
那触发的可不仅仅是一根感觉毛
Another adaptation are the interlocking sawtooth along the much of leave
另一个则是沿着大部分叶片 互相咬合的锯齿
Although they look like prison bus
尽管这看起来就像个
that are suppose to lock prey in
把猎物关起来的囚车
they are actually there to allow animals to escape
但事实上很容易让猎物逃走
while the trap shuts so fast
当捕虫器闭合速度快时
it believes most animals no chance to react
大多数动物没有反应的机会
It doesn’t close all the way at first.
起初叶片并没有完全闭合
Instead it gives undersize inserts a way to escape.
相反 而是给了小虫子逃脱的机会
By sliping through this bines
这些“微不足道”的小虫子溜走
saving the plant’s the expense of digesting an inefficent meal
也节省了植物消化“无用食物”时所耗的养分
Only if the prey keep moving around inside the trap
只有猎物在捕虫器里不停挣扎
triggering the hairs at least five more times,
刺激感觉毛至少五次时
the trap would close completely and begin digestion.
捕虫器才会完全闭合然后开始消化
In other safeguard against wasting energy
这也是一种避免让捕蝇草开合
that allows the venus flytrap to reset,
从而浪费养分的确认机制
in case the prey escaped
以防猎物逃跑
or something else trigger the trap,
或其它什么东西刺激感觉毛
like a falling leaf,for example.
比如掉落的树叶
but with no musles on nus,
不过捕蝇草没有肌肉
how can they react like animals?
为什么它可以像动物一样反应呢?
Although the exact sience behinded
虽然其背后的科学原理
is still not fully understood.
我们尚未清楚
In recent years some progress could be
但近年来的一些科研成果
made discovering this mystery.
能够帮助我们解开谜题
Reserchers found that when the trap is in the open state,
研究人员发现捕虫器开启状态下
the cells on the inside of each lop are blown up with water.
两瓣的内部细胞充满了水
While the cells on the outside
而外侧细胞
have only litte amount of water in them.
却几乎没有水
This creates the prssure ambivalence
这就导致内外压力不等
that foces the lops in the convex shape.
使两瓣凸起
Now when the insect brushes against one of the sensitive
当猎物触碰了捕虫器里的感觉毛
then bending triggers the tiny electronic charge.
感觉毛释放出微弱的电流
The charge that builds up inside the cells of the leaf,
电流在叶子细胞内积聚
but that is not enough to stimulate the snap just yet.
但这尚不足以刺激捕虫器闭合
This electronic charge will gradually decay over the next half minute.
电流会在接下来的半分钟内逐渐变弱
So for the electronic singal to exceed the threshold value and
所以电流必须在这个时间内 受到两次刺激
close the trap in other trigger must occur whitin that timeframe.
才能触发机关 闭合捕虫器
If that happens,pause and cell membranes
这时 细胞膜会释放水份
will open up and water was searched
水从内部细胞
from the cells on the inside of the leaf to those on the outside
被吸到外部细胞
till balance is reached.
直到压力平衡
This happens so fast
过程很短
that it causes the leaf to rapidly
叶片迅速收缩
flip and shape from convex concave
突出的叶瓣向内合拢
which closes the trap.
使捕虫器关闭
Which is interesting because it makes the whole mechanism
这个过程很有趣 因为整个机制
less like opening and closing your hand
比起开合的双手
and more like cocking catapult.
更像是弹射器
the prosess that takes the plant a lot of time and energy
这个流程消耗了植物大量时间与能量
Which also explains why the traps need such a long time to reopen,
也是捕虫器为何需要这么长时间重新打开的原因
but once the mechanism set up,
但一旦重置
all it takes is someone cutting the rope.
发动它只需临门一脚

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译制信息
视频概述

为什么存在食肉的植物?他们有哪些种类,又是如何捕食的呢?一切尽在本期视频

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Yi

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vUNI-JR0Zjw

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