未登录,请登录后再发表信息
最新评论 (0)
播放视频

18-19世纪工业革命

The Industrial Revolution (18-19th Century)

工业革命 18-19世纪
Industrial Revolution18th – 19th Century
19世纪的经济发展见证了
The economic developments of the 1800s saw
欧洲和美国由农耕手工业经济
the development of agrarian and handicraft economies in Europe and America
转为工业化城市化经济
transform into industrial, urbanized ones.
这种现象被称为“工业革命”
The term to describe this phenomenon would be known as the”Industrial Revolution,”
这个名词最开始由法国作家使用
and was first used by French writers,
随后被英国经济历史学家阿诺·范斯诺发扬光大
but made popular by English economic historian Arnold Toynbee.
农业革命是工业革命的基石
The Industrial Revolution was underpinned by the Agricultural Revolution.
从18世纪中叶至19世纪中叶
From the mid-18th century to the mid-19th century,
农产品产量得到了极大的提升
agricultural production increased significantly.
食物产量的急剧增加推动了人口扩张
The huge increase in food outputs supported the expansion,
维持了人口增长以及经济贸易的繁荣
and sustained a large population and boosted trade.
农业中的人力和畜力逐渐被机器所替代
The increased use of machines over human or animal power
这意味着越来越多的农民不再需要下地种田
in farming also meant that fewer farm workers were needed,
因而他们能够离开乡下去往工业城镇
and they could leave the land for industrial towns.
人们开采了更好的金属和更丰富的燃料
Better metals and richer fuel also
这也推动了工业化进程
contributed to industrialization
因为人们用它们发明了蒸汽机
by creating the steam engine,
这一工业革命的代表产物
an integral machine to industrialization,
提高了工厂的效率 驱动了火车和船舶
which powered factories, locomotives, and ships.
蒸汽机用铁制成
The new steam engines used coal and iron,
以煤作为燃料
both in the construction and as fuel,
所以这也增加了人们对这两种资源的需求
increasing demand for these resources.
公路 水路和铁路建设极大地改变了英国的面貌
Roads, canals, and roadways changed Britain dramatically,
便利的交通为食物的长距离运送提供了保障
connecting Britain and allowing goods to be sent over long distances.
直观看来 工业化革命在新城镇中表现得很明显
Visually, the revolution was clear in the new industrial towns,
因为这些城镇的天空因工业污染而烟雾缭绕
with smoking factories dominating the skyline.
城镇变得不太适合生存
The cities were horrible to live in.
它们拥挤 脏乱
Overcrowded, dirty
居民们还要面对工厂的安全隐患
with dangerous conditions in the factories
以及严苛的规定和惩罚措施
and strict rules and punishments.
工业革命也见证了纺织产业的机械化
The Industrial Revolution saw mechanization of the textile industry,
纺织品之前都是在家里制造
which was previously manufactured in the home,
故该产业又被称为“家庭手工业”
creating the term “Cottage Industry”.
而如今 动力织布机和走锭纺纱机等发明的出现
Now, production could be increased on a large scale
使得纺织品产量可以大幅度提升
because of new inventions,such as the spinning mule and the power loom.
亨利·贝塞麦提出了批量生产钢的廉价工艺
The iron industry developed with Henry Bessemer’s
冶金工业因此也得以发展
inexpensive process for mass-producing steel.
人们以钢铁作为核心材料制造了很多工具
Iron and steel were key materials for constructing
而这些工具是工业化进程中
the tools in machinery, steam engines,
制造机械装置 蒸汽机和轮船所需要的
and ships needed for the industrial progress.
城镇更多的就业机会吸引着农村人进城务工
Industrial labor opportunities drew people to the cities from the countryside–
在这种趋势下
To such an extent that in 1750
1750年 英国人口仅有15%居住在城镇
only 15 % of the population of Britain lived in towns.
截止到1850年 超过半数的英国人
By 1850, over 50 % of the entire population
都居住在镇上或者市里
of Great Britain lived in either a town or a city,
而到1900年 这一数字增加到了85%
and by 1900, it was 85%!
伦敦有450万人口
London had 4.5 million people,
格拉斯哥有76万人口
Glasgow – 760,000,
利物浦有68.5万人口
Liverpool – 685,000,
曼彻斯特和伯明翰共计50万人口
and Manchester and Birmingham – 500,000
英国是工业革命的发源地
Great Britain was the birthplace of the Industrial Revolution,
也是仅有的长期拥有成熟工业经济的国家
and was the only mature industrial economy for a long time.
历史学家推测 这一现象的原因
Historians have speculated that this was
可能是由于英国是一个岛国
because as an island, there was relative peace and
相比欧洲大陆 国内相对和平与稳定
stability for Britain compared to mainland Europe.
国家资本没有投入在大型防御常备军的建设上
Rather than spending on a large defensive standing army,
而是在合资企业的发展上
capital could be spent on other ventures,
国家给予投资者充分的信任
and there was confidence for investors.
英国本土资源也非常丰富
Native resources were also abundant,
且容易获取 从而推动了技术孵化和发明创造
and readily available for initial technological developments and inventions.
工程师和发明家受到了英国社会的尊重和鼓舞
Engineers and inventors were also respected and encouraged in British society,
并且也受到了富人的支持
and were backed by wealthy patrons.
英国拥有强大的海军
A powerful navy and an empire bringing
和从殖民地引进的巨大财富
in vast wealth from its colonies also
这让它先于别国开始了工业化进程
contributed to the catalyst for industrialization before others.
然而德国 法国 瑞士 比利时和美国
Nevertheless Germany, France, Switzerland, Belgium,
很快也效仿英国的工业变革
and the United States soon emulated Britain’s industrial change;
到1900年 英国已不再是领先国家
and by 1900 Britain would no longer be at the top,
美国引领了20世纪全球的工业发展
with the United States as the world’s leading industrial nation in the 20th century.
订阅更多历史视频
Subscribe for more history videos!
感谢大家对YouTube简史频道的支持
Thank for all your support on the Simple History YouTube channel.
如果您喜欢我们频道 欢迎在Patreon上支持我们
If you enjoy the channel, please consider supporting us at Patreon.

发表评论

译制信息
视频概述

主要向大家介绍英国工业革命的起源与发展,以及工业革命对各国的影响

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Tanya

审核员

审核员RS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xLhNP0qp38Q

相关推荐