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尼罗河在古埃及的重要性 – 译学馆
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尼罗河在古埃及的重要性

The Importance Of The River Nile in Ancient Egypt

The Importance of the River Nile in Ancient Egypt
尼罗河在古埃及的重要性
3100-30BC
公元前3100年到公元前30年
The River Nile was life in ancient Egypt,
尼罗河是古埃及的生命之河
providing a fundamental source of water and fertile silt
它给古埃及人提供了水源和肥沃的土壤
while simultaneously offering protection and spiritual strength.
同时也保护着古埃及人民 成为他们的精神寄托
Ancient Egyptians monitored the Nile
古埃及人监测尼罗河水位
and regulated their daily and annual activities based on its waters.
并根据尼罗河的水量 调节日常及年度生产活动
The Nile river, which extends for more than 4,100 miles
尼罗河向北流经非洲大陆
northward through the African continent
绵延4100多英里
is the world’s longest river.
是世界上最长的河流
The Nile river delta, an area that extends roughly 100 miles,
尼罗河三角洲绵延约100英里
served as a strategic port and hub of life in ancient Egypt.
是古埃及的战略港口和生活枢纽
Within the delta itself,
在三角洲内部
the Nile splits to form the Rosetta branch and the Demiater branch,
尼罗河分成达米埃塔河和罗塞塔河两个支流
which run west and east respectively.
分别流向东 西方向
From as early as 8,000 to 6,000 BC,
早在公元前8000年到公元前6000年
people began permanently settling in the Nile valley.
人们就开始在尼罗河谷永久定居
The regularity of the Nile floods often brought nutrient rich silt
尼罗河定期的洪水往往会给河岸
to areas along the river banks,
带来营养丰富的淤泥
valuable resource farmers used to grow grains like wheat and barley.
这是农民用来种植小麦和大麦等谷物的宝贵资源
This dynamic made Egypt
这种动态使埃及成为
one of the most fertile regions in the ancient world.
古代世界最肥沃的地区之一
By roughly 3,500BC,
大约在公元前3500年
Egyptians began tracking the Nile using millimeters.
埃及人开始用毫米来跟踪尼罗河水位
Initially, millimeters were read on columns placed in the river
起初 人们将刻有毫米的柱子置于河中
to mark water levels
以标志水位
and priests would keep records.
然后由祭司备存记录
Later on, designs included stairs descending into the river itself.
后来 设计加上了可以直接下到河里的梯子
Similarly, observers noted the cycles of the Nile.
同样 观察家们也注意到了尼罗河的泛滥周期
The year was devided according to those cycles, with three district seasons.
他们根据尼罗河的泛滥周期 将一年分为三季
During Akhet or inundation, the Nile flooded,
在泛滥季 尼罗河洪水泛滥
following the first season, the Peret or growing season,
第一个季节之后是生长季
then took place as the land emerged from the flood.
洪水退去 露出土地
Once the crops were ready,
一旦庄稼成熟
the Egyptians harvested during Shemu,
埃及人就会在收获季 也就是
the third season in the ancient Egyptians calendar.
古埃及历法中的第三个季节收割庄稼
And the water were short and the crops were harvested.
那时水源短缺 正好收割庄稼
Farming techniques in ancient Egypt involve manual labor
古埃及的农业技术包括
with the use of some draught animals to plough the land.
使用一些役畜犁地的体力劳动
Wheat was separated by winnow
人们用木勺
using a wooden scoop which was thrown in the air.
将小麦抛到空中筛开
So the chaff was blown away,
这样 谷壳被吹走
leaving the heavy seeds on the ground.
而较重的种子则留在了地上
Grain was used to make bread, porridge, beer,
谷物被用于制作面包 粥 啤酒等
all food stuffs fundamental to sustaining life.
所有维持生命的基本食品
Farmers also grew cotton, beans, flax and papyrus.
农民们还种植棉花 豆类 亚麻和纸莎草
Egyptians began to irrigate with the water from the Nile,
埃及人开始用尼罗河的水进行灌溉
extending the amount of the land that could be used for agricultural production.
扩大了可用于农业生产的土地面积
By 3,100 BC,
到了公元前3100年
canals and dams emerged to channel water throughout the valley.
出现了从山谷中引水的运河和水坝
The development of Shaduf use a system of ropes, beams and buckets
沙都夫利用绳索 横梁和水桶组成的系统
to retrieve water from the Nile
从尼罗河取水
allowed people to move water from one channel to another
使人们能够将水从一个河道运到另一个河道
or to transport water to fields further out.
或者将水输送到更远的田地
From Shaduf appearing from around 1,700BC
从公元前1700年左右出现的汲水器
to water wheels the millennium later
到千年之后的水轮灌溉
irrigation continued to expand throughout the Nile valley.
灌溉在整个尼罗河谷不断普及
With the great understanding of the Nile came more informed
随着人们对尼罗河的了解加深
and better coordinated trade practices,
和更加协调的贸易活动
the Nile served as the primary transportation route through the region.
尼罗河成为这个地区的交通要道
Egyptians traded amongst themselves
早在大约公元前3150年统一之前
with interaction between the upper and lower regions of Egypt
上下埃及之间
long before unification in roughly 3,150BC.
就已经有了贸易往来
They also traded with Nubians to the south
他们还通过尼罗河
and were able to interact with various other societies
与南部的努比亚人进行贸易往来
by using the Nile.
并与其他群体进行交流
Because Egypt had plentiful supplies of grains.
因为埃及有充足的粮食供应
It was able to obtain wood, metal and luxury items
他们通过与南部的努比亚人
through exchange with Nubians to the South
和美索不达米亚 希腊 罗马等地的同时代人交易
and contemporaries in locations like Mesopotamia, Greece and Rome.
获得木材 金属和奢侈品
Because the Nile was so important to life, agriculture and production,
因为尼罗河对生活 农业和生产是如此重要
Egyptians connected spirituality to its waters.
所以埃及人将灵性与尼罗河的水联系在一起
A famine or less than a fruitful harvest
饥荒 欠收
was associated with unhappy gods,
与不悦的神 神的愤怒
their wrath and the need to appease them.
和安抚神灵的需要联系在一起
The most closely connected myth with the Nile
与尼罗河联系最紧密的神话传说
were Osiris, Seth and Isis.
是奥西里斯 赛特和伊西斯
Osiris was murdered by his brother Seth.
奥西里斯被他的弟弟赛特杀害
Because the latter was jealous of the former’s power
因为赛特嫉妒奥西里斯的力量
by tricking Osiris into a coffin
诱骗奥西里斯到一个棺材里
that he then threw into the Nile.
然后将棺材扔进尼罗河
Seth killed his brother.
赛特杀了他的哥哥
Osiris’s wife Isis undertook a search for her husband ‘s body.
奥西里斯的妻子伊西斯四处搜寻她丈夫的尸体
She found him
她找到了她的丈夫
and left her sister Nephthys to guard the body from Seth.
留下她的妹妹奈芙提斯照看尸体 不让赛特发现
Seth inevitably found the body,
但赛特依然找到了尸体
cut it into pieces
并把它切成碎片
and distributed those parts throughout Egypt.
然后把这些碎片散布到埃及各地
Isis and Nephthys went to find all of the pieces
伊西斯和奈芙蒂斯去找所有的碎尸块
and were able to locate everything but Osiris’ genitals
她们找到了除被塞特扔进尼罗河的生殖器外的
which Seth had thrown into the Nile.
所有奥西里斯的尸体碎片
It was eaten by the oxyrhynchus fish.
他的生殖器被象鼻鱼吃掉了
It was therefore forbidden to eat that type of fish in ancient Egyp.
因此古埃及人禁食这种鱼
Another god was Hapi,
另一位神明是哈比神
who was the personification of the Nile river,
他是尼罗河的化身
symbolizing water and fertility.
象征着水源和肥沃的土地
He was seen as the god who controlled the annual flooding of the Nile river
他被视为控制尼罗河每年泛滥的神
and was worshipped by everyone in Egypt.
受到所有埃及人的顶礼膜拜
Because the Pharaohs were seen as gods and mortal form,
因为法老被视作神和凡人
they were also tied closely to the activities of the Nile.
所以他们也和尼罗河的活动密切相关
It is said that when the Pharaoh Joseph experienced a famine during his reign,
相传法老约瑟夫在位期间经历了一次饥荒
he was visited by the god Khnum who made a dream
他梦到库努姆神来访
Khnum connected to rebirth and creation
库努姆神是重生之神 创造之神
instructed Joseph to fix his temple in order to end the famine,
他指示约瑟夫修缮他的圣殿以结束饥荒
which Joseph did.
约瑟夫照做了
As a result, Egypt returned to a state of fertility
因此 埃及的土壤恢复了生机
and Joseph was heralded as a great king.
约瑟夫也被视作伟大的君王
Egyptians enjoyed protection thanks to the Nile.
埃及人享受着尼罗河的庇护
The Egyptians kingdom raised many mud brick forts along the Nile
埃及王国在尼罗河沿岸修建了许多泥砖堡垒
that enhanced the defensive capabilities of the kingdom
增强了王国对南部邻国
against its southern neighbor Nubia.
努比亚的防御能力
Hostilities with Nubia to the south were also mitigated by cataracts.
与南部努比亚的战争也因洪水得到缓和
All shallow areas with rapid water, stones
浅水区的激流 石头
have prohibited easy movement.
让人们无法随意迁移
As a thriving civilization,
繁荣的埃及文明
Egypt developed with in a limited area around the Nile
发展于尼罗河周围有限的地区
protected by a dry desert all around it.
这些地区四周遍布干燥的沙漠
The arid land served as a deterrent to potential invaders and raiders.
干旱区对潜在的入侵者起到了威慑作用
The Nile was also a source of recreation and fun.
尼罗河也是古埃及人消遣娱乐的地方
Swimming and games in the Nile were common,
在尼罗河游泳 游戏
as the boat races and riding the rapids.
就像划船 比赛和急流一样常见
Fishing in the Nile could be an activity to obtain food
在尼罗河钓鱼可以获取食物
or part of a day relaxing near the river.
也是一天中在河边放松的项目
Egyptians would fish with spears, nets and baskets made out of papyrus.
埃及人用纸莎草做的长矛 渔网和渔篮捕鱼
The Nile river was not without any dangers, however.
然而 尼罗河并非没有危险
As many wild animals lurk in its waters,
由于许多野生动物潜伏在这里的水域
crocodiles and hippopotamus were the scourge of the waters,
鳄鱼和河马成了这里的灾难
wreaking havoc and devastation.
严重威胁水域安全
As the father of life and the mother of all men,
作为生命之父和众人之母
the Nile was intertwined with aspects of life in ancient Egypt.
尼罗河与古埃及生活的各个方面交织在一起
The first century Roman authors, Seneca the younger
公元一世纪的罗马作家年轻的塞内加
described the Nile as unique and exceptional.
描述尼罗河“独一无二”
The power and importance of its waters has been recognized since ancient time
自古以来 人们就认识到尼罗河水的力量和重要性
and the status of the Nile as an Egyptian lifeline,
意识到尼罗河是埃及的生命线
was realized, welcomed and praised.
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视频概述

尼罗河孕育了古埃及文明,对古埃及的农业、经济和文化产生了深远的影响

听录译者

徘徊的小孩

翻译译者

HiyaTay

审核员

审核员Y

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aEK6PT7K8OM

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