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免疫系统解释I – 译学馆
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免疫系统解释I

The Immune System Explained I – Bacteria Infection

你生命中的每一秒都在遭受攻击
Every second of your life, you are under attack.
数十亿的细菌 病毒和真菌
Billions of bacteria, viruses, and fungi
正在试图以你为家
are trying to make you their home.
因此我们的身体形成了一个极其复杂的小军队
So our bodies have developed a super complex little army
守卫 士兵 情报局 武器工厂 和通讯仪
with guards, soldiers, intelligence, weapons factories, and communicators
时刻保护你免于……嗯……死亡
to protect you from…well…dying
在这里 我们假设免疫系统有12种不同的工作
For this video, let’s assume theimmune system has 12 different jobs.
例如 杀死敌人 通讯交流 等等
For example, kill enemies, communicate, etc.
免疫系统有21种不同的细胞和2种蛋白质
And it has 21 different cells and 2 protein forces
这些细胞有多达4种不同的工作
These cells have up to 4 different jobs.
我们分配一下 这是它们之间的相互作用
Let’s assign them. Here are the interactions.
现在 我们简单理解一下
Now, let’s make this understandable.
首先 我们把这些工作加上颜色
First of all, let’s add colors to the jobs.
现在我们来图解细胞
Now let’s illustrate the cells.
中央的颜色表示细胞的主要工作
The central color represents the main job of the cell.
而周围的则表示次要职责
While the surrounding ones represent secondary duties.
现在的免疫系统看起来是这样
Now the immune system looks like this.
这是它们之间的相互作用
Now the interactions.
这种复杂性是不是看起来很棒?
Isn’t this complexity just awesome?
这里我们只讨论这些细胞 余下的细胞不做讨论
For this video we will only talk aboutthese cells and ignore the rest.
那么 感染之后会发生什么呢?
So, what happens in the case of an infection?
美好的一天 突然间
It’s a beautiful day, when suddenly,
一颗生锈的钉子割伤了你
a wild rusty nail appears and you cut yourself.
你的皮肤——免疫系统的第一道屏障被打破了
The first barrier of the immune system is breached: your skin.
附近的细菌趁机进入你的伤口
Nearby bacteria seize on the opportunity and enter your wound.
它们开始消耗你身体的资源
They start using up the body’s resources
每20分钟增加一倍
and double their numbers about every 20 minutes.
一开始 它们只是在“雷达”下飞行
At first, they fly under the radar,
但达到一定的细菌数量
but when a certain bacteria population is reached,
它们就会改变自己的行为
they change their behavior and start to damage the body
并通过改变周围环境来破坏身体
by changing the environment around them.
免疫系统必须尽快阻止它们
The immune system has to stop them as fast as possible.
首先 你的保卫细胞——巨噬细胞开始进行干预
First of all, your guard cells, known as macrophages, intervene.
它们体积很大 保卫着身体的每一处边界区域
They are huge cells that guard every border region of the body.
大多数时候它们能独自阻止袭击
Most of the time, they alone can suffocate an attack
因为每个巨噬细胞可以吃掉多达100个入侵者
because they can devour up to 100 intruders each.
它们把入侵者整个吞下 将其困在一个薄膜里
They swallow the intruder whole and trap it inside a membrane.
然后被酶分解 最终被杀死
Then the enemy gets broken down by enzymes and is killed.
最重要的是 他们通过命令血管
On top of that, they cause inflammation
向战场释放水分来引发炎症
by ordering the blood vessels to release water into the battlefield
这样战斗就变得更容易了
so fighting becomes easier.
你会注意到这里形成了一个很轻微的肿胀
You notice this as a very mild swelling.
当这些巨噬细胞战斗了太长时间后
When the macrophages fight for too long,
它们会通过释放信使蛋白质来呼叫重要的后援
they call in heavy backup by releasing messenger proteins
这种蛋白质能够传达位置和紧急状况
that communicate location and urgency.
中性粒细胞离开它们血液中的巡查路线
Neutrophils leave their patrol routes in the blood
然后转移到战场上
and move to the battlefield.
中性粒细胞战斗异常激烈
The neutrophils fight so furiously
以至于杀死了健康的细胞
that they kill healthy cells in the process.
而且 它们会生成屏障
On top of that, they generates barriers
困住并杀死细菌
that trap and kill the bacteria.
的确 它们十分致命
They are, indeed, so deadly
五天之后它们便开始自杀
that they evolved to commit suicide after five days
以避免造成更大的伤害
to prevent them from causing too much damage.
如果这还不足以阻止入侵
If this is not enough to stop the invasion,
免疫系统的首领就会出动
the brain of the immune system kicks in.
树突状细胞活跃起来 它们对士兵的信号作出反应
The dendritic cell gets active, it reacts to the signals of the soldiers
开始从敌人身上采集样本
and starts collecting samples from the enemies.
它们把样本撕成碎片 将其中片段提呈于表层
They rip them into pieces and present the parts on their outer layer.
现在 树突状细胞做了一个至关重要的决定
Now the dendritic cell makes a crucial decision.
是呼吁反病毒力量根除被感染的身体细胞
Should they call for anti-virus forcesthat eradicate infected body cells
还是成为细菌杀手军团?
or an army of bacteria killers?
在这种情形下 当然是选反病毒的力量
In this case, anti-bacteria forces are necessary.
之后它会在大约一天的时间内到达最近的淋巴结
It then travels to the closest lymph node in about a day.
在这里 数十亿的辅助性T细胞及杀手T细胞正在等待被激活
Here, billion of helper and killer T cells are waiting to be activated.
T细胞一诞生便会开始一个艰难而复杂的训练过程
When T cells are born they go trough a difficult and complicated training process
只有四分之一的细胞可以存活下来
and only a quarter survives.
幸存下来的细胞有一个特定的结构
The surviving cells are equipped with a specific set-up.
而树突状细胞正在寻找一个
And the denditric cell is on its way looking for a helper T cell
结构合适的辅助性T细胞
with the set-up that’s just right.
它们所寻找的辅助性T细胞
It’s looking for a helper T cell
可以与树突状细胞膜上
that can bind the parts of the intruders
提呈的入侵者片段结合
which the dendritic cell has presented on its membrane.
当最后它找到一个合适的辅助性T细胞时 就会发生连锁反应
When it finally finds one, a chain reaction takes place.
辅助性T细胞被激活
The helper T cell is activated,
它在短时间内复制数千次
it quickly duplicates thousands of times.
一些会留在淋巴结里 成为记忆T细胞
Some become memory T cells that stay in the lymph node
使你对敌人免疫
and will make you practically immune against this enemy,
另一些则会到战场支援
some travel to the field of battle to help out.
第三组继续到淋巴结的中心
And the third group goes on to travel
去激活一个
to the center of the lymph node
非常强大的武器工厂
to activate a very powerful weapons factory.
如同T细胞 B细胞天生具有特定的结构
Like the T cells, they are born with a specific set-up
当一个B细胞和一个具有相同特定结构的T细胞相遇时
and when a B cell and a T cell with the same set-up meet,
间隔就会打破
hell breaks loose.
B细胞迅速复制
The B cell duplicates rapidly
并开始产生数百万的小型武器
and starts producing millions of little weapons.
它们非常努力地工作
They work so hard
很快 它们就会因疲惫而死
that they will literally die from exhaustion very fast.
在这里 辅助性T细胞扮演着另一个重要的角色
Here helper T cells play another important role,
它们刺激着辛勤工作的工厂 告诉他们
they stimulate the hard working factories and tell them:
“还没死呢 我们还需要你们 继续!”
“Don’t die yet, we still need you, keep going! “
这也可以确保工厂在感染结束后死亡
This also ensures that the factories die if the infection is over
这样身体就不会浪费能量 也不会伤到自己
so the body doesn’t waste energy or hurt itself.
但是B细胞产生了什么呢?
But what is produced by the B cells?
你当然已听过它们——抗体
You’ve heard of them of course, antibodies,
这些小蛋白质被改造成可以与特定入侵者的表面结合
little proteins that are engineered to bindto the surface of the specific intruder.
还有不同种类 工作略微不同的抗体
There are even different kinds of antibodiesthat have slightly different jobs.
辅助性T细胞告诉浆细胞
The helper T cells tell the plasma cells
在这场特殊的入侵中 哪种类型的抗体是迫切需要的
which type is needed the most in this particular invasion.
数以百万计的浆细胞涌入血液 分布全身
Millions of them flood the blood and saturate the body.
与此同时 在感染的地方
Meanwhile, at the site of infection,
情况正变得越来越糟糕
the situation is getting dire.
入侵者数量成倍增加 开始对身体造成伤害
The intruders have multiplied in number and start hurting the body.
守卫和攻击细胞奋力战斗 当然也会在这个过程中死亡
Guard and attack cells fight hard, but also die in the process.
辅助性T细胞命令它们全力以赴
Helper T cells support themby ordering them to be more aggressive
以此支持它们
and to stay alive longer.
可没有帮助他们仍然无法战胜细菌
But without help they can’t overwhelm the bacteria.
但是现在 第二道防线已经到达
But now, the second line of defense arrives.
数以十亿计的抗体涌向战场
Billions of antibodies flood the battlefield
致使许多入侵者丧失战斗能力
and disable lots of the intruders,
让他们失去作用或死亡
rendering them helpless or killing them in the process.
它们还能使细菌昏迷 从而更容易进行攻击
They also stun the bacteria and make them an easy target.
它们的背部用于与杀手细胞相连
Their back is built to connect to killer cells,
这样它们就可以更容易地连接和杀死敌人
so they can connect and kill the enemy more easily.
巨噬细胞尤其擅长吞噬有抗体附着的细菌
Macrophages are especially good at nomming up the bacteria which antibodies have attached to.
现在平衡发生了变化 在团队的努力下 感染被消灭了
Now the balance shifts, in a team effort, the infection is wiped out.
在此时 数以百万计的体细胞已经死亡
At this point, millions of body cells have already died,
没什么大不了的 损失很快就会得到补充
no big deal, the losses are quickly replenished.
大多数免疫细胞现在都是无用的 没有持续的信号
Most immune cells are now useless and without the constant signals they commit suicide,
它们便会自杀 这样就不会浪费任何资源
so as not to waste any resources.
但是有些留下来了——记忆细胞
But some stay behind: the memory cells.
如果在将来再次遇到这个敌人
If this enemy is encountered ever again in the future,
它们会准备好 甚至在你察觉之前就把它们杀掉
they will be ready for it and probably kill it before you even notice.
以上便是对免疫系统部分工作的一个非常简单的解释
This was a very, very simplified explanation of parts of the immune system at work.
你能想象这个系统有多复杂吗? 即使解说到这种程度
Can you imagine how complex this system is? Even at this level,
我们依然忽略了那么多的参与者和所有的化学反应
when we ignore so many players and all the chemistry.
生命非常复杂 但是如果花时间去理解它
Life is awfully complicated, but if we take the time to understand it,
我们就会遇到无尽的奇迹和美好
we’ll encounter endless wonders and great beauty.

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视频概述

通过本视频,你可以简单了解人体的免疫系统是如何抵抗细菌感染的。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Ephemera

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ZY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zQGOcOUBi6s

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