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自由意志的错觉

The Illusion of Free Will

Here is an apple and here’s a banana.
这儿有个苹果 还有香蕉
Pick one.
请选一个
Whichever one you picked, it was your decision, completely.
无论你选了什么 那都完全是你的决定
This is what we call free will.
我们称之为自由意志
It’s the idea that we are the sole authors of our destiny.
它意味着我们是自己命运的唯一创造者
That in the face of multiple choices,
在面临多重选择时
whatever decision we make is completely down to us.
我们作出什么决定完全取决于我们自己
We have the power of free choice.
我们有自由选择的权力
But what if I told you that free will is a myth?
但如果我告诉你自由意志是虚构的呢?
That we are all just a group of atoms
如果说 我们都只是一组原子
who will react to a particular stimulus in a way that can be predetermined?
对特定刺激的反应是可以预先确定的呢
If you picked a banana at the beginning of the video and we go back in time,
如果你在视频开始时选择了香蕉 我们回到开头
if free will truly exists,
假设自由意志真的存在
you should be able to change your mind and pick the apple instead.
那么你应该可以改变主意选择苹果
But what if I told you
但要是我告诉你
that if we go back in time under the exact same circumstances,
如果我们回到过去 在同样的情况下
you’ll pick the banana again?
你还是会选择香蕉呢?
What if I told you
要是我说
that I can actually tell which of these two options you’re going to pick
你在这两个选择中作出实际决定的300毫秒前
300 milliseconds before you actually pick it with 100% accuracy?
我就能百分之百准确地说出你的选择呢?
In the 1980s, Benjamin Libet, a physiologist,
上世纪80年代 名叫本杰明·利伯特的生理学家
used an EEG, an electroencephalogram,
通过脑电图(EEG)
to show that you can read and tell that somebody is about to move,
展示了在人们有意识地作出实际行动的300毫秒前
300 milliseconds before they decide in their conscious mind to actually move.
就能从脑电图看出他即将行动
This means that before we decide that we want to move our bodies,
这意味着 在我们决定要移动身体前
it’s already been decided for us in our subconscious,
这个行为就已经在我们的潜意识里决定好了
and we only think that we made the decision ourselves after it’s already been made.
而我们只会认为那是我们自己作出的决定
In a similar study,
在一个类似的研究中
participants were asked to press one of two buttons
测试者被要求按下两个按钮中的一个
while looking at a clock with a random sequence of letters on a screen.
同时看着屏幕上随机排列着数字的时钟
With the use of fMRI,
借助fMRI
functional magnetic resonance imaging,
功能磁共振成像技术
they discovered that two of the participants’ brain regions showed
他们发现 在两名测试者有意识地作出决定的7到10秒前
what button they would press seven to ten seconds before they consciously made that decision.
他们大脑的两个区域会显示出他们会按下哪个按钮
The results of this research only proves one thing.
这个研究的结果只证实了一件事
A few seconds before you pick the banana or the apple,
在你选择香蕉或苹果的前几秒
your brain makes that decision for you.
你的大脑已经为你作出了决定
It is after this decision has been made deep in your subconscious
在你的潜意识作出这个决定之后
that your brain becomes aware of it
你的大脑才会意识到它
and we become convinced that we are in the process of making that decision.
而且我们会确信自己正处于作出决定的过程中
Because the brain is like the heart,
因为大脑就像心脏一样
we don’t tell it what to do, it just does.
无需我们下指令 它自会运转
So in reality,
所以 在现实中
consciously making a decision, the experience we call “free will”,
通过意志作出决定 这种我们称之为“自由意志”的体验
is actually an illusion.
实际上是一种幻觉
It’s simply a visualization of events that the brain has already set in motion.
它只是大脑中已经发生的事件的显现
It tells you what the brain has decided to do.
让你知道大脑决定了要做什么
For as long as society has existed,
自社会形成时
we’ve understood the role of surrounding influences on our decision-making.
我们就明白环境因素对我们决策的作用
With idioms like “It takes a village to raise a child”
正如习语所说“一方水土养一方人”
and “You are the product of your environment,”
“人是其所处环境的产物”
we understand that to a great extent our upbringing,
我们明白了在很大程度上我们的教育
our parents, the society we grew up in,
父母 我们成长其中的社会
all of these influence our decision making process.
所有这些都会影响我们的决策过程
If someone is born religious,
要是有人生于宗教环境
it’s not crazy to think that they’ll be religious throughout their lives.
那不难想象他们会一生都笃信宗教
Taking it a step further, things like genetics also play a huge role in our choices.
更进一步说 基因等因素在我们的选择中也扮演着重要的角色
Charles Darwin and the theory of evolution brought forward the idea that,
查尔斯·达尔文在其进化论中提出一个观点
if species do indeed evolve,
如果物种确实存在进化这一过程
then things like intelligence must be hereditary.
那么像智力这样的东西一定是遗传的
Intelligence is a trait that helps us make better decisions.
智力能帮助我们作出更好的决策
And while you can study hard to know more than the average person,
虽然你可以努力学习 比一般人了解更多知识
for the most part, how intelligent you are is entirely not up to you.
但大多数情况下 你有多聪明完全不取决于你自己
So, some people cannot make certain intelligent choices.
所以 有些人无法作出某些明智的选择
Not because they don’t want to, but because their genes are limited.
并不是他们不想 而是基因限制了他们
In that instance,
在那样的情况下
would you say the person has the freedom to make those intelligent choices?
你还会说这个人有作出明智选择的自由吗
Because in reality, they do not.
实际上 他们并没有这个自由
Their fates are predetermined by their genes.
他们的命运早已被自己的基因决定了
How can we all truly have the freedom to decide our fate
如果一开始卡牌就不是平等发放的
when we’re not dealt equal cards from the start?
我们怎么能真正拥有决定命运的自由呢?
And it’s not just the cards we’re dealt,
而这不仅是我们被发到的牌
it’s also the ability to play those cards.
这还在于我们玩牌的能力
Some are simply born better bluffers than others.
有些人天生就是老千
When you look at the concept of free will critically,
当你辩证地看待自由意志这个概念时
the whole idea seems to crumble pretty quickly.
关于它的所有观念仿佛瞬间崩塌
In fact, researchers have come to the conclusion
事实上 已有研究人员得出结论
that believing in free will is like believing in religion,
相信自由意志无异于相信宗教
neither of them agree with the laws of physics.
它们都不承认物理规律
Think about it, if free will truly exists
想想看 如果自由意志真的存在
and if choice is not just a chemical process,
且抉择不仅仅是一个化学过程
then why can things like alcohol and antipsychotics
那为什么像酒精和抗精神病药这样的东西
completely change a person’s behavior?
可以完全改变一个人的行为?
Even worse,
更糟的是
we’ve seen brain tumors turn people from pediatricians to pedophiles.
有过脑肿瘤使一名儿科医生变成恋童癖的案例
Domenico Mattiello was once a respected pediatrician.
多梅尼科·马蒂略曾经是一位受人尊敬的儿科医生
For 30 years, he was loved by his patients and adored by their parents and everyone in the society.
30年来 他深受患者的喜爱及患者父母及社会的尊重
In a shocking turn of events, however, in 2012,
2012年 一个令人震惊的转变出现了
he began facing trial after
他被指控侵犯女童患者
being accused of making pedophilic advances towards his female patients.
并面临审判
Neuroscientific research showed that
神经科学研究显示
Mattielo had a 4-inch tumor growing at the base of his brain
马蒂略大脑底部长了一个4英寸的肿瘤
that changed his behavior.
改变了他的行为
In 2002, a similar thing happened
2002年 类似的事情发生在
to an American school teacher
一名美国老师身上
He suddenly started having pedophilic urges towards his step-daughter and was arrested.
他突然开始对自己继女有强烈的恋童欲望 并因此被逮捕
Then it was discovered that he had an egg-sized tumor growing in the part of his brain
后来发现一个鸡蛋大小的肿瘤长在
that was supposed to be responsible for decision-making.
他大脑负责决策的那部分
After the tumor got removed,
在肿瘤切除后
the man’s pedophilic urges stopped completely,
该男子的恋童欲望突然彻底消失
and he was able to return to his family.
他也得以回归家庭
If free will exists,
如果自由意志真的存在
why can removing a tumor change a person’s choice?
为什么去除肿瘤会改变人的选择呢
Is it then possible that
那么是否存在这样的可能
by altering brain chemistry or physical composition,
通过改变大脑的化学或物理成分
we can completely change a person’s beliefs,
我们可以完全改变一个人的信仰
ideologies, and choices
意识形态和选择
without the person being able to do anything about it?
而这个人对此无能为力
In more recent years,
近年来
Lawyers have started using MRI scans to help plead the case of their clients.
律师开始用核共振成像扫描来为他们的委托人辩护
With neuroscientific research proving
随着神经科学研究不断证明
that brain tumors and malfunction caused them to commit their crimes,
脑肿瘤及脑机能失常能造成人们犯罪
it’s difficult to argue against it.
图像很难被反驳
Because if they did not have the freedom to choose something else,
因为如果他们确实没有选择的自由
then why would you give them the heaviest punishment
那为何还要因
for actions they could do nothing about?
自己无法左右的事被施以重罚呢
Brian Dugan was facing execution in the state of Illinois
在伊利诺斯州 布莱恩·杜根承认
after he pleaded guilty to murdering a 10 year old girl.
谋杀一名十岁女孩后被判死刑
However, MRI scans revealed that he had mental malfunctions
然而 核共振成像扫描显示 他患有精神障碍
that affected his decision-making process.
影响了他的决策过程
His lawyers pleaded with the court to spare him the capital punishment
他的律师请求法庭免除他的死刑
because in reality,
因为就现实而言
can we really say it was his fault?
我们真的能说是他的错吗
If malfunctions in his brain caused him to do what he did,
如果大脑机能失常导致他犯罪
then he didn’t have the free will to make a better decision.
那他不会有作出更好决策的自由意志
While he was on death row,
被关押在死囚牢房时
his case continued to get argued and
他的案子一直被争论不休
as a result,the state of Illinois abolished capital punishment.
最后 伊利诺伊州废除了死刑
Some scientists who still want to cling on to the idea of free will argue that,
一些仍然坚持自由意志的科学家认为
while it’s true that the subconscious makes decisions for the conscious
即使真的是潜意识为意识作出抉择
we still have the free will to shape the unconscious world.
我们仍拥有塑造无意识世界的自由意志
And on first glance, this makes a lot of sense.
乍一看 貌似很有道理
You can read a book and an idea gets into your subconscious.
你读书 然后想法 知识进入你的潜意识
Then in the face of a choice,
然后当你面临抉择时
the idea you’ve read floats back out of your subconscious,
你曾读到过的想法浮现于你的潜意识里
forming your conscious decision.
形成你有意识的决定
However, there’s a flaw in that idea.
然而 这个观点有一点瑕疵
It’s much like a paradox,
它更像一条悖论
because where then does the desire to change your subconscious by reading a book come from?
因为通过读书来改变你潜意识的欲望是从何而来的?
Desire,
是欲望
much like choice, comes from the subconscious.
或者说选择 它来源于潜意识
So a conscious effort to shape your subconscious
所以试图去塑造你的潜意识的意识
is actually a subconscious effort to change your subconscious.
实际上是去塑造潜意识的潜意识
The biggest obstacle the idea of free will (or lack thereof) faces is morality.
自由意志存在与否这个问题面临的最大障碍是道德
If morality is based on free will and
如果道德是基于自由意志的
free will doesn’t exist,
而自由意志并不存在
then what happens to morality?
那么道德该何去何从?
What happens to every other man-made institution
人们围绕自由意志制定的
that has been designed around the idea of free will?
所有的制度会如何?
When faced with questions like these,
一面临这样的问题
many people immediately fall into a trap of fatalism.
许多人就陷入了宿命论的陷阱
Fatalism is the idea that we are completely powerless in the universe’s game.
宿命论认为 人们在宇宙的游戏里完全无能为力
People who think like this believe
这样想的人认为
that since we aren’t completely in charge of our destiny,
既然我们无力操控自己的命运
we are completely at its mercy,
一切都是命中注定
it’s random and not up to us.
命运是随机的它不取决于我们
Then they become a lot less happy
然后他们开始变得不那么快乐
and start slacking in their relationships.
甚至在社会关系里表现的堕落
They stop trying to be good people or uphold any moral standards,
他们不再试图做个好人或遵守任何道德准则
and overall they start to have a lower sense of fulfillment in life.
总体而言 生活中他们会开始有较少的满足感
But we don’t have to fall into that trap.
但我们没必要陷入这样的陷阱
The scientists who champion the idea of the absence of free will
主张自由意志不存在的科学家
would rather explain it philosophically as “determinism” rather than fatalism.
宁愿将它解释为哲学上“决定论” 而非宿命论
Determinism is the idea that all events are predetermined by existing causes.
决定论是指 所有事件都是有原因的
That everything that will happen can be explained through the clockwork laws of cause and effect.
将要发生的一切都可以通过因果规律来解释
It doesn’t mean that we are completely powerless and simply at the mercy of what’s to come.
这并不意味着我们完全无能为力 任由事情发生
It simply gives us a different way to look at everything that happens around us.
它只是给了我们一种看待周围一切事物的不同方式
According to the government of the United Kingdom,
据英国政府称
more than half of the people in prison have a brain injury.
半数以上的囚犯脑部有伤
Doesn’t that tell a scary story?
这不是一个恐怖故事吗?
Understanding the true concept of free will
理解自由意志的概念
will help us realize that those people are no different from us.
有助于我们明白 囚犯和我们并无差别
They’re not worse humans
他们并不比我们更坏
and many times,they’re just there
很多时候 他们坐牢
because of a combination of bad events that were totally out of their control.
只是因为一系列完全不受他们控制的坏事
In the same way, with deterministic thinking,
同样的 以决定论的想法
we would also show more humility when talking about our achievements
在谈论我们的成就时 我们也会表现出更多的谦逊
because now we understand that we are simply a product of our past experiences.
因为现在我们明白 我们只不过是过去经验的产物
It helps us to have empathy for people who are not in a similar position as we are,
这能帮助我们同那些与我们处境不同的人产生共情
and it helps us to reduce our sense of entitlement.
这有助于我们减少我们的优越感
If the people in higher positions in society
如果身处社会高位的人
do not attribute all of their success to their personal efforts alone,
不把自己的成功全归因于个人的努力
they are more likely to do more for others.
他们更可能为更多人做更多事
They are more likely to help and give back to others,
他们更有可能帮助他人 回馈社会
hoping they might be able to recreate the factors that helped them succeed.
希望能重新创造让他们成功的因素
If you’re getting scared or confused right now, I totally get it.
如果你现在感到害怕或迷惑 我完全理解
Even the scientists who have been studying this for decades have found it very disturbing.
即使是研究了几十年的科学家也觉得这一点非常令人不安
It’s a difficult thing to wrap your head around
这是一件难以理解的事
because it goes against everything society is built around.
因为它违背了社会建立的一切基础
Free will is the basis of our society.
自由意志是我们人类社会的基础
It’s what determines who is right and who is wrong,
它规范了谁对谁错
who gets the praise and who deserves to be punished.
谁得到奖励 谁得到惩罚
It tells us that a man who killed another man deserves to spend the rest of his life in prison,
它告诉人们谁杀了人 谁余生就该在牢狱里度过
and that someone who works hard deserves to live a good life.
谁努力工作谁就应当拥有美好生活
And that’s the fear of spreading the absence of free will message.
而传播自由意志不存在的恐怖在于下面所说的
Many scientists believe that if enough people are aware of this idea,
许多科学家认为 如果有足够多的人意识到这一点
it could literally end society as we know it.
那真的会终结我们熟知的社会
Because why would someone risk his life to save another person if after he’s done it
毕竟有谁会愿意在舍身救了一人后
people will only say
那人仅仅说一句
“well, he didn’t decide himself to do it, so he doesn’t deserve any praise.”
“他不是自己决定做这件事的 所以他不值得任何赞美 ”
The reality is praise and punishment are two huge factors that help influence our decisions.
现实就是 奖惩是影响我们决策的两大因素
So if we remove them from our society, we pave the way for fewer good deeds and much worse ones.
所以如果我们将奖惩从社会剔除 那将迎来更多恶行 更少的善举
It’s a strange dilemma to be in.
这是令人难受的两难境地
Because although the truth is that we do not have free will,
因为尽管真相是 我们没有自由意志
believing that we do is actually a lot better for us.
但相信我们所做的实际上是为我们自己好
This is the concept of illusionism.
这就是迷妄论的概念
That although free will is an illusion,
尽管自由意志是一种幻觉
it’s one that we must keep up with.
但我们也必须相信它
Because faced with the choice between truth and good,
因为面对真理与利益的抉择时
it benefits the most of us to always choose good.
选择后者对我们大多数人总是有利的
So next time you see a homeless person down the street,
所以下次你在街边看到一个流浪汉
don’t just roll your eyes and judge the person.
别只是翻着白眼评判这个人
Understand that there are a multitude of factors,
要理解是很多他们无法控制的因素
many of which they might not have been able to control that have caused them to be where they are.
致使他们流落街头
Be humble about what you have and what you’ve achieved,
谦虚地对待你所拥有的和你所取得的成就
because just a tiny less intelligence in your DNA
因为你DNA中有一点点智慧
and you might not have made that one decision that changed your life.
不然你可能不会作出改变生活的决定
Know that you do not have free will,
要明白你其实没有自由意志
at least how you imagine it,
至少不如你想象的那样
and you’re just lucky your mixture of atoms makes the right decisions.
你该庆幸你的原子混合体作出了正确的决定
But immediately forget that,
但是请马上忘记这些
forget everything I said for the past 10 minutes
忘记我在过去10分钟里说的一切
and act like every decision is yours completely.
表现得就像每个决定都完全是你作出的
Because only then will you be able to make the decisions that can truly change a life.
因为只有那样 你才能作出真正改变生活的决定
Free will is an interesting topic.
自由意志是个有趣的话题
It’s almost like a mix question everything what you do in your life.
它几乎是你生活中所有问题的混合体
We all have things we like doing.
我们都有自己喜欢做的事
But do we really like doing those things?
但我们真的喜欢做这些吗?
Or it’s just your brain convincing you
又或者是大脑让你这么觉得的
it’s kind of like your brain is a computer
就像你的大脑是台电脑
and it’s fitting algorithms to make you do what it wants you to do
输出它想让你做的
regardless,much like reality itself
无论如何 这都更像现实
free will is a illusion that we’ve can not believe with
自由意志是我们不能详述的假象
but it doesn’t mean we’re helpless
但这不意味着我们没有希望
with BRILLIANT,you can learn about something
用BRILLIANT 你可以学习
about some of the most pressing an interesting topic since then
一些你迫切需要 有趣的课程
You’ve heard me talk about BRILLIANTmany times over the years
你已经听我谈到过很多次BRILLIANT了
They just keep getting better and better
它在变得越来越好
Speaking of algorithms
说到算法
BRILLIANT has interactive course on the fundamentals
BRILLIANT关于基础知识的互动课程
Recently brings up the interactivity on the platform to a brand new level
最近平台上又推出了新等级的课程
It teaches you how the algorithms work
它会告诉你算法是怎么运行的
and gives you blocks of code to move around to get things working together as opposed to
还会交给你可以让程序正常运行的一堆代码
we all learn differently
每个人的学习习惯都不一样
But I think we can all agree
但是我们都同意
that the best way to truly learn and retain something is by doing it.
学习并记住某个技能的最好办法就是运用它
With BRILLIANT interactive courses.
在BRILLIANT互动课程上
You can learn a new skill or topic in as little as 10 minutes
10分钟你就可以学习一个新技巧或一个主题
BRILLIANT has courses enough:
BRILLIANT丰富的课程
science and computer science for learners of every skill level
为每一等级的学习者提供科学和计算机科学课
begineer or expert
从新手到专家
If you are interested and want to become stmarter person of all,
如果你感兴趣并想成为一个更聪明的人
visit just start learning for free
访问brilliant.org/Aperture 网站 开始免费学习吧
You’ll also get 20% off a premium subscription,
另外你还可以享受20%的订阅费折扣
which will unlock every single course BRILLIANT has offered
可以用于BRILLIANT提供的每一门课
As always, you’ll be supporting yourself and my channel at the same time
像以前一样 你可以在支持我的频道的同时得到自我提升

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视频概述

我们以为我们自由决定的意志实际上是一种错觉。但我们不应该放弃努力,任由命运摆布。而是应该对和我们处境不同的人多一份理解,对自己的人生多一份从容。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

nano

审核员

审核员VS

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2_BTVN68-ZA

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