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景深的错觉 - 透视 细节 重叠形式

The Illusion of Depth - Perspective, Details and Overlapping Forms

Last time we learned how to use color to create the illusion of depth.
上次我们讲解了如何利用颜色来营造景深的错觉
Now let’s explore some concepts of shape.
这一节课我们来聊聊关于形状的一些概念
《Proko画室》 透视 细节 形状重叠
The most familiar way of depth for most of us is perspective.
对大多数人而言 最常用的制造景深的方法是透视
You have converging diagonal lines, foreshortening of forms,
而透视可以通过汇聚对角线 物体的透视压缩
overlapping shapes, and scale.
相互重叠的形状和比例来呈现
With all of these principles of perspective
在诸多透视法则中
we are using shape to create the illusion of depth.
我们可以通过形状来营造景深感
Let’s start with Scale
让我们从比例开始吧
First, the most basic rule of perspective
首先 最基本的透视原理就是
is that as objects get further from the viewer, they will appear smaller.
近大远小
So, to show depth it’s a good idea to have objects of recognizable size
所以 分别赋予前景和背景物体以便于区分的不同大小
in both the foreground and background.
是一种用于营造景深感的好办法
We know that these two figures should be roughly the same size,
图中箭头指着的俩人应该在大小上差不多
so this smaller one seems further away.
所以看起来更小的那个应该距离我们观察者更远
Everybody knows that my biceps are enormously large.
许多人都知道我的二头肌很巨大
A smaller bicep in the same scene will appear further back.
在同一画面中 小一些的大臂就显得更加远
The objects don’t have to be the same,
画面中的物体不必完全一样
just any objects that the viewer recognizes and knows its approximate scale.
只需要能让看客识别并知晓它们大致比例
The house on this hill gives us something to go off of to imagine the size of the hill.
这个土丘上的房子让我们能估量出这个土丘的大小
When we make the house smaller,
如果我们把房子缩小了
now the hill looks like a mountain, and much further away.
那这个土丘就变成山峰了 并且距离我们更远
Detail.
细节
Since distant object are smaller, there’s less space to put details.
因为远处的物体会显得更小 没多少空间可以画细节
So, don’t try to cram as much details as possible just for the sake of having detail.
所以 不要为了细节而细节 一股脑儿的往上加细节
In fact, removing information could be better.
实际上 适当移除一些信息可能会更好
Putting more detail in the foreground elements
就是说 为了符合景深规律
and less detail in the background elements adds to the effect of depth.
在前景元素上加入更多细节 而在背景元素中则更少
And consider simplifying distant shapes.
同时要考虑简化远处物体的形状
Instead of attempting to include every subtle nuance of the object’s contours,
要着眼于形状的规律以及这个形状在画面中的角色
focus on the rhythm of the shape and its role in the picture.
而不是极力去尝试将所有轮廓细节都囊括起来
Converging lines, vanishing points
汇聚线 消失点
Everybody knows you can’t talk about perspective without mentioning vanishing points.
每个人都知道我们不能脱离了消失点而空谈透视
Basically, as objects recede into space they get smaller and smaller
基本的一点是 当物体纵深排列时 它们会逐渐变小
and by the time they reach the horizon
当它们触及地平线的时候
they are so far away they’ve shrunk to mere dots.
因为距离很远 所以它们看起来就变成了一个点
This is best seen on boxy objects like walls and furniture and stuff..
通过方形物体可以很好地看出这一点 比如墙体和家具什么的
The top and bottom of the walls are parallel, but when perspective is applied,
墙壁的顶面和地面是一组平行面 但如果运用了透视
all the lines in the scene that are parallel, will point to this one vanishing point.
画面中所有本该平行的线都会指向消失点
This is called one-points perspective.
这叫一点透视
One point perspective brings the viewer into the scene
一点透视将观察者视线引入画面
to look at whatever action is happening near the vanishing point..
看向消失点附近正在发生的内容
With two point perspective,
对于两点透视
now you have one side of the box going toward one point, and
盒子的一面汇聚于一点
the other side towards another point.
另一面则汇聚于另一点
Instead of bringing the viewer into the scene like we did with one-point perspective,
区别于一点透视将观察者视线引向消失点的效果
instead we get an effect of the closest object popping out towards the viewer.
两点透视里 最接近观察者的物体有弹出画面的效果
We can choose to play up or play down this effect with the degree of the angles.
我们可以通过改变角度来增强或减弱这种效果
For example with this car,
拿这辆车举例
the middle line at the headlight closest to us really jumps forward.
靠近观察者的前车灯仿佛要从画面里面跳出来
It’s very difficult not to look there.
真的很难不去看着它
The headlight screams’ look at me, I’m in your face.
仿佛这个车灯在吼“看着我!小心我糊你一脸!”
So, you would decide if that’s what you want.
你可以考虑这是不是你要的效果
Is it about the headlight or the whole car?
是希望突出车灯 还是要表现车的整体?
You can play down this effect by flattening the perspective a bit.
可以通过降低透视感来消除被糊一脸的感觉
Very different effect
这种非常不同的效果
and something that many don’t even consider as they start plotting their perspective.
很多人刚开始画透视的时候都不会注意到
Be careful with this
对于这一点要非常小心
because all these decisions could have an important role
因为在作画时的不同决定会直接影响
in how the viewer reads your picture.
看客会怎么解读你的画
Lets talk about foreshortening.
谈谈透视压缩吧
Now, foreshortening and converging lines coming to a vanishing point
透视压缩和指向消失点的线
are basically the same thing..
实际上是同一个概念
There things receding into space and getting smaller.
还是那句老话:近大远小
Though with organic forms
对于有机体(比如人体)
you rarely have obvious diagonal lines directing the viewer to a point.
你很难发现明显的对角线 将观察者指向一个点
Foreshortened, organic objects,
有透视压缩的有机体
like a leg, appear to be going back
比如腿 给人的感觉是后退
because the viewer is familiar with its extended leg
因为观察者对伸直的腿更熟悉
and when it’s squished down to half the expected size,
所以 当腿被压缩到比印象中的尺寸小了一半时
the viewer’s brain automatically thinks,
观察者自然会想到
“well, it must be going away from me..
“嗯 它肯定离我们更远了
it must be hidden from sight, behind itself”
它肯定被挡住了”
So in this case it looks like it’s receding
所以 在这种情况下 它看起来是纵深远离
because it’s length is shorter than it should be.
因为其长度比它原来的长度短了
So, here’s a common mistake that I see
有一个错误常常在画人像时
regarding foreshortening of a human figure.
因忽略透视压缩而出现
I see it all the time and I’m a victim myself..
这个错误非常常见 我自己也会犯这个错
When in a live drawing class, and we’re drawing a foreshortened leg.
在写生课上 画一条经过透视压缩的腿的时候
Except we don’t draw it foreshortened.
我们画的不是透视压缩的腿
We draw it as if it was fully extended.
而是画成完全伸直的样子
This is really common, because our brain just doesn’t want to draw it foreshortened.
这个很常见 因为我们的大脑不希望按透视法来画它
We’re so used to seeing a leg in its full length,
我们对于全尺寸的腿非常熟悉
that we just want to draw what we know.
以至于我们都只想画我们熟知的
It’s an illusion.
这是大脑给我们的错觉
But, we’re not the viewers, we’re the artists
但是我们不是观众 我们是艺术家
and we should be in control of these effects
我们应该学会控制这种影响
and we should be thinking of how we can use them to our advantage.
要设法将透视等知识方法变成我们的优势
Be in control of it instead of fighting it.
要学会掌握它 而不是抵触它
Another mistake is we successfully measures the length,
另一个常见错误就是 当我们成功量取了长度之后
but then we just compress the width to make it resemble more of a leg shape..
却对宽度也做了压缩 来让它更像一条腿
Then you have a tiny leg. Seems silly,
然后就画成了一条瘦小的腿 很滑稽
but it happens all the time. Stupid brain!
但其实经常出现 愚蠢的大脑!
At first, just think of it as an abstract shape.
首先呢 单纯的想象一下所画主体的轮廓
It’s not a leg, its just a shape.
这不是一条腿 只是一个的形状
Removing the identity of what you’re drawing from your mind
从脑海中移除所有你所画物体的特征
should help you stay analytical
可以帮你保持分析能力
Overlapping lines and forms
重叠覆盖的线和结构
With an organic form like a leg,
对于有机体 比如腿
you also have “overlapping” forms to help show depth.
相互重叠的结构也可用于展现景深
The leg is made up of many smaller volumes,
腿由多个小部分组成
the muscles and bones, and as these recede,
肌肉和骨头 按照空间排布
some will be in front of others.
某些部分会在另一些部分的前面
You can show this by overlapping the lines.
你可以通过重叠线来展现
The femur is in front of the vastus medialis,
比如 大腿骨在股内侧肌的前面
vastus medialis is in front of the adductor group,
股内侧肌在内收肌的前面
which is in front of the pelvis..
而内收肌又在骨盆前面
These overlaps tell the viewers eye
这些相互重叠告诉观众
that the forms are receding backward, one after the other..
这些结构是按纵深排布的
So, we started with a simple abstract shape for the leg,
所以 我们可以从一个简单的腿部外形轮廓开始
but that’s flat.
但 这仅仅是一个平面
After you’re done with the simple shape,
在你画完这个简单的外形之后
go back and establish the overlapping forms.
加上所有相互重叠的部分
If you like this video, please share with your friends.
如果喜欢本视频 请分享给你的朋友们
Click this button here to subscribe the newsletter and get updates on new videos.
点击订阅按钮订阅消息并获得视频更新消息
And one last promo, you want to supply proko.com, the best way to dong so
还有最后一个广告 你想支持proko.com 最好的方式
is by getting the Protrait Fundamentals DVD.
是购买《肖像画基础》DVD
The defference between the DVD and the free videos on line
DVD和在线免费视频之间的区别在于
is that the DVD has two additional real time demonstrations.
DVD有两个额外的实时演示
at about one and a half hours each.
每次大约一个半小时
And it’s available to download so you don’t need Internet access to watch the lessons
它是可以下载的 所以你不需要上网来观看课程
Thank you. Bye Bye.
谢谢 再见

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视频概述

可通过透视法远近细节不同,重叠结构来创造景深的绘画效果。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

甪里

审核员

审核员FW

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LIuNehjFmUU

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