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深度错觉-对比度,空间透视和形体 – 译学馆
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深度错觉-对比度,空间透视和形体

The Illusion of Depth - Contrast, Aerial Perspective and Form

How do we create the illusion of depth?
如何营造深度错觉?
How do we fake three-dimensionality?
如何创造三维立体感?
In the next few videos I’ll try to explain
在接下来的几个视频里 我会解释
all the ways that I know of.
我所知道的一切方法
Proko画室 深度错觉
对比度 空间透视 形体
Welcome to Proko. My name is Stan Prokopenko.
欢迎来到Proko画室 我是主讲Stan Prokopenko
Now this episode is not going to be about
这一集并不会讲解
how our eyes are binocular
当我们的眼睛同时观测时
and they see two slightly different versions of the same picture.
如何看到同一图片的两个稍微不同版本
and how our brain interprets those as a 3D image,
然后大脑如何将其转化为三维影像
none of that scientific optical jargon
不会讲解关于眼睛如何工作的
about how our eyes work.
相关科学的光学术语
I’m talking about how to create depth on a flat surface,
我要讲的是如何在平面上创造深度错觉
like canvas, paper, a wall or a computer monitor.
例如画布 纸 墙或者电脑屏幕上
I’m talking about actionable things that you can do now
我会讲些实用可行的技巧
to improve your drawings.
来提高你的绘画水平
We, 2-dimensional artists, have only the x and y axis to work with,
我们二维艺术家只在X轴和Y轴上操作
but we need to learn how to draw 3d objects and 3d environments
但我们需要学习绘制三维物体和三维环境
to effectively portray our world.
来更形象地描绘我们的世界
To do this, we need to be able to imply the z axis,
为了做到这一点 我们需要在画面中暗示出z轴
that’s the one that comes towards you
它会让画面靠近你
or away from you.
或远离你
The first and one of the most important concepts to know about to create depth is
营造景深所要了解的第一个也是最重要的概念是
contrast
对比
This can include contrast of value, contrast of hues,
它包括明暗对比 色调对比
and contrast of chroma,
和色度对比
but the most effective is contrast of value.
但其中最有效的是明暗对比
Areas with a lot of contrast will come forward;
对比度高的区域会向前凸显
areas with little contrast will recede.
对比度低的区域会后移
For example, in this image the foreground has a lot of contrast, which is fine,
例如在这幅图像中 前景的对比度强 这很好
but the background also has a lot of contrast,
但是 远景的对比度同样很强
meaning the range from the lightest light
这意味着 从最亮的亮度
to the darkest dark is wide.
到最暗的暗度的范围过大
It includes almost the entire value scale.
几乎包括了所有明暗范围
If we want to push the background back
如果我们要让远景后移
and make the foreground elements pop out,
让前景中的元素突显出来
we can lower the contrast in the background elements.
我们可以降低远景元素的对比度
I’m doing this digitally with a photograph,
为了解释这个概念
just to illustrate the concept,
我对图片进行了数码处理
but I would do the same thing
不过 在我画人像或风景画时
if I was drawing a figure or painting a landscape.
也会这么做
We make these kinds of decisions to improve the visual impact of our pictures.
这样做 有助于提升画作的视觉冲击效果
Quite often, when drawing a figure or portrait ,
通常 在画一幅人像或肖像时
I will push an area closer to the value of the background,
我会让一片区域的对比度接近背景值
to make it recede.
以使这部分后移
For example with this collar, as it wraps back around the head,
比如 图中盖在后脑勺上的衣领
I want to push it back by lowering the contrast.
我想通过降低对比度 呈现出它在后面的感觉
Here, I made the values almost identical
此处 我让它们的明度几乎一样
and show only a thin line to suggest an edge.
只用一条细线描绘衣领的边缘
Here, I darkened it a little to match the value of the hat.
这儿 我把它描黑一点 使它和帽子的明暗相匹配
I was looking for ways
在衣领向后移的过程中
to make the collar less visible as it recedes,
我寻求了一些弱化色彩的方式
instead of outlining the shape and giving it its own separate value.
而不是勾勒轮廓 赋予不同的对比度
A common mistake is
一个常见错误是
when we try to make everything important in the picture.
当我们试图让画作的所有元素都成为重点时
We make everything pop forward
我们就会让所有元素向前突显出来
and when everything pops forward,
但当所有元素都突显出来时
nothing pops forward.
反而无法突出任何事物
The image becomes too busy and loses a focal point.
这幅图就会变得杂乱无章 没有重点
I tried doing the same thing at the top of the hat
我试着对帽子顶端做同样的调整
by making the value lighter, closer to the background.
让亮度值加大 接近背景色
By doing this around the perimeters of the portrait,
通过对肖像周围做出同样的处理
it draws the eye to the center of the face,
眼睛就成了脸部的中心
where there is a lot of contrast.
因为眼睛周围有许多对比
This not only creates depth, but also a sense of atmosphere.
这样做不仅营造了立体感 也营造出了氛围感
And it unites the person with the rest of the picture.
同时 将人物与画作其余部分结合起来
It makes it feel like the object or the person belongs in this environment
让人感觉物体或人属于整个环境
and not just a cut out shape on a page.
而不仅仅是纸张中描绘出来的突兀的形态
Unless, that’s what you want.
除非 你是刻意追求这样的效果
You don’t have to add depth to your artwork,
否则不需要在画作增加深度
but this lesson is not about ···not ···not
但本节课无关如何“不增加深度”
Let’s move on.
所以我们继续吧
You’ll hear landscape painters talk a lot about atmospheric perspective,
你经常会听到风景画的画家谈论大气透视
or also known as, aerial perspective.
或者叫 空气透视
This is the effect of the atmosphere on distant objects.
这是大气对远处物体的影响
When things are really far away from us,
当事物和我们的距离很远
like miles away,
比如 数英里远
this effect becomes very obvious.
影响就十分显著
Mountains that are covered with green shrubbery or brown dirt,
覆盖着绿色灌木或棕色泥土的山体
appear bluer.
看起来会更偏蓝
That’s because we’re looking through
这是因为我们的视线
a layer of particles and air molecules.
穿过了一层混合着微粒和空气的大气
This atmosphere layer scatters light from the sky
这层大气将来自天空的光线散射出去
and makes distant objects blue during the day.
让远处物体在白天时呈蓝色
At sunrise or sunset,
日出或日落时
you could see warmer tones,
你会看到更偏暖的色调
reds, oranges, and yellows.
红色 橘色和黄色
The greater the distance, the thicker the layer you’re looking through
距离越远 视野穿过的大气厚度越厚
and the effect is more intense.
效果就越明显
Values will also get lighter and colors less saturated.
明度增高 色彩饱和度降低
So, if you think about it,
所以 细想一下
atmospheric perspective is really just a decrease in contrast.
大气透视会削弱对比度
Contrast of value decreases
色彩范围趋向更高的明度值时
as the value range gets pinched towards a lighter value.
明度对比相应减弱
Contrast of hue decreases
随着暖色调向冷色调转变
as warm colors become cooler,
色调对比相应降低
and contrast of chroma decreases
饱和度下降的同时
as colors become less saturated.
色度对比随之降低
This could be even more intense if there’s fog, mist, smoke,
如果遇上大雾 水汽 烟雾或者尘土
or dust in the atmosphere.
这种效果会更加明显
Sometimes the air is so dense that you can’t see through it past a few feet.
有时 由于空气密度太大 能见度只有几英尺
So, this concept isn’t just for landscape painters.
所以 这一理念不只适用于风景画的画家
You can use it to add atmosphere to any situation.
你也可以运用此法 给任何情景增加大气效果
Steam in a kitchen, smoke at a bar,
厨房里的蒸汽 酒吧里的烟雾
or throw in a really intense atmosphere into any picture
或在任意你想营造出更好的朦胧感的画作中
where you want to create a better sense of air.
加入高密度的大气透视效果
I’ve been emphasizing decreasing contrast
我一直在强调降低对比度
to make things seem further away and add atmosphere.
让物体看起来更远以及增加大气效果
But, don’t forget about the other end.
但是 别忘了还有另一方面
Choose your focal points and increase the contrast in those areas.
选好主体 提升主体区域的对比度
It’s a great way to make those areas pop out at the viewer
这样能让主体区域突显出来
and call out for attention.
吸引参观者的注意力
Finally, you have change of planes and gradations along forms.
最后 你需要学习形体的平面变化和渐变
A change of plane on a three-dimensional object
三维物体的平面变化
indicates turning of the form.
表明了形体的变化
Let’s observe the planes of her cheek.
让我们观察一下她脸颊的各面
She is facing to the right towards the light source.
她面朝右 向着光源
So, this plane is facing that way.
所以 这一区域朝向同样的方向
The halftone to the left of that is facing us
它左边这块中间色朝向我们
and then the shadow plane in the side of the cheek is facing towards the left side.
脸颊一侧的阴影部分朝向左边
These 3 transitions along the forms come together to create volume.
画面中这三个形体变化共同创造出立体感
Individually, they would look like flat values,
分开看 它们是具有多种明度的平面色块
but together, as a gradation,
但合起来 产生渐变过渡时
they appear three-dimensional.
它们就呈现出三维效果
You can show a change of plane with transitions
你也可以通过明暗 色调或色度的变化
of value, hue, or chroma,
展现出平面变化
but the most effective is value.
但明暗的变化效果最明显
You can show a little bit of form with transitions of hue or chroma,
色调和色度的渐变能带来微小的形体变化
but not nearly as much a gradation from a bright highlight to a dark shadow.
但效果远不及从明亮的高光到阴影的渐变
Other “rules” or guidelines that I’ve heard of are that
我了解的其他规则或说是指导原则有
cool colors recede
冷色调凸显后移效果
and warm colors come forward.
暖色调凸显前移效果
Light values comes forward and darks recedes.
亮部前移 暗部后移
I want to point out though that these are very minor ways of adding depth
我想说 这些营造景深的方法很小众
and they have a really small role in the overall effect.
它们对作品整体效果影响有限
A light object with little contrast
一个对比度很小的明亮物体
might still look further away
与对比强烈的暗色系物体相比
than a dark object with more contrast.
看起来更远
So, it really depends on the whole picture a
所以 最终效果取决于整幅画作
nd how you use all the concepts.
以及你如何运用这些技巧
Ok, that’s it for this episode.
好了 本集到此结束
Next week I’ll continue on the illusion of depth
下周 我们会继续讲解深度错觉
and explore ways of adding depth.
通过运用形态的相关概念
Using shape related concepts
比如比例 细节和透视
like, scale, detail and perspective.
探索营造景深的方法
If you like this video, please share it with your friends.
如果你喜欢本视频 就分享给朋友吧
Click on this button here to subscribe to the newsletter and gets updates on new videos
点击这个图标 订阅最新资讯和教程
And one last promo,
最后打个广告
if you want to support proko.com the best way of doing so
如果你想支持proko.com
is by getting my Portrait Fundamentals DVD.
最好的方式就是购买我的《肖像基础》光盘
The difference between the DvD and the free videos online
光盘内容和网络免费视频的不同之处在于
is that the DVD has two additional real time demostrations at an hour and a half each.
DVD有两个额外的实时示范 每个时长一个半小时
And it’s avaliable as a digital download so you don’t need internet access to watch the lessons.
而且它是可以下载的 所以无需使用网络来观看课程
Thank you! bye-bye
感谢收看 再见!
Well.In the next few videos I’ll try to explain all the ways that I know of.
在接下来的几个视频中 我会讲解 我所了解的所有方法
I’ve been atmospherically……kind of what ?
我一直都很兴奋……什么?
Nose, nose, cuz that the nose is founding parts, there’s this.
鼻子 鼻子 鼻子是最有意思的地方 像这样
这样做
hahaha……
哈哈哈……
or away from you.
或者远离你
or away from you.
或者远离你
That’s the one that comes towards you .
它能表现出物体是靠近你的
Why did you slide it down my face?haha……
为什么你要让它从我脸上滑下来?
You couldn’t bring it back a centimeter and then when you did?
你把它挪走时 不能从我脸上拿起来一点吗?
We need to learn how to draw 3D objects.
我们应该学习如何绘制三维物体
To use this, christ man.what are you doing ?
运用它…… 天哪!你在干什么?
You don’t…Can you just look normal?
你能正常点吗?
Can you just do normal things?
做点正常的事吗?
Just stand I,just don’t do anythings
你就站在一边吧 什么都别做了
再见 感谢观看 下次见!
再见×n

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视频概述

在绘画和摄影是如何使画面富有立体感?如何营造景深?本视频会进行详细的讲解,一起来学习吧!

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

九月

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wlLU05hmXyA

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