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人类的脚

The Human Foot Is a Design Disaster - Cheddar Explores

This guy made history in 2012 for being the first amputee runner
这家伙于2012年开创了先河
to compete in the Olympic Games.
参加了奥林匹克运动会
It’s Oscar Pistorius, who you might also know for murdering his girlfriend.
这是奥斯卡·皮斯托瑞斯 谋杀女友的那个
But this is a video about feet, so, sh, let’s set that aside.
但本视频是关于脚的 这里就不八卦了
Pistorius had to fight for his right to compete in the Olympics
皮斯托瑞斯为了争取参赛的权利
by proving to officials that his blade-like prosthetic feet
向官方证明他的假脚像刀片一样
didn’t give him an extra advantage
和运动员们的肉脚相比
over athletes running on regular old flesh feet.
并没有给他带来额外的优势
There are other blade runners fighting the same fight behind him.
在其身后还有其他的“刀锋战士”也为此而斗争着
The German long jumper Markus Rehm was barred from competing in the Rio Olympics.
德国的跳远运动员马克·雷姆曾被里约奥运会拒之门外
The college track athlete Hunter Woodhall had to make the case to the NCAA.
大学径赛运动员亨特·伍德霍尔不得不向美国大学体育协会提出参赛申请
And Paralympian Blake Leeper is gearing up for the same fight
残奥会运动员布雷克·利珀正在为同样的战斗做准备
to compete in the 2020 Olympics.
那就是 获得2020年的奥林匹克运动会的参赛权
And it all makes you wonder why does the foot designed in a lab
看完这些 你可能想知道为什么实验室设计出来的脚
look so different from the biological human foot.
看起来和人类的脚有很大的不同
It might be because the human foot is kind of a design disaster.
这可能是因为 人类的脚是一个设计上的漏洞
Podiatry is a five billion dollar industry.
足部医疗是一项价值五十亿的产业
A majority of Americans will experience significant foot pain at some point in their lives.
大多数美国人都会在人生中的某一时刻经历一次严重的脚伤
And as many as 10 percent of us will experience inflammation
并且多达百分之十的人会患上
in the band of tissue along our arches,
足弓组织带炎症
otherwise known as plantar fasciitis.
这种炎症也被称为脚底筋膜炎
Why though weren’t humans evolved to walk long distances?
为什么人们没有进化到能长途步行的地步?
And isn’t walking upright on two legs, the trait that first separated us from other primates?
能用两条腿直立行走 不正是我们人类区别于其他灵长类动物的首要特征吗?
So why hasn’t natural selection selected a cooler, better, less injury-prone foot for us?
那么 为什么自然选择没有为我们选一双更酷 更好 且更不易受伤的脚呢?
Some theories posit that we’re so plagued by foot problems
某些理论指出 我们之所以会被脚部问题困扰
because we evolved to walk barefoot out of nature over soft sweet earth.
是因为我们以前的进化是可以光脚走在地上的
But now we’ve thrown off the delicate biomechanical balance of our feet
但现在我们因为穿着大而松软的网球鞋
by wearing big mushy cushiony tennis shoes.
导致脚的微妙的生物力学平衡丧失了
Meanwhile our bones take a beating from walking and standing on super hard surfaces like concrete.
而且 当我们站立或行走在十分坚硬的地面上(如水泥地) 时我们的骨头会受到冲击
But other researchers say it goes back way further than that.
但其他研究者认为 足部问题可以追溯到更久以前
Jeremy DeSilva is an anthropologist who studies human evolution,
杰里·米德西瓦是 一名研究人类进化的人类学家
and argues that foot problems exist way back in the fossil record.
他认为早在化石记录中就存在足部问题
Fossils show evidence of osteoarthritis,
化石证实了骨关节炎
and compression fractures and flat arches which means foot pain millions of years ago.
压缩性骨折和扁平足早在数百万年前就存在了
DeSilva makes a convincing case that the real source of our foot problems is the janky design.
徳西瓦做了一个有说服力的实验 证明了足部问题的根本原因在于设计
As I mentioned earlier, what we’re looking at are our paper clips and duct tape.
正如我之前提到的 我们看到的是很像回形针和管道胶带的部分
Our primate ancestors spent most of their time in trees,
我们灵长类祖先的大部分时间是在树上度过的
our feet then were originally meant for climbing and grasping.
我们的脚最初用于攀爬和抓树
But four million years ago and possibly earlier,
但在四百万年前或许更早之前
some apes started dabbling in bipedalism.
一些类人猿开始尝试直立行走
Experts haven’t agreed on why hominins developed this trait.
专家们就原始人为何进化出这一特征上各执己见
Perhaps it was a more efficient way to travel while scavenging for food,
或许是因为直立行走能提高觅食效率
or maybe it was to enable persistence hunting.
或者是为打猎提供了可能
Tracking prey over such long distances that they became overheated,
追踪猎物的距离太长以至于他们变得过热
and simply laid down from exhaustion. No weapons required.
并且因筋疲力尽而倒下 他们没有使用工具
Whatever the reason, bipedalism is the defining trait of humans.
无论什么原因 两足行走是人类的一大特征
Going bipedal involved some painful anatomical trait dos,
两足行走涉及到一些痛苦的生理特征
including everything from where the spine attaches to the skull,
包括从脊柱和头盖骨的衔接点
to the angle of the femurs, and of course, the shape of our feet.
到股骨角的所有部件 当然 也包括我们脚的形状
Let’s talk mechanics.
我们来讨论一下力学
A foot is a propulsive lever.
脚是一个推进的杠杆
It needs to be stiff enough that we can push off the ground and propel ourselves forward.
它需要足够坚硬才能使我们离开地面并推动我们向前行走
But it needs to be elastic enough,
但是它也需要足够的弹性
to store the mechanical energy that’s generated each time the foot strikes the ground.
来储存脚每次接触地面时产生的机械能
That’s how designers ended up with this blade-shape for athletes.
这就是设计者们最终为运动员设计出了刀锋状假肢的原因
The human foot on the other hand has 26 bones, 33 joints,
另一方面 人的脚有26根骨头 33个关节
and over a hundred muscles tendons and ligaments.
还有一百多个肌腱和一百多条韧带
That’s because it was built for grasping.
这是因为它需要抓地
All those joints let it flex.
所有的脚关节使其更灵活
So it’s not inherently rigid enough to give us the propulsive power we need.
它原本没有坚硬到能为我们提供所需推动力的地步
Here’s what had to change.
这就是需要改变的地方
Back when we were climbers, our big toe used to be opposable, like our thumbs.
当我们还是原始人时 我们的大脚趾(与其他四指)是相对的 就像我们的拇指
But to help make the foot more rigid, it became shorter, stiffer and in line with our other toes.
但为了让我们的脚变得更坚固 它变得更短 更硬 并且逐渐和其余四个脚趾处于同一条线上
And we developed arches to absorb the force of impact each time our foot hits the ground.
我们的足弓不断进化以缓和脚每次接触地面时产生的冲击力
Our ligaments got thicker to help hold all these small bones firmly in place.
我们的韧带变得更厚来支撑所有小骨头
Bipedal locomotion is a notoriously complex mechanical engineering puzzle
众所周知 两足动物的运动是个复杂的机械工程难题
that scientists have been working on for decades.
科学家在这方面已经研究了几十年
And in the case of human feet, you could say natural selection is still in the early design phase.
就人脚而言 你可以说自然选择仍停留在设计早期
DeSilva uses the ostrich as an example of a foot from the natural world
徳西瓦 用鸵鸟的例子来说明自然界的脚
that resembles the prosthetic blades that were perfectly designed for running on two feet.
和完全适用于两足奔跑的刀锋假肢相似
But he also points out birds have a big bipedalism head start, just look at their ancestors.
但他也指出 鸟类最开始有很大的两足性 这一点看它们的祖先就知道
They’ve been bipedal for 230 million years, while we’ve only been bipedal for about five million.
它们成为两足动物已经有两亿三千万年了 然而我们仅有五百万年
And a big take-away from his talk,
他的话语中传达出一个重要的信息
natural selection isn’t selecting from an endless menu of options,
自然选择不是从一本穷尽各种可能的菜单中选出来的
rather it’s a constant series of small modifications to the original design.
而是相对于最初的样子做出一系列不间断的小改变
So in our case, it’s slowly modified flexible graspy hands
因此就我们来说 自然选择让我们的双手逐渐变得灵活
into more rigid propulsive levers,
使之变成更坚硬的推进杠杆
which left us kind of vulnerable to some aches and pains.
但我们的脚部容易受伤
But considering our feet are modified ape hands, they do a pretty good job.
但鉴于我们的脚是改进的猿手 它们已经进化的很棒了
And considering we’re the most successful primate,
此外我们是最成功的灵长类动物
nay mammal, nay species on the planet,
而不是地球上(最成功的)哺乳动物
it’s a pretty decent compromise.
这是一个相当完美的折中方案
Thanks for watching.
感谢观看
If you’re super interested in the scars of human evolution,
如果你对人类进化的创伤相当感兴趣
you can see the whole talk on Boston University’s YouTube page.
你可以在波士顿大学的YouTube主页看到全部内容
If you liked this video, hit the bell icon
如果你喜欢这个视频 点击这个图标
so that you can get notified each time Cheddar posts a new video.
这样您就可以第一时间看到切达更新的视频
Thanks again. We’ll see you next time.
再次感谢 下次再见

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视频概述

自然选择让人类能够双腿直立行走,但足部容易受损

听录译者

Cathy

翻译译者

lalala

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kd-FZptfGUE

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