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火箭为什么以及怎样分级? – 译学馆
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火箭为什么以及怎样分级?

The How and Why of Rockets' Staging

每一枚火箭
Every single rocket,
发射进入太空
that is ever launched anything into space,
执行轨道任务的 执行外太空任务的 有人的
orbital mission, deep space, manned,
无人的 大的 小的
unmanned, big, small.
它们都有一个共同点
Every one of those rockets has one thing in common.
那就是分级运载
Staging.
分级运载是任何发射任务的基本部分
Staging is a fundamental part of any mission launching,
无论你谈论的是像“土星5号”或
whether you’re talking about a heavy lift vehicle like
“猎鹰”那样的重型运载火箭
the Saturn 5 or the Falcon Heavy,
还是像“阿特拉斯”那样的小型火箭
or something much smaller like an Atlas.
火箭的一级在另一级之前点火时
Staging is quite simply when
分级运载相当简单
one part of the rocket fires before another.
这样 余下部分即有效载荷就会
So that the curative the rest on that payload is
被送入轨道
what gets it up into orbit.
火箭分级的原因是由于重量越来越集中
The reason rocket stage is because of weight more and more specifically mass,
因为火箭必须像在地球上那样才能在其他星球运行
because a rocket would have to stage living in another planet just as it does on Earth.
拿我最喜爱的火箭“土星5号”来说
Let’s take my favorate rocket the Saturn 5 as an example.
这仅仅是火箭实际能够到达地球运转轨道的有效载荷的一部分
This was the only part of the payload that actually had to reach Earth orbit.
火箭的其余部分都落这儿了
The rest of the rocket all these down here,
(它们)只是设计用于使火箭能够离开地面进入太空的
was just designed to give that rocket up off the ground and into space.
所以工程人员在设计运载火箭时必须把这一点考虑进去
So when designing the launch vehicle, engineers had to take it into consideration
进入太空的有效荷载量
the mass of the payload they had to reach orbit.
但实际上并不完全如此
But that wasn’t it
一旦开始增加必须将有效载荷送入轨道的较低级 就有了质量
as soon as you start adding lower stages that have to provide the cross to get up the payload into orbit, that has mass.
这不仅仅是火箭结构的质量问题
And it’s not only the mass of the structure of the rocket,
也是推进剂的质量 其必须要燃烧才能使之升空
it’s also the mass of the propellant that has to fire to lift that mass off the ground.
你们知道火箭中哪部分最困难吗
Do you see where this compounding to make things of it difficult?
这成了非常有趣的平衡艺术
It becomes a very interesting balancing art,
不仅是有效载荷部分
not only is the payload part of the mass,
火箭的结构和推进剂也增加了质量
the rocket structure and propellant also add mass.
但随着火箭燃料的燃烧 质量也在改变
But as the rocket burns up the propallent, the mass changings.
正是不断改变的质量才会有接下来的分级运载
It’s that changing mass that opens the door for staging.
我们来回顾一下“土星5号”
So let’s look back to our Saturn 5.
“土星5号”刚发射时 一切都那么完美美丽且动人
As the Saturn 5 was launching and everything is perfect and beautiful and lovely,
所有助推剂都在第一级燃尽
all of the propellant in that first stage is being used and burned up.
好了 一旦完成
Well once it’s done,
现在“土星5号”正在进入过渡阶段
now the Saturn 5 is carrying that exter dead weight of the span stage.
如果不需要使火箭更多的部分离开地面
There is no point in using a more propellent
使用更多助推剂是没有意义的
to get more of the rocket off the ground if you don’t need it.
所以你怎么做 分离过渡级
So what you do, you disched span stage.
这时分级运载就开始了
That’s for staging comes in.
当你在处理复杂事情时
Staging is really just clever a way to get rid of dead way
分段进行确实是应对困境的很好的途径
when you are doing something complicated,
就像把有效载荷送入太空
like putting a payload into space.
现在据说火箭分级运载有很多不同的方式
Now all that being said there are different ways of a rocket can go through staging.
我们再拿“土星5号”来举例
Let’s start again with the Saturn 5.
其中一种就是串联分级
That uses a kind of staging called Serial Staging.
这些级是一级堆叠在另一级之上
The stages are stacked one on top of the other.
第一级首先点火 一旦助推剂耗尽
The first stage fires first and then separates from the rest of the payload
就会从有效荷载的剩余部分分离开来
once its propelland is exhausted.
露出飞船 然后制动火箭在过渡级和活跃级间
Expose a boat and retro rocket create clear separation between
明显的分离开来
the span stage and the active second stage,
这个阶段有空间点火
which then has room to fire.
拿“土星5号”举例 它是三级火箭
Now the Saturn 5 in the specific case was a three’s stage rocket,
但对两级和四级火箭 分级运载的过程是完全一样的
but the exact same thing happens for a two stage rocket or a four-stage rocket.
每一部分有序脱离火箭的主体部分
It’s just that sequence of staging all the way off the rocket’s body.
另一种串联分级叫热分级运载
Another type of Serial Staging is called Hot Staging.
这就是发射双子星座项目的泰坦2号所使用的
It’s what the Titan 2 that launched the Gemini Program used.
如果仔细观察这枚火箭
If you look closely at this rocket,
你会注意到我第一次真正看到这张照片时感到震惊
you notice like I was shock to find the first time I really look to the picture,
火箭的箭体上有洞
that there are holes in the rocket’s body.
这表明其与土星5号不同
Well it turns out that unlike the Saturn 5
当一级火箭在另一级点火前脱离时
which gained distance between the rocket stages
各级之间的距离增大了
when one was finished before the other one fired,
泰坦2号发射时 各级仍然连接
the Titan 2 fired while the stages were still connected.
这些都是通风口 防止下一级与过渡级分开
Those holes are vents prevent the next stage fired separate from the span stage.
有串联系列和并联分级系列火箭
There are rockets that marry serial and parallel staging.
泰坦3是个很好的例子
A great example is the Titan 3.
该火箭的主要和核心阶段称为主发动机级 是个泰坦2火箭
The main and core stage of that rocket called the Sustainer Stage, was a Titan 2.
而且它两旁还有坚实的火箭助推器
And it has a solid rocket booster on the either side.
这两个助推器平行分开
Those two boosters separated parallel staging,
推动火箭主体通过了串联运载
for the main stage went through Serial Staging.
另一种运载是平行运载
Another kind of staging is Parallel Staging,
我们都熟悉 因为那是航天飞机曾使用过的
and we are all familiar with that one because that was the space shuttle used.
航天飞机的主油箱为轨道飞行器提供动力
The space shuttle’s main tank fed the engines on the orbiter.
但它需要一些外力推动才能进入轨道
But it needed a bit of extern boost to get into orbit.
为推动固体火箭 模型位于主油箱侧面
And draw the solid rocket, models that flank the side of main tank.
助推器以及主发动机点火使发射台上的航天飞机脱离
The boosters as well as the main engine fire to get the shuttle off the launch pad.
然后一旦SRB耗尽燃料
And then once the SRBs exhausted their fuel,
它们就会脱离并落入海洋
they were detached and left fallen to the ocean.
还有一种分级运载 其非常罕见但也很熟悉
There is an other kind of staging that’s pretty rare but also familiar
我们可能都没有意识到这一点
that we may not realize it.
这是一个半级运载
This is stage a half staging.
我们了解它是因为阿特拉斯D火箭
And we know it because Atlas D rocket
搭载过约翰格伦 斯科特卡朋特 沃利斯基拉 戈登库珀
that launched John Glenn, Scott Carpenter, Wally Schirra, and Gordon Cooper
在水星项目的轨道上使用半级火箭
in the orbit on the Mecury Program used staging half staging.
以阿特拉斯D主引擎为主发动机
With the atlas D the main engine acted as the sustainer,
它是唯一燃烧并将有效载荷送入轨道的发动机
it was the only one that burned to get the payload into orbit.
其周围有两个额外动力的助推器
Around the sustainer engined with a sort of booster stage with two extra enginees.
虽然它们整齐的排列着
Though these were side by side so sort of parallel,
但也垂直掉落 有点像串联的形式
but they also fell away vertically, sort of like Serial.
一般全部的三个引擎都会点火 让火箭脱离发射台
So basically all three engines would fire to get the rocket off the launch part.
一旦第一级或半级完成 它就会剥离
And then once the first stage or half-stage was done it fell away,
发动机级继续将有效载荷送入轨道
and that’s sustainer stage continued on to put the payload into orbit.
当然是梦想 因为我们会再简单点
Of course the dream because we will be much simpler pretentionly
更多的目标将是单级轨道火箭
more fation will be a single staged orbit rocket.
就是听起来的样子
That is exactly what it sounds like.
单级就足以将有效载荷送入太空
One single stage would be enough to power a payload into space.
这还不存在
That’s not something that exsit yet,
尽管有些公司正在努力实现这个梦想
although there are companies that are trying to bring that dream to reality.
如果你们喜欢这个视频
If you guys like this video,
一定要订阅 这样你就不会错过任何一集
be sure subscribe so you never missing episode,
我也想听听你们的声音
and also I want to hear from you.
如果你有其他关于火箭 分级发射 土星5号 泰坦和阿特拉斯的问题
Do you have other questions about rockets, about staging, about the Saturn 5, the Titan, the Atlas,
请在下面的评论中告诉我
let me know all of your thoughts in the comments below.
当然别忘了你可以通过社交媒体关注我
And of course don’t forget you can follow me acoss social media
例如脸书 ins 和推特
for daily bring into space contained
每天带你了解太空
on Facebook, Instagram, and on Twitter.
好了朋友们 感谢你们的观看
All right guys, thank you so much for watching.

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视频概述

本视频讲诉火箭为什么以及如何分级。

听录译者

Lilill

翻译译者

楼舜

审核员

审核员 V

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IJtOXekIQv4

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