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一团糟的苏联和平号空间站 – 译学馆
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一团糟的苏联和平号空间站

The Hot Mess That Was the Mir Space Station

现在 人们在一个足球场大小的人造卫星上居住和工作
Right now, there are people living and working in an artificial satellite about the size
它以26000km/h的速度绕地球运动
of a football field, zooming around the earth at 26,000km/hour.
是多么了不起的事情啊
Which is awesome!
但我们不是在一夜之间做到的
But we didn’t learn how to do that overnight.
在我们建造国际太空站之前就有许多不同的太空站
There were a few different space stations before we built the International Space Station.
并且其中一个运行最久的叫做和平号
And the one that stuck around for the longest was Mir,
在20世纪80年代由苏联发射
a space station launched by the Soviet Union in the 1980s.
和平号被比作许多东西
Mir was compared to everything
从一只优雅的蜻蜓到一只刺猬再到一个死亡陷阱
from a graceful dragonfly to a hedgehog to a death trap,
并且人们有充足的理由来这么比喻和平号
and for good reason.
它教会了我们许多 并且是许多成就之宗
It taught us a lot and was home to tons of accomplishments,
但大多数日子 和平号也是一团糟而且有着一些电力问题
but most days, Mir was also a mess of mold and electrical problems…
即使在它没有真的着火时
even when it wasn’t literally on fire.
和平号并不是苏联的第一个太空站
Mir wasn’t the Soviet Union’s first space station.
相反 它的设计是为了礼炮计划的完成那个横跨十九世纪七八十年代的礼炮计划
Instead, it was designed to succeed the Salyut program, which ran from the 1970s to the 80s.
就像ISS 和平号也是模块化的这意味着它是由几部分发射并组装在轨道上的
Like the ISS, Mir was modular, meaning it was launched in pieces and assembled in orbit
从1986年开始 历时几年
over several years, starting in 1986.
把它的名字翻译成英文是件麻烦事
It’s hard to translate its name into English,
但是Mir这个词意味着朝着世界 群落 与和平的方向前进
but Mir means something along the lines of “world”, “village”, and “peace”,
这令许多宇航员深深地记住了它
and many cosmonauts remember it fondly.
但到了1995 美国人开始参加任务这个空间站就经常出事故了
But by the time Americans began joining the missions in 1995, the station was an accident-prone mess.
一个原因是 它没有足够的仓上存储
For one thing, there was never enough on-board storage,
和平号的返回舱上也没有足够的空间运走所有的垃圾
and there also wasn’t enough room on the ships returning from Mir to carry all the garbage away,
所以久而久之 这地方成了一个垃圾堆
so over time, the place became packed with junk.
另一个理由就是和平号的细菌问题
Then there was Mir’s microbe problem.
根据一些住在那儿一年多的宇航员介绍
According to some astronauts, after years of people continuously living there,
这里变的有点……臭气熏天
the place got a little… smelly.
科学家已经知道 这个太空站也许已经基本变成一个巨大的 沿着轨道运行的细菌培养皿
Scientists knew the station might have basically turned into a giant, orbiting petri dish,
所以他们让宇航员收集一些样本
so they had astronauts collect some samples.
然而这要比他们想象的更糟糕
And it was worse than they ever imagined.
当宇航员稍稍移动仪表盘他们就被飘荡着的
When astronauts removed a few instrument panels, they were greeted by floating basketball-sized
篮球大小的肮脏的水团“问候”了里面生长着一些不可名状的东西
globs of filthy water, where unspeakable things were growing.
水被挡在仪表板的后面并且那后面的空气很温暖
The water had gotten trapped behind the panels, and the air back there was nice and warm,
这就成了霉菌和细菌生长的天堂
making it a tropical paradise for mold, mildew, and bacteria.
这不但是一个令人作呕的事实而且或多或少也是一群人健康的威胁
Besides the fact that that’s totally disgusting, it was also a risk to the crew’s health
因为一些微生物可能已经侵蚀了金属
in more ways than one, because some microbes could have corroded steel
并威胁到了空间站的结构完整性
and threatened the structural integrity of the station.
不幸的是 我们的身体里不可能没有微生物所以我们不可能把所有细菌都留在地球
Unfortunately, humans are always carrying microbes in our body, so we can’t leave
即使现在的国际空间站也已经有这样的一些问题
all the germs back on Earth, and even the ISS has had some problems.
但在和平号之后 更好的操作技术得到了发展以帮助宇航员可以在空间站里更好地活动
But after Mir, better monitoring techniques were developed to help astronauts stay on
并且空间站的长期有序工作起到了作用
top of things, and keeping the station in working order has also helped.
和平号有周期性的能量供应中断这让温度和湿度达到了细菌适宜的环境
Mir had periodic power outages, which helped the heat and humidity climb to those more microbe-friendly levels.
和平号以来我们驾驶补给模块的技术也大有进步
Since Mir, we’ve also gotten a lot better at steering resupply modules, which visit
这一模块是用来给ISS输送供给和试验品的
the ISS to drop off supplies and experiments.
曾经在1994年和1997年由于驾驶问题 模块组撞上了和平号
Once in 1994 and again in 1997, piloting problems caused modules to bump into Mir,
而且1997年的那次事故十分的严重
and the accident in 1997 was especially bad.
由于一些危险的驾驶训练曾有一个大冲撞对该站的斯佩特模块——
Because of some risky piloting maneuvers, there was a major crash that seriously damaged
一个从太空中监视地球的科学实验室——造成了严重损伤
the station’s Spektr module, a science lab designed to monitor Earth from above.
飞船被撞出了一个破洞尽管宇航员能够修补破洞 阻止空气进一步逸出
The hull was breached, and even though astronauts were able to patch the hole and stop air escaping,
斯佩特空间站也不能再用了
Spektr was never fully usable again.
现在 空间站里冲进来一些东西绝对不是一个好的迹象 而是一个意外事故
Now, crashing something into your space station is never a good sign, but there was one accident
甚至更加危险:一场大火
that was even more dangerous: a fire.
在太空的一场大火要比地球上的严重的多因为你不能就这样跑到外面走掉
A fire in space is a lot scarier than one on Earth, because you can’t just run outside
而是被困在一个狭小 密闭的烈焰地狱
and get away from it: You’re trapped in a small, enclosed area with a burning inferno.
飞船上的人可能会受伤甚至死亡但幸运的是 没有一个人受到重伤
This one could have injured or even killed the people on board, but luckily no one was badly hurt.
这团熊熊的火焰来自一个出错的制氧机
The blaze came from a faulty oxygen generator.
这些设备通常被称为蜡烛大约是一个喷漆罐的大小
These devices, informally called candles, were about the size of a spray paint can,
它们通过燃烧高氯酸锂(一种由锂 氯和氧气组成的盐)来制造氧气
and they produced oxygen by burning lithium perchlorate, a salt made of lithium, chlorine, and oxygen.
通常 蜡烛是相当安全的而且直到今天仍被用作ISS的备用氧气
Usually, candles are pretty safe, and they’re still used as oxygen backups on the ISS today,
但是它有时会出现故障而且燃烧时不受控制
but this one malfunctioned and burned out of control.
它燃烧起来热得让一个宇航员报告说他看到了滴下的蜡
It was so hot that one astronaut reported seeing what he thought was dripping wax — but
但这实际上就是熔化的金属因为火实在是太热了
it was actually molten metal because the fire was so hot.
谢天谢地 这火焰并不会燃向空间站的外墙
Thankfully, the blaze wasn’t pointed at the station’s outside walls, where it could
因为它可能会损坏墙壁
have damaged the hull.
宇航员们最近已经清理了那堆垃圾所以他们有了一个逃生的通道
And the crew had recently cleaned up the mess in the area, so they had an escape path and
否则就只能“望火兴叹”了
could put out the fire.
后来 蜡烛的质量提升了像这样的事情再也不会发生了
Afterward, quality control of the candles was improved so something like this would
ISS现在还采取了多重的防御措施例如切断电源 放出那里的氧气等等
never happen again, and the ISS now takes multiple precautions if a fire is detected,
当检测到一场大火时
like cutting power and venting the oxygen in that area.
最终 经过15年与各种乱象的奋斗和平号终于在2001年被送回了地球
Finally, after 15 years of triumph and chaos, Mir was sent back to Earth in 2001, where
并且像炮弹般地轰入了太平洋
it cannonballed into the Pacific Ocean.
即使它经过了许多艰难的日子和平号也只是被设计运行五年
Even though it had its rough days, Mir was only designed to fly for five years, so it’s
它令人印象深刻因为它运行了这么久
pretty impressive that it lasted as long as it did.
它度过了苏联时期它长时间的运行见证了ISS的成功
It outlived the Soviet Union and stuck around long enough to see the ISS succeed it.
ISS今天的成功也就是因为学习了和平号的经验
And a lot of the reason the ISS is so successful today is because of lessons learned on Mir.
尽管我们有时会拿“在轨道上挣扎的公交车”开玩笑
So even though we might sometimes poke fun at that orbiting struggle bus, it also set
但这“公交车”也创造了些许记录 容纳了无数实验 并改变了我们如今在太空生活的方式
records, housed countless experiments, and changed the way we live in space today.
感谢收看这一集的SciShow Space(太空科学秀)!
Thanks for watching this episode of SciShow Space!
如果你想了解更多先前的太空站
If you want to learn more about early space stations, you can check out our episode about
你可以查看我们的视频太空实验站 美国的第一个太空站
Skylab, America’s first space station.
获取更多每周视频你可以搜索youtube.com/scishowspace并订阅
And for more videos every week, you can head over to youtube.com/scishowspace and subscribe.

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视频概述

简介苏联时期的和平号空间站,如今成功的国际空间站从其中学习的经验。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Lorinder

审核员

L

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ePnCXu7aTBw

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