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抑郁的无助理论 – 译学馆
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抑郁的无助理论

The Hopelessness Theory of Depression

悲伤 孤独 焦虑是的正常情绪
Sadness, loneliness and anxiety are normal feelings
每个人都会经历
that everyone has experienced
特定的事件会引起这些情绪
These feelings can be triggered by specific events,
比如失去爱人
like the loss of a loved one
或是一次让你颜面尽失的工作经历
or a humiliating work experience.
但当我们萎靡不振的情绪状态
But when our dark emotional state
开始让我们身心交瘁时
begins to cause physical symptoms
长年累月下去
and last for long periods of time,
它就会对我们的日常生活造成举足轻重的影响
it can dramatically affect our everyday behavior
并让我们难以茁壮成长
and inhibit us from leading normal healthy lives.
尽管和一些社会特征有关联
Despite the social stigma associated with it,
成年人抑郁症出奇的普遍
major depression disorder’s surprisingly common.
研究显示全球13%的人口
Studies show that 13 % of the global population
在他们一生中的某些时候会得抑郁症
would suffer from depression in some point of their life
世界卫生组织甚至认为
And even the World Health Organization considers
抑郁症是各类疾病的主要原因
depression to be a major factor in disease of all types
尽管抑郁症是司空见惯的
Despite depression being seemingly so common place,
抑郁症的起因和不同因素
the causes of depression and the different factors
导致它经常被误解
that make it more likely to occur are often misunderstood.
那么哪种想法
So what types of thought processes
更容易导致抑郁症?
lead more easily to depressive states
并且什么让一些人比别人
and waht makes some people more likely than others
更有可能受长期的抑郁症困扰?
to suffer from chronic depression?
在1992年一个有重大意义的研究中
In a landmark 1992 study,
罗斯和艾布拉姆斯建立一种清晰的联系
Rose and Abramson established a clear link
在三维归因理论
between three pessimistic tendencies,
也被称作是消极推理风格
also called negative inferential styles
和慢性抑郁症
and chronic depression.
1. 起因
Number one: Cause.
第一种情况是一个人
The first occurs when an individual
把生活中的负面事件归因于整体原因
blames global causes for negative life events
而不是具体的原因
instead of specific causes.
做出这类归因的人
Someone who makes these types of attributions
会把一个负面事件
will look at a negative event
看成是由一些他们改变不了的事造成的
as caused by something that can not be changed by them
并扩展到他们生活的各个领域
and extends across all areas of their life.
而不是设法处理某种情况
Instead of addressing the specifics of the situation
并积极地向前看
and looking to move forward from it in a positive way.
与此同时
At the same time,
他们也认为自己的成功是只发生一次的
they also assume that their successes are one-off situations
是幸运或者巧合
that are lucky or coincidental
不是他们自己努力和表现的结果
and not a result of their own effort and behavior.
2. 结果
Number 2: Consequence.
尽管他们不认为
Even if someone does not assume that
他们自己是主要的 不变的因素
they are the main, unchanging cause of
在生活中的负面事件中
negative events in their life,
他们可能仍然难以明白
they may still have trouble seeing
如何把不利环境变成有利的
how a negative situation could turn out positively.
生活中有这样观点的人
People with this outlook on life
会在每个事件中看到最坏的部分
see the worst in every situation
然后假设可能会有的最坏的结果
and assume the worst possible outcomes.
尽管他们可能不会
Even though they might not
因为一个特别的事件责怪自己
blame themselves for a particular event,
但他们告诉自己
they tell themselves that
这是没有办法挽回的
there’s no way to recover from it,
他们相信
believing that they will forever be dealing with the
他们将要永远面对消极局面的影响
consequences of the negative situation.
3. 自我形象
Number 3: Self-image.
有第三倾向的人
Individuals with this third tendency
会经常把自己和那些
regularly compare themselves with others
在确定的任务中表现比他们更好的人做比较
who are performing better than them in a certain task.
因为他们总是消极地看待自己
Because they view themselves so negatively and believe
并且相信他们是每个消极事件的起因
that they are the cause of every negative life event,
他们无法从目前的处境中找到前进的道路
They can not see a way forward from their current situation.
他们把自己看作是每个问题的根本原因
They see themselves as the root cause of every issue
所以他们会感受到深深的绝望
and so feel a deep sense of hopelessness.
虽然有许多不同的原因
Although there are many different factors
会导致慢性抑郁症
which contribute to chronic depression,
但这些消极归因方式总是起着重要的作用
these negative attribution styles always play a major role.
帮助遭受抑郁的人
Helping individuals who suffer from depression
寻找治愈之法
to seek therapy focused on
集中于建立积极的思维方式
developing more positive ways of thinking,
帮助建立强大的自我形象
building a strong self-image
以及更好理解造成他们情绪的根本原因
and better understanding the root cause of their emotions
还有如何积极地处理情绪
and how to constructively deal with them
这是治疗的一个重要部分
is an essential part of treatment.
与很多的疾病一样
As with most illness,
伴随抑郁而来的深深的羞愧会让人麻痹
the deep shame that accompanies depression can be paralyzing.
请帮助消除
Please help end the stigma associated with
与抑郁症和其他精神疾病相关的特征
depression and other mental illnesses
站出来谈谈你自己的挣扎
by coming forward to speak about your own struggles,
鼓励别人站出来
encouraging others to come forward
并总是愿意放下偏见去倾听
and always being willing to listen without judgment.

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视频概述

抑郁症患者常常感到无助,每一个人都能帮助他们。

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翻译译者

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VYdjBAl-JyE

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