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厕所的历史

The History of Toilets

Everybody poops and almost always in a toilet.
人有三急 人们总是在厕所里解决
But it wasn’t always the glamorous,
曾经 如厕不总是像今天一样私密
solo activity it is today.
也不是一项单人活动
It used to be a weird group thing in some places
有的地方 如厕是一种奇怪的集体活动
and very disturbingly, pig food in others.
还有的地方 人的排泄物竟是猪的食物
So how did we go from wildly defecating
那么 我们是如何从在街上大便
in the streets to sitting comfortably on a piece of art?
到舒服地坐在艺术品般的马桶上大便的呢?
Today, we’re going to look at the history of toilets.
今天 我们来了解一下厕所的历史
But before we plop down, be sure to subscribe to Weird History
在开始之前 别忘了订阅《怪异历史》
and let us know about what modern-day conveniences
另外 请告诉我们你想了解的
you would like to hear more about.
现代设施设备的发展史
Now let’s go see a man about a horse.
现在 我们一起去趟厕所吧
[MUSIC PLAYING]
[音乐]
人们在公元前2500年左右发明了厕所
The first known toilet and sewer system
世上已知的首个厕所和排水系统
showed up on the scene in 2500 BC in Northern India
出现在公元前2500年的印度北部
and Pakistan.
以及巴基斯坦
Way, way ahead of their time, houses in the Indus Valley could,
在更久之前 印度河流域的人们规划房间时
in theory, list a bathroom in the home listing
理论上可以将厕所纳入其中
with rooms dedicated solely for numbers one and two,
厕所是单独的房间 有一到两个如厕位置
sometimes three.
有时三个
These rooms contained drain pipes
这些房间都装有排水管
that led to a central sewage system, which
通向中央污水系统
could be flushed by simply dumping water into the toilet.
只需往厕所里倒水就能将排泄物冲走
Sounds like a very familiar process so far.
目前 这听起来是个相当熟悉的过程
Nothing weird yet.
并不奇怪
Sewage was carried
在佛罗里达
through a simple grid system in pipes
污水从一个简易的网状管道系统排出
made of brick and terracotta
管道由粘土和陶土制成
or all the necessary components to build a house in Florida.
或者说是由建造房屋的所有必要材料制成
This allowed the waste to be carried
这样的结构
from multiple floors of the home and dumped into the nearest body of water
使污水从几层楼高的地方排到最近的水域
or what we today call Florida.
也就是今天的佛罗里达海域
These pipes were relatively sophisticated
这些管道相对复杂
with accessible utility holes that
街道和主排水管之间
led from the street to the main drainage line
有可进入的公用设施穿墙洞
and wooden screens built into the end of the drainage lines to block solid waste.
排水管道末端内置木质屏障 以阻挡固体废物
Both of these were crafted to make maintaining the sewers as easy
这两种设计都是为了使下水道的维护更简单
and less gross as possible.
且不那么恶心
While many of the elements of this ancient infrastructure
虽然这种古代排水系统的许多地方
do strongly resemble what we use today,
和我们今天所采用的如出一辙
it would take thousands of very messy years before Western societies
然而西方社会在经过几千年的“混乱”之后
would catch up with this sanitation system.
才用上这种排水系统
[MUSIC PLAYING]
[音乐]
堆满沙子的古埃及厕所
For a society that worshipped cats,
对于一个崇拜猫的社会来说
it’s only appropriate the Egyptians also used a bathroom like one.
埃及人使用猫的那种厕所才是理所当然
Ancient Egyptian toilets were designed specifically with water conservation in mind.
古埃及厕所的设计特别考虑到了节水
They, in general, went hard on saving,
总之他们想尽办法节水
believing in only using H2O with the intent to reuse it.
认为用水的时候必须使水资源得到循环利用
With no running water in Egyptian homes,
古埃及人家里没有自来水
even with dedicated rooms in which to bathe,
即使有专门用来洗澡的房间
Egyptians would pour water onto themselves
他们洗澡时也是往身上泼水
at bath time, which was collected in jars
用过的水被收集起来放到瓶子里
and reused for agriculture and gardening.
再用来灌溉农田和浇花
The Egyptian 1% would perch their rich behinds
1%的古埃及人将他们“高贵”的臀部
onto limestone seats to relieve themselves
坐在石灰岩座椅上
into containers filled with sand, which would be cleaned out by the servants
将粪便排到装满沙子的容器里 由仆人清理干净
or what today is called owning a cat.
就跟现在养只猫差不多
The lower plebeian class would also relieve themselves in pits of sand.
下层平民阶级也在沙坑里大小便
But their poor garbage butts had to settle
但他们那“低贱”的臀部
for a dumb wooden stool with a hole cut in the middle,
只能坐在有洞的木椅子上
instead of a more glorious, non-splintery limestone.
而不是华丽又结实的石灰岩椅子
What a dump for a dump.
这真是一个垃圾堆
[MUSIC PLAYING]
[音乐]
中国汉代的猪厕
If you weren’t hungry before watching this video,
如果看视频之前你还不饿
you’re about to be starving, particularly for a bacon treat.
很快你会饥肠辘辘 尤其想吃培根肉
During the Han Dynasty in China,
在中国的汉代
farmers constructed toilets that were directly fed back into their pig pens.
农民建造的厕所使排泄物直接排到猪圈里
Though these toilets looked similar
虽然这些厕所看起来
to a traditional outhouse,
和传统的户外厕所差不多
there was one small difference.
它们却稍有不同
Rather than the waste feeding into a hole in the ground,
人的粪便不是排到地面的茅坑里
it fed into the hole of a pig’s face.
而是到了猪的嘴里
The waste was routed into the pig pen,
排泄物到了猪圈
which the pigs, being pigs, would then consume as a light snack.
猪的本性使它们把排泄物当成零食吃掉
Once this was digested, the waste
猪消化了人的粪便
from this human waste turned into pig waste,
人的粪便变成猪的粪便
would be used as fertilizer,
随后被用作肥料
thus eliminating the need for a sanitation system.
因此也不需要排水系统
Include that in a verse of the circle of life, cowards.
胆小鬼们 把这写进《生命的轮回》里吧
[MUSIC PLAYING]
[音乐]
古罗马易冲洗的厕所
Roman bathrooms sounded like quite the social scene.
古罗马的厕所更像是公共场所
Their bathrooms consisted of long stone or wooden benches
厕所由长石凳或木凳构成
with holes scattered about for users to take care of their business,
上面凿了许多洞 用于大小便
while in a comfortable sitting position.
同时保持舒适的坐姿
These elevated bench toilets
这些高高的长凳厕所
were purposely built to hover 1 to 2 feet above the ground
特意建在离地面1到2英尺的地方
to make it easier to flush the water through,
使用遍布全市的排污系统
using the sewage system that ran throughout the city.
更容易将排泄物冲走
And, no, there were no dividers between bench holes,
长凳上的每个洞之间没有隔板
making going to the bathroom more of a group social activity
这使如厕更像集体社交活动
than a private moment to oneself.
而不是自己的私人时间
Running water directed from Rome’s aqueducts flushed out the troughs beneath the toilets.
来自罗马引水渠的自来水冲刷了厕所下方的水槽
While a great way to flush away waste,
虽然这是冲走排泄物的好办法
it was a bad way to prevent rat attacks
但开放的下水道会有老鼠出没
from open sewer lines and occasional fires from built-up methane.
积聚的沼气使火灾偶有发生 因此这个办法很糟糕
But when it comes to ancient toilet systems, you win some and you lose some.
但涉及到古代的厕所系统时 人们是有得有失的
A bunch of potential rats on fire, however, can probably go in the losing column.
许多老鼠可能被大火烧死 这也许算损失吧
[MUSIC PLAYING]
[音乐]
有滑道的城堡厕所
Medieval castle toilets relied on
中世纪城堡的厕所
the magical power of gravity to do most of the heavy lifting
主要依靠神奇的重力来处理排泄物
of taking waste to a more desirable place away from the castle.
将排泄物运到远离城堡的理想之地
Castles were equipped with rooms dedicated for answering the call of nature.
城堡里配备了专门用于大小便的房间
But they were called garderobes, not bathrooms.
人们称其为私室 而非厕所
Garderobes were nothing to write home about,
这种私室并无特别之处
with very few bells or whistles.
简单介绍一下
The humble garderobe was a small room
这种简陋的私室是一个小房间
with chutes that led to a moat or communal cesspit
有通往护城河或公共粪池的滑道
for the dung to float away or around the castle.
排泄物顺着滑道漂走或漂浮在城堡周围
If the point of the moat is to keep enemies out of the castle,
如果修建护城河是为了防御敌人
a good addition to one would be floating poo
那么漂浮粪便的护城河则更具威慑力
as a deterrent for crossing.
让敌人不敢跨过去
[MUSIC PLAYING]
[音乐]
夜壶
Before the indoor flushing toilets were popularized in the 20th century,
在20世纪室内抽水马桶普及之前
most people had to wander down to local cesspools
多数人不得不走到公用茅坑去上厕所
in order to relieve themselves, a pretty nifty inconvenience
在便利至上的年代
for something where a convenience is paramount.
这种茅坑实用却还是不够方便
This could also be a potentially hazardous trip
而且 夜间到外面去上厕所
to take at night.
可能有危险
So rather than march down to a lovely sounding, local cesspool,
所以 与其跑到楼下的公用茅坑上厕所
people would have chamber pots in the room.
不如在房间里放一个夜壶
Chamber pots were small metal or ceramic containers
夜壶是小小的金属容器或陶瓷容器
designed to hold waste that were later
是用来装排泄物的
emptied into pools or just sort of
排泄物被倒进化粪池
casually thrown out the window,
或者被随手泼到窗外
a fun thing to be on the lookout for
所以 当你走在窗户下方的时候
when walking underneath a window, surely.
一定要注意躲避这种“有趣”的事
They remained a popular way to go to the bathroom
二战前 人们依然用夜壶大小便
until World War II and are even used today in some parts of the world
甚至在今天 世界上没有室内管道的地方
where indoor plumbing is still not a thing.
人们还在使用夜壶
Since chamber pots were a regular fixture
由于夜壶是家中常备的用具
in people’s homes, they weren’t afraid to jazz them up a bit,
所以人们把它设计得更美观
turning them into less of a pot to piss in and more
这使夜壶看起来更像是家中的装饰摆件
of a fun little home decoration to whiz in.
而不是用来装大小便的工具
Some were ornate and made of ceramic or fine china.
有的夜壶很精致 由陶瓷或优质细瓷制成
And others were encased in decorative boxes.
其他夜壶则被放在装饰盒里
Some were designed with verses like,
有的夜壶上有句子
use me well and keep me clean and
比如:“善用我 清洁我
I’ll not tell what I’ve seen, which now,
我就不会说我看到了什么”
of course, has been reduced to simply, live, laugh, love.
当然 现在已简化为“生活 微笑 爱情”
[MUSIC PLAYING]
[音乐]
16世纪发明的现代抽水马桶
Sir John Harington was a controversial writer
John Harington爵士是一位充满争议的作家
known for his risqué poetry and political writings.
以其低俗的诗歌和政治作品而闻名
He also invented a flush toilet in the late 16th century
他不仅擅长写诗
as one typically does while writing poetry.
还在16世纪末发明了一个抽水马桶
In The Metamorphosis of Ajax, Harington described the device
在《埃阿斯变形记》中 他把这种装置描述为
as an elevated cistern that dumped water into the toilet
一个把水倾倒入马桶的高架水箱
bowl and removed waste via the pulling of a chain
拉一下铁链 水箱的水就能将粪便冲走
or what sounds remarkably like a current day toilet.
这听起来和现在的马桶很像
Unfortunately, The Metamorphosis of Ajax was also a thinly veiled criticism
不幸的是《埃阿斯变形记》毫不掩饰地
of the English government.
批判了英国政府
So the invention of a toilet somehow sandwiched between critiques
所以 在对王室批评声中发明的马桶
of the monarchy presumably got thrown out with the bathwater,
大概是随着洗澡水一起销声匿迹了
as they say, for nearly two centuries.
据说 它消失了近两个世纪
Queen Elizabeth I, however, did have one built for herself,
后来伊丽莎白一世命人给自己造了这样的马桶
which is probably not the takeaway Harington was aiming for
不过 Harington在写《埃阿斯变形计》的时候
when it came to a queen reading his anti-government pamphlet.
大概没想过会被女王看到吧
[MUSIC PLAYING]
[音乐]
十八世纪 人们改进了抽水马桶
It wasn’t until the mid-18th century
直到18世纪中叶
when the flushable toilet was beginning to truly have a moment.
冲水马桶终于有了一席之地
Scottish inventor Alexander Cumming
苏格兰发明家Alexander Cumming
and English inventor John Brahma both
和英国的发明家John Brahma
developed the advanced plumbing devices
都发明了先进的管道系统
that assisted in the creation of the modern-day flushing toilet.
这对现代冲水马桶的发明有很大帮助
Cumming created the S-trap, which allowed the water
Cumming发明了S型存水弯装置
to sit in the bowl and act as a barrier
该装置让水留在马桶里
against the foul smell of sewage and gas and also,
就像屏障一样阻挡了下水道的臭气
a popular source of drinking water for bad dogs.
调皮的狗狗也爱喝这些水
Though Harington technically was the first to invent the toilet,
虽然原则上是Harington最先发明马桶
it was Cumming who held the patent.
但Cumming才是拥有这项发明专利的人
It was during the installation process of Cumming’s design
Cumming的存水弯装置普及安装之时
when Braham developed a valve with a hinged flap
Brahma发明了铰链式阀门
that sealed the water in the bowl.
将水密封在马桶里
Thanks to these two advances in the design of the toilet,
由于这两个设计上的进步
these babies began selling like hot cakes
马桶成了畅销产品
with water closets growing in popularity
从18世纪中叶到19世纪
throughout the mid-18th and 19th centuries.
抽水马桶非常流行
After World War I, all new buildings built in the UK
一战后 英国要求所有新房子
were required to include an indoor toilet.
都要建一个室内厕所
We’ve come a long way
此前很长一段时间内
from throwing our dung out the window.
人们都把大小便随手泼到窗外
[MUSIC PLAYING]
[音乐]
因销售抽水马桶 Thomas Crapper被人们熟知
Given his last name and how hilarious and ironic it would be,
由于他的姓氏搞笑而怪异
Thomas Crapper is often falsely credited
所以人们常常错误地认为
as the inventor of the modern toilet.
他就是发明现代马桶的人
In reality, Crapper was more like the band, Kiss, of toilets.
事实上 Crapper更像是厕所界的吻乐队
He didn’t invent the toilet, but he sure
他没有发明马桶
knew how to market the crap out of it.
但他的确知道如何推销马桶
An early sanitation pioneer, Crapper is credited
Crapper作为卫生设备早期的先驱者
for inventing the oddly beautiful U-bend plumbing trap
他发明了绝妙的U型管道
that is still used in toilets and sinks today.
我们今天仍在马桶和水槽中使用这种管道
Crapper displayed his toilet products in showrooms
Crapper在样品房里展示了他的卫生间产品
and tried to sell his sanitation designs to the wealthy.
并尝试向将他设计的产品卖给富人
And, yes, Crapper was not the inventor of the flushing toilet.
Crapper的确不是冲水马桶的发明者
But when people would draw the conclusion,
但当人们都这么认为的时候
he didn’t go out of his way to correct them.
他并没有站出来说明真相
Why ruin it?
干嘛要说呢?
It was better this way.
就让大家这么认为吧
Edward VII hired him to install dozens of
爱德华七世雇佣他为几座皇家宫殿
indoor bathrooms in several royal palaces,
装上了几十个室内卫生间
which contributed to his fame.
这使他名声大噪
But mostly, of course, it was that his last name
当然 主要是因为他的姓氏为Crapper
was Crapper, and his whole life was toilets.
所以他的一生都与卫生间有关
[MUSIC PLAYING]
[音乐]
付费公厕
George Jennings, a sanitation engineer
George Jennings是一名环卫工程师
and autour toilet inventor, was the first
也是移动厕所的发明者
to propose the idea of installing
他是第一个提出
public flush toilets throughout London.
在全伦敦安装公用抽水马桶的人
Jennings designed a series of toilets for use
1851年 Jennings设计了一系列马桶
at an art exhibit in 1851 that cost a penny per use.
供大家在艺术展览会上使用 用一次花费一分钱
Jennings’ art toilets that cost money for use were a big hit,
Jenning在艺术展上的收费公厕大受欢迎
especially with poorer folk who couldn’t afford
尤其受到穷人们的欢迎
a flush toilet of their own, but could
虽然他们买不起抽水马桶
afford a penny to use one.
但他们可以花一分钱使用公厕
With these toilets being a bona fide hit,
随着公厕的推广大获成功
Jennings proposed to build public facilities
Jennings提议在皇家交易所里建造公厕
at the Royal Exchange, a major commerce and business sector in London.
这里是英国重要的商业中心和贸易中心
The government ignored this idea at first
英国政府一开始无视他的提议
with a strange belief that nobody would want a public bathroom,
他们固执地认为没有人需要公厕
claiming the results of several trial public bathrooms
但随后几处试点公厕的使用情况
proved they were bunk.
证明他们是错的
The Royal Society of Arts, the money
Jenning在艺术展览会上建的公厕
behind Jennings’ public toilets at the art show,
是英国皇家艺术协会赞助的
installed a handful of test pay toilets
为了弄清人们是否有对公厕的需求
around London, soon after to see if it was a thing people wanted.
该协会又出资在伦敦建了几个收费的试点公厕
The move ended up being a financial catastrophe,
虽然初衷是好的 但由于缺乏资金
even if its heart was in the right place.
试点厕所的建设还是终止了
In 1885, London officials finally
在Jenning去世几年后
came around on Jennings’ idea several years after the plumber passed away.
1885年 伦敦政府最终采纳了他的提议
The first facilities were built at the Royal Exchange,
首批收费公厕建在皇家交易所里
but not by Jennings’ company, which seems
但不是由Jenning的公司建造
like kind of a real jerk move by the Royal Exchange.
这似乎是皇家交易所的一个愚蠢举动
[MUSIC PLAYING]
[音乐]
为防止霍乱而发明的旱厕
As the population began to boom, so did
随着人口开始大幅增长
contagious diseases that spread like
糟糕的卫生状况
wildfire, due to widespread unsanitary conditions.
使传染病如野火般迅速传播
Cholera, in particular, was the contagious disease du jour
特别是霍乱 这种传染病非常流行
whose spreading was aided greatly by poor sanitation systems.
它的传播很大程度上是由于糟糕的卫生系统
Because of this, the dry toilet was invented
因此 人们发明了旱厕
as a way to use the bathroom without water as the flushing mechanism.
使用这种厕所不需要冲水装置
But rather, it would divert waste
当然 人们必须要转移排泄物
or use covering material such as peat
或者用泥煤之类的物质覆盖排泄物
to absorb the liquid.
以吸收水分
First invented by an English priest named
1873年 一位叫Henry Moule的神父
Henry Moule with a patent in 1873,
发明了旱厕并获得专利
he was able to get the design in schools and public hospitals in England and India.
他获准为英国和印度的学校及公立医院设计旱厕
But despite cutting maintenance costs
尽管旱厕维护成本低
and eliminating odors famously associated with sewage systems,
且不会产生排污系统那样的臭味
his design did not catch on.
他的设计还是没能得到推广
We can thank this failure today for all of our wet toilets.
不过正因如此 今天我们才有了抽水马桶
So what do you think?
你怎么看呢?
Are you watching this video from a toilet?
你是在上厕所的时候看这个视频的吗?
We bet you are.
我打赌你是
Be sure to wash your hands and check out
别忘了便后洗手
some of these other fine videos from our Weird History.
记得观看《怪异历史》的其他精彩视频

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视频概述

我们一起来看看厕所的发展史吧。

听录译者

收集自网络

翻译译者

Spencer

审核员

审核员TY

视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TaSrf2DNy5w

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