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古巴导弹危机的历史

The history of the Cuban Missile Crisis - Matthew A. Jordan

不难想象这样一个世界
It’s not hard to imagine a world where at any given moment,
毫无预兆 你和周围的人们都随时可能
you and everyone you know could be wiped out without warning
因某人按下一个按钮而灭亡
at the push of a button.
这就是二战后45年间数百万人们的
This was the reality for millions of people during the 45-year period
生活现实
after World War II,
也就是现在我们熟知的‘冷战’
now known as the Cold War.
随着美国和苏联在全球范围内的对立
As the United States and Soviet Union faced off across the globe,
双方都明白彼此都能用核武器毁灭地球
each knew that the other had nuclear weapons capable of destroying it.
而毁灭的危机从来没像古巴导弹危机
And destruction never loomed closer than during the 13 days
那13天距那么近在咫尺
of the Cuban Missile Crisis.
1961年 美国尝试颠覆古巴的
In 1961, the U.S. unsuccessfully tried to
共产主义政权却遭到失败
overthrow Cuba’s new communist government.
这次失败的尝试被称为猪湾战争
That failed attempt was known as the Bay of Pigs,
它迫使古巴向苏联求援
and it convinced Cuba to seek help from the U.S.S.R.
苏联领导人尼基塔•赫鲁晓夫很乐意
Soviet premier Nikita Khrushchev was happy to comply
通过秘密在古巴部署导弹的方式进行援助
by secretly deploying nuclear missiles to Cuba,
不仅是为了保护古巴
not only to protect the island,
也抵消了美国
but to counteract the threat
在意大利和土耳其部署导弹的威胁
from U.S. missiles in Italy and Turkey.
当美国情报部门发现这个计划时
By the time U.S. intelligence discovered the plan,
制造导弹的材料已经到位
the materials to create the missiles were already in place.
在1962年10月16日的紧急会议上
At an emergency meeting on October 16, 1962,
军事顾问们建议对导弹基地进行空袭
military advisors urged an airstrike on missile sites
并入侵古巴
and invasion of the island.
但肯尼迪总统选择了更为谨慎的方法
But President John F. Kennedy chose a more careful approach.
10月22日他宣布 美国海军
On October 22, he announced that the the U.S. Navy
将拦截所有运往古巴的货物
would intercept all shipments to Cuba.
唯一的问题是:
There was just one problem:
海上封锁被认为是战争行为
a naval blockade was considered an act of war.
尽管总统称这次海上封锁为
Although the President called it a quarantine
不限制基本必需品的‘隔离’
that did not block basic necessities,
苏联人并不感激这种区别
the Soviets didn’t appreciate the distinction.
在给肯尼迪的充满怒气的信中
In an outraged letter to Kennedy,
赫鲁晓夫写道“违背国际水域
Khrushchev wrote, “The violation of freedom to use international waters
和空域自由航行的原则实为侵略行为
and international airspace is an act of aggression
这将把人类推进世界核大战的无底洞”
which pushes mankind toward the abyss of world nuclear missile war.”
这样 随之而来的便是冷战期间最紧张的六天
Thus ensued the most intense six days of the Cold War.
一方面美国要求拆除导弹
While the U.S. demanded the removal of the missiles,
另一方面古巴和苏联坚持它们只是自卫用的
Cuba and the U.S.S.R insisted they were only defensive.
鉴于武器不断被装备(到古巴)
And as the weapons continued to be armed,
美国为可能的入侵做好了准备
the U.S. prepared for a possible invasion.
10月27日 由鲁道夫•安德森少校驾驶的侦查机
On October 27, a spy plane piloted by Major Rudolph Anderson
被苏联导弹击落
was shot down by a Soviet missile.
同日 一艘苏联核潜艇被美国军舰的小型深水炸弹击中
The same day, a nuclear-armed Soviet submarine was hit by a small depth-charge
意在尝试给潜艇发信号使其浮出水面 但潜艇指挥官
from a U.S. Navy vessel trying to signal it to come up.
因位置太深无法与水面进行通讯
The commanders on the sub, too deep to communicate with the surface,
以为战争已经开始并准备发射核鱼雷
thought war had begun and prepared to launch a nuclear torpedo.
发射的决定必须经三位长官一致同意
That decision had to be made unanimously by three officers.
舰长和政委都授权发射
The captain and political officer both authorized the launch,
但副指挥瓦西里•阿尔希波夫却不同意
but Vasili Arkhipov, second in command, refused.
他的决定拯救了那一天乃至整个世界
His decision saved the day and perhaps the world.
但是危机并未结束
But the crisis wasn’t over.
历史上第一次
For the first time in history,
美军进入二级戒备状态
the U.S. Military set itself to DEFCON 2,
防御措施全面就绪 核战争仅有一步之遥
the defense readiness one step away from nuclear war.
成百上千的核导弹准备发射
With hundreds of nuclear missiles ready to launch,
末日的时钟不久就会敲响
the metaphorical Doomsday Clock stood at one minute to midnight.
但是 外交发挥了作用
But diplomacy carried on.
在华盛顿特区 司法部长罗伯特•肯尼迪
In Washington, D.C., Attorney General Robert Kennedy
秘密会见了苏联大使阿纳托利•多勃雷宁
secretly met with Soviet Ambassador Anatoly Dobrynin.
经过紧张的谈判 他们达成了以下建议
After intense negotiation, they reached the following proposal.
美国将从土耳其和意大利撤除导弹
The U.S. would remove their missiles from Turkey and Italy
并承诺永远不会入侵古巴
and promise to never invade Cuba
以换取苏联在联合国监督下撤离古巴
in exchange for the Soviet withdrawal from Cuba under U.N. inspection.
会议一结束
Once the meeting had concluded,
多勃雷宁连线莫斯科称
Dobrynin cabled Moscow saying time is of the essence
机不可失 时不再来
and we shouldn’t miss the chance.
第二天上午9点
And at 9 a.m. the next day,
赫鲁晓夫发布消息称
a message arrived from Khrushchev
苏联的导弹将从古巴撤出
announcing the Soviet missiles would be removed from Cuba.
现在危机已经结束了
The crisis was now over.
尽管当时双方政府都因与敌人谈判
While criticized at the time by their respective governments
而遭到批评
for bargaining with the enemy,
但肯尼迪和赫鲁晓夫通过外交渠道
contemporary historical analysis shows great admiration
解决危机的能力在当时得到极高的评价
for Kennedy’s and Khrushchev’s ability to diplomatically solve the crisis.
而令人后怕的教训却是 细微的沟通失误
But the disturbing lesson was that a slight communication error,
或某位长官一瞬间的决定
or split-second decision by a commander,
本可能使所有的努力毁于一旦
could have thwarted all their efforts,
要不是瓦西里•阿尔希波夫做出了勇敢的选择 这件事就发生了
as it nearly did if not for Vasili Arkhipov’s courageous choice.
古巴导弹危机告诉我们 人类的政治
The Cuban Missile Crisis revealed just how fragile human politics are
在一触即发的可怕能量面前是多么脆弱
compared to the terrifying power they can unleash.

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视频来源

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bwWW3sbk4EU

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